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1.  Clinical significance and diagnostic usefulness of serologic markers for improvement of outcome of tonsillectomy in adults with chronic tonsillitis 
Background
The aim of the present study was to explore serological biomarkers which predict the outcome of tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis.
Methods
A case study in a University ENT department of 24 adult patients with chronic tonsillitis (CHT) in comparison to 24 patients with acute peritonsillar abscess (PTA) was performed. Blood samples for clinical routine hematological and serological parameters were assessed prior to surgery (T-1) and five days (T5) after tonsillectomy. Outcome 6 months later (T180) was documented using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) and the Specific Benefits from Tonsillectomy Inventory (SBTI). Correlation analyses between CHT and PTA group as well as between the different time points within each group concerning the serological parameters and the outcome parameters were performed.
Results
At T-1, patients in the CHT group presented with significantly higher lymphocytes counts (relative and absolute), basophils (relative and absolute) and eosinophils but less white-cells, monocytes, neutrophils (absolute and relative), alpha-1, alpha-2, beta globulins, immunoglobulin and lower C-reactive protein and procalcitonin values than patients in the PTA group (all p < 0.05, respectively). Within each group, different significant changes of the serum parameters (often in opposite direction) were observed between T-1 and T5. SBTI scores at T-1 were significantly lower in the CHT group. In contrast, most GBI scores at T180 were significantly higher in the CHT group. Between T-1 and T180 the SBTI scores improved in three quarters of the CHT patients but only in three fifths of the PTA patients. Higher eosinophil counts and immunoglobulin E levels at T-1 predicted higher GBI scores at T180 in the CHT group.
Conclusions
This pilot study showed a specific serological pattern for patients with chronic tonsillitis with a specific pattern of changes after tonsillectomy. But there is no established role for biomarkers currently used in clinical practice to predict the outcome of tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis.
doi:10.1186/1477-5751-12-11
PMCID: PMC3701599  PMID: 23816317
Serology; Outcome; Prognostic Marker; Peritonsillar Abscess; Chronic Tonsillitis
2.  Prognostication of recovery time after acute peripheral facial palsy: a prospective cohort study 
BMJ Open  2013;3(6):e003007.
Objective
Owing to a lack of prospective studies, our aim was to evaluate diagnostic factors, in particular, motor and non-motor function tests, for prognostication of recovery time in patients with acute facial palsy (AFP).
Design
Prospective cohort study.
Setting
University hospital.
Participants
259 patients with AFP.
Measurements
Clinical data, facial grading, electrophysiological motor function tests and other non-motor function tests were assessed for their contribution to recovery time.
Results
The predominant origin of AFP was idiopathic (59%) and traumatic (21%). At baseline, the House-Brackmann scale (HB) was >III in 46% of patients. Follow-up time was 5.6±9.8 months with a complete recovery rate of 49%. The median recovery time was 3.5 months (95% CI 2.2 to 4.7 months). The following variables were associated with faster recovery: Interval between onset of AFP and treatment <6 days versus ≥6 days (median recovery time in months 2.1 vs 6.5; p<0.0001); HB ≤III vs >III (2.2 vs 4.6; p=0.001); no versus presence of pathological spontaneous activity in first electromyography (EMG; 2.8 vs probability of recovery <50%; p<0.0001); no versus voluntary activity in EMG (probability of recovery <50% vs 3.1; p<0.0001); normal versus pathological ipsilateral electroneurography (1.9 vs 6.5; p=0.008), normal versus pathological stapedius reflexes (1.6 vs 3.3; p=0.003).
Conclusions
Start of treatment and grading, but most importantly EMG evaluated for pathological spontaneous activity and the stapedius reflex test are powerful prognosticators for estimating the recovery time from AFP. These results need confirmation in larger datasets.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003007
PMCID: PMC3669721  PMID: 23794548
Neurophysiology
3.  Phase I trial of split-dose induction docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) chemotherapy followed by curative surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (TISOC-1) 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:483.
Background
Induction chemotherapy (ICT) with docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) followed by radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for unresectable locally advanced head and neck cancer. This phase I study was designed to investigate the safety and tolerability of a split-dose TPF ICT regimen prior to surgery for locally advanced resectable oral and oropharyngeal cancer.
Methods
Patients received TPF split on two dosages on day 1 and 8 per cycle for one or three 3-week cycles prior to surgery and postoperative radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Docetaxel was escalated in two dose levels, 40 mg/m2 (DL 0) and 30 mg/m2 (DL −1), plus 40 mg/m2 cisplatin and 2000 mg/m2 fluorouracil per week using a 3 +3 dose escalation algorithm.
Results
Eighteen patients were enrolled and were eligible for toxicity and response. A maximum tolerated dose of 30 mg/m2 docetaxel per week was reached. The most common grade 3+ adverse event was neutropenia during ICT in 10 patients. Surgery reached R0 resection in all cases. Nine patients (50%) showed complete pathologic regression.
Conclusions
A split-dose regime of TPF prior to surgery is feasible, tolerated and merits additional investigation in a phase II study with a dose of 30 mg/m docetaxel per week.
Trial registration number
NCT01108042 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier)
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-483
PMCID: PMC3485626  PMID: 23083061
Docetaxel; Cisplatin; 5-fluorouracil; Locally advanced oral cancer; Surgery; Radiotherapy
4.  Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Maxillary Sinus: A 26-Year Experience 
Background. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant platinum-based radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma and to compare the results with other multimodality treatment concepts for advanced-stage maxillary sinus carcinoma in the literature. Methods. In total, 53 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received a neoadjuvant RCT containing either cisplatin or carboplatin followed by radical surgery. Overall survival and locoregional control were plotted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic factors were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results. Five-year overall survival for all patients was 35%. Eleven patients achieved a complete response after radiochemotherapy. The complete response rate was significantly higher for patients treated with cisplatin (P = 0.028); however the 5-year overall survival rates did not differ significantly (P = 0.673) for patients treated with cisplatin (37%) and carboplatin (32%). Orbital invasion (P = 0.005) and complete response to radiochemotherapy (P = 0.021) had a significant impact on overall survival in univariate analysis. Conclusions. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy followed by radical surgery is an effective treatment for patients with advanced maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma. In terms of treatment response cisplatin seems to be more effective than carboplatin.
doi:10.1155/2012/413589
PMCID: PMC3465876  PMID: 23056940
5.  Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction 
Head & Face Medicine  2010;6:25.
Background
Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation.
Conclusion
A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a) early extratemporal reconstruction, b) early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c) late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies.
doi:10.1186/1746-160X-6-25
PMCID: PMC2984557  PMID: 21040532
6.  Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and tumor stromal cells by tissue on chip based mass spectrometry (toc-MS) 
Diagnostic Pathology  2010;5:10.
In carcinoma tissues, genetic and metabolic changes not only occur at the tumor cell level, but also in the surrounding stroma. This carcinoma-reactive stromal tissue is heterogeneous and consists e.g. of non-epithelial cells such as fibroblasts or fibrocytes, inflammatory cells and vasculature-related cells, which promote carcinoma growth and progression of carcinomas. Nevertheless, there is just little knowledge about the proteomic changes from normal connective tissue to tumor stroma. In the present study, we acquired and analysed specific protein patterns of small stromal sections surrounding head and neck cell complexes in comparison to normal subepithelial connective tissue. To gain defined stromal areas we used laser-based tissue microdissection. Because these stromal areas are limited in size we established the highly sensitive 'tissue on chip based mass spectrometry' (toc-MS). Therefore, the dissected areas were directly transferred to chromatographic arrays and the proteomic profiles were subsequently analysed with mass spectrometry. At least 100 cells were needed for an adequate spectrum. The locating of differentially expressed proteins enables a precise separation of normal and tumor stroma. The newly described toc-MS technology allows an initial insight into proteomic differences between small numbers of exactly defined cells from normal and tumor stroma.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-5-10
PMCID: PMC2826342  PMID: 20205871
7.  Schwann Cells Overexpressing FGF-2 Alone or Combined with Manual Stimulation Do Not Promote Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Injury 
Purpose. To determine whether transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing different isoforms of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) combined with manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles improves recovery after facial nerve transection in adult rat. Procedures. Transected facial nerves were entubulated with collagen alone or collagen plus naïve SCs or transfected SCs. Half of the rats received daily MS. Collateral branching was quantified from motoneuron counts after retrograde labeling from 3 facial nerve branches. Quality assessment of endplate reinnervation was combined with video-based vibrissal function analysis. Results. There was no difference in the extent of collateral axonal branching. The proportion of polyinnervated motor endplates for either naïve SCs or FGF-2 over-expressing SCs was identical. Postoperative MS also failed to improve recovery. Conclusions. Neither FGF-2 isoform changed the extent of collateral branching or polyinnervation of motor endplates; furthermore, this motoneuron response could not be overridden by MS.
doi:10.1155/2009/408794
PMCID: PMC2760319  PMID: 19830246
8.  Increased expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and MIP-1α by spinal perivascular macrophages during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats 
BMC Immunology  2002;3:11.
Background
T-cells extravasation and CNS parenchyma infiltration during autoimmune neurodegenerative disease can be evoked by local antigen presenting cells. Studying the chemoattracting potential of spinal perivascular macrophages (SPM) during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), we observed numerous infiltrates of densely-packed mononuclear cells. Apart from the poor spatial and optical resolution, no differentiation between the resident SPM (mabs ED1+, ED2+) and the just recruited monocytes/macrophages (mab ED1+) was possible.
Results
This is why we labeled SPM by injections of different fluoresecent dyes into the lateral cerebral ventricle before induction of active EAE. Within an additional experimental set EAE was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of T-cells specifically sensitized to myelin basic protein (MBP) and engineered to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP). In both experiments we observed a strong activation of SPM (mabs OX6+, SILK6+, CD40+, CD80+, CD86+) which was accompanied by a consistently increased expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1α.
Conclusion
These observations indicate that SPM play a role in promoting lymphocyte extravasation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-3-11
PMCID: PMC126207  PMID: 12196270

Results 1-8 (8)