Hierarchical Li4Ti5O12/TiO2 tubes composed of ultrathin nanoflakes have been successfully fabricated via the calcination of the hydrothermal product of a porous amorphous TiO2 precursor and lithium hydroxide monohydrate. The hierarchical tubes are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. These nanoflakes exhibit a quite complex submicroscopic structure with regular structural imperfection, including a huge number of grain boundaries and dislocations. The lithium ion storage property of these tubes is evaluated by galvanostatic discharge/charge experiment. The product shows initial discharge capacities of 420, 225, and 160 mAh g−1 at 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 A g−1, respectively. After 100 cycles, the discharge capacity is 139 mAh g−1 at 1.0 A g−1 with a capacity retention of 87%, demonstrating good high-rate performance and good cycleability. The high electrochemical performance is attributed to unique structure and morphology of the tubes. The regular structural imperfection existed in the nanoflakes also benefit to lithium ion storage property of these tubes. The hierarchical Li4Ti5O12/TiO2 tubes are a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with high power and energy densities.
Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences of macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population.
The present study investigated neural correlations underlying the psychological processing of stimuli with various degrees of self-relevance. Event-related potentials were recorded for names that differ in their extent of relevance to the study participant. Participants performed a three-stimulus oddball task. ERP results showed larger P2 averaged amplitudes for highly self-relevant names than for moderately self-relevant, minimally self-relevant, and non-self-relevant names. N2 averaged amplitudes were larger for the highly self-relevant names than for the moderately self-relevant, minimally self-relevant, and non-self-relevant names. Highly self-relevant names elicited larger P3 averaged amplitudes than the moderately self-relevant names which, in turn, had larger P3 values than for minimally self-relevant names. Minimally self-relevant stimuli elicited larger P3 averaged amplitudes than non-self-relevant stimuli. These results demonstrate a degree effect of self-reference, which was indexed using electrophysiological activity.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins may be useful biomarkers of neuronal death and ultimate prognosis after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Cytochrome c has been identified in the CSF of children following traumatic brain injury. Cytochrome c is required for cellular respiration but it is also a central component of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Thus, in addition to serving as a biomarker, cytochrome c release into CSF may have an effect upon survival of adjacent neurons. In this study, we use Western blot and ELISA to show that cytochrome c is elevated in CSF obtained from pediatric rats following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Using biotinylated human cytochrome c in culture media we show that cytochrome c crosses the cell membrane and is incorporated into mitochondria of neurons exposed to anoxia. Lastly, we show that addition of human cytochrome c to primary neuronal culture exposed to anoxia improves survival. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show cytochrome c is elevated in CSF following hypoxic ischemic brain injury. Results from primary neuronal culture suggest that extracellular cytochrome c is able to cross the cell membrane of injured neurons, incorporate into mitochondria, and promote survival following anoxia.
cerebrospinal fluid; brain ischemia; cardiac arrest; cytochrome c
PR1 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted peptide that has been targeted successfully in myeloid leukemia with immunotherapy. PR1 is derived from the neutrophil granule proteases proteinase 3 (P3) and neutrophil elastase (NE), which are both found in the tumor microenvironment. We recently showed that P3 and NE are taken up and cross-presented by normal and leukemia-derived antigen presenting cells, and that NE is taken up by breast cancer cells. We now extend our findings to show that P3 and NE are taken up and cross-presented by human solid tumors. We further show that PR1 cross-presentation renders human breast cancer and melanoma cells susceptible to killing by PR1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (PR1-CTL) and the anti-PR1/HLA-A2 antibody 8F4. We also show PR1-CTL in peripheral blood from patients with breast cancer and melanoma. Together, our data identify cross-presentation as a novel mechanism through which cells that lack endogenous expression of an antigen become susceptible to therapies that target cross-presented antigens and suggest PR1 as a broadly expressed tumor antigen.
Adipose tissue dysfunction is an important feature of obesity characterized by enlarged adipocytes and marked changes in secretion of cytokines. These changes result in insulin resistance, chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), eventually leading to type 2 diabetes, obesity-related hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several trials have shown that bariatric surgery significantly reduces these comorbidities. However, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery reduces the burden of CVD in obese individuals.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from adipose tissue collected from three groups: (1) nonobese control subjects, (2) obese subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBS), and (3) subjects 1 year or more after GBS. In the study, MSCs were induced to adipogenic differentiation, and RAS-related gene expressions were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on adipogenic differentiation of MSCs also was investigated.
Angiotensinogen mRNA levels in MSCs and differentiated adipocytes were significantly higher in the obese group than in the nonobese control subjects. Renin mRNA levels were significantly higher in the obese group MSCs than in the nonobese and post-GBS groups. Angiotensin–converting enzyme mRNA levels were significantly lower in the MSCs derived from the post-GBS group than in the obese and nonobese control subjects. Serum Ang II levels were significantly lower in the post-GBS group (52.1 ± 4.2 pg/ml) than in the nonobese (85.4 ± 12.4 pg/ml) and obese (84.7 ± 10.0 pg/ml) groups. Ang II treatment inhibited adipogenesis of MSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ang II was mainly abolished by PD123319, a receptor 2 blocker.
The adipogenesis of MSCs is inhibited by Ang II treatment. Obese individuals are characterized by an upregulation of the RAS-related gene expressions in adipose tissue. This upregulation resolves in post-GBS subjects.
Adipogenesis; Bariatric surgery; Cardiovascular disease; Gastric bypass; Mesenchymal stem cells; Renin-angiotensin system
AIM: To investigate H2B monoubiquitination (uH2B) and H3K4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4-2me, H3K4-3me) levels and their clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IGC) was used to detect the differential levels of uH2B, H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me modifications in GC specimens from chemo/radiotherapy-naïve patients who underwent potentially curative surgical resection (n = 159) and in a random sampling of non-tumor gastric epithelium specimens (normal controls, n = 20). The immunohistochemistry (IHC)-detected modifications were classified as negative, low-level, or high-level using a dual-rated (staining intensity and percentage of positively-stained cells) semi-quantitative method. The relationships between uH2B modification levels and clinicopathological parameters of GC were assessed by a Wilcoxon rank sum test (pairwise comparisons) and the Kruskal-Wallis H test (multiple comparisons). The correlation between uH2B modification and survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the role of uH2B as an independent prognostic factor for survival was assessed by multivariate Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: The presence and level of H3K4-2me and H3K4-3me IHC staining was similar between the normal controls and GC specimens. In contrast, the level of uH2B was significantly lower in the malignant gastric tissues (vs normal control tissues) and decreased along with increases in dedifferentiation (well differentiated > moderately differentiated > poorly differentiated). The level of uH2B correlated with tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), Lauren’s diffuse- and intestinal-type classification (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.049) and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.005). Patients with uH2B+ staining had higher 5-year survival rates than patients with uH2B-staining (52.692 ± 2.452 vs 23.739 ± 5.207, P < 0.001). The uH2B level was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (95%CI: 0.237-0.677, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: uH2B displays differential IHC staining patterns corresponding to progressive stages of GC. uH2B may contribute to tumorigenesis and could be a potential therapeutic target.
Gastric cancer; Epigenetics; Histone modification; H2B monoubiquination; Nuclear immunostaining
Up-regulated expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and subsequent binding to cognate monocytic receptors is an established paradigm in atherosclerosis. However, these proteins are the scaffolds with their post-translational modification with sugars providing the actual ligands. We showed recently that TNFα increased hypoglycosylated (mannose rich) N-glycans on the endothelial surface. In this study our aim was to determine if i) hypoglycosylated N-glycans are upregulated by pro-atherogenic stimuli (oscillatory flow) in vitro and in vivo, and ii) whether mannose residues on hypoglycosylated endothelial N-glycans mediate monocyte rolling and adhesion.
Methods and result
Staining with the mannose specific lectins ConA and LCA was increased in human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear or TNFα, and at sites of plaque development and progression in both mice and human vessels. Increasing surface N-linked mannose by inhibiting N-glycan processing, potentiated monocyte adhesion under flow during TNFα stimulation. Conversely, enzymatic removal of high-mannose N-glycans, or masking mannose residues with lectins, significantly decreased monocyte adhesion under flow. These effects occurred without altering induced expression of adhesion molecule proteins.
Hypoglycosylated (high mannose) N-glycans are present on the endothelial cell surface at sites of early human lesion development and are novel effectors of monocyte adhesion during atherogenesis.
mannose; inflammation; vascular; adhesion; glycobiology
This study was to explore the role of EFEMP1 in ovarian tumor progression and its relationship with prognosis of ovarian carcinoma.
EFEMP1 mRNA and protein expressions in normal ovarian tissue, ovarian tumor, high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR. Serum EFEMP1 levels in patients with ovarian tumor were measured by ELISA assay. To assess the angiogenic properties of EFEMP1, VEGF and tumor microvessel density were analyzed in ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemistry.
EFEMP1 expression was up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma, positively correlated with MVD and VEGF, and its overexpression and high serum levels were significantly associated with high stage, low differentiation, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. EFEMP1 expression was also found to be over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones.
EFEMP1 is a newly identified gene over-expressed in ovarian cancer, associated with poor clinicopathologic features and promotes angiogenesis. This study shows that EFEMP1 may serve as a new prognostic factor and a therapeutic target for patients with ovarian cancer in the future.
The dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, known for its capacity of reducing iron and manganese oxides, has great environmental impacts. The iron oxides reducing process is affected by the coexistence of alternative electron acceptors in the environment, while investigation into it is limited so far. In this work, the impact of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), a ubiquitous chemical in marine environment, on the reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) by S. oneidensis MR-1 was investigated. Results show that DMSO promoted HFO reduction by both wild type and ΔdmsE, but had no effect on the HFO reduction by ΔdmsB, indicating that such a promotion was dependent on the DMSO respiration. With the DMSO dosing, the levels of extracellular flavins and omcA expression were significantly increased in WT and further increased in ΔdmsE. Bioelectrochemical analysis show that DMSO also promoted the extracellular electron transfer of WT and ΔdmsE. These results demonstrate that DMSO could stimulate the HFO reduction through metabolic and genetic regulation in S. oneidensis MR-1, rather than compete for electrons with HFO. This may provide a potential respiratory pathway to enhance the microbial electron flows for environmental and engineering applications.
Prion diseases and prion- like protein misfolding diseases are related to the accumulation of abnormal aggregates of the normal host proteins including prion proteins and Tau protein. These proteins possess self-templating and transmissible characteristics. The crowded physiological environments where the aggregation of these amyloidogenic proteins takes place can be imitated in vitro by the addition of macromolecular crowding agents such as inert polysaccharides. In this review, we summarize the aggregation of prion proteins in crowded physiological environments and discuss the role of macromolecular crowding in prion protein aggregation. We also summarize the aggregation of prion- like proteins including human Tau protein, human α-synuclein, and human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase under macromolecular crowding environments and discuss the role of macromolecular crowding in prion- like protein aggregation. The excluded-volume effects caused by macromolecular crowding could accelerate the aggregation of neurodegenerative disease-associated proteins while inhibiting the aggregation of the proteins that are not neurodegenerative disease-associated.
prion protein; Tau protein; prion- like protein; protein aggregation; macromolecular crowding; neurodegenerative diseases
Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis.
Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n = 127) and normal controls (n = 43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer.
Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I = 35; stage II = 37; stage III = 37 and stage IV = 18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer.
Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would provide a promising molecular diagnostic approach for clinical diagnosis of human rectal cancer. The role and underlying mechanism of metabolites in rectal cancer progression are worth being further investigated.
Gene therapy using a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) encoding secretory human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to be a promising antiangiogenesis and antitumor strategy of in animal models and clinical trials. The E1B55KD-deficient Ad dl1520 was also found to replicate selectively in and destroy cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of antiangiogenic agent Ad-Endo combined with the oncolytic Ad dl1520 on gastric cancer (GC) in vitro and in vivo and determine the mechanisms of these effects.
The Ad DNA copy number was determined by real-time PCR, and gene expression was assessed by ELISA, Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. The anti-proliferation effect (cytotoxicity) of Ad was assessed using the colorimetry-based MTT cell viability assay. The antitumor effects were evaluated in BALB/c nude mice carrying SGC-7901 GC xenografts. The microvessel density and Ad replication in tumor tissue were evaluated by checking the expression of CD34 and hexon proteins, respectively.
dl1520 replicated selectively in GC cells harboring an abnormal p53 pathway, including p53 mutation and the loss of p14ARF expression, but did not in normal epithelial cells. In cultured GC cells, dl1520 rescued Ad-Endo replication, and dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In turn, the addition of Ad-Endo enhanced the inhibitory effect of dl1520 on the proliferation of GC cells. The transgenic expression of Ad5 E1A and E1B19K simulated the rescue effect of dl1520 supporting Ad-Endo replication in GC cells. In the nude mouse xenograft model, the combined treatment with dl1520 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis and the growth of GC xenografts through the increased endostatin expression and oncolytic effects.
Ad-Endo combined with dl1520 has more antitumor efficacy against GC than Ad-Endo or dl1520 alone. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be one of promising comprehensive treatment strategies for GC.
Endostatin; Adenovirus (Ad) vector; Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); Viral-gene therapy; Gastric cancer
We established a human tissue explant model to facilitate study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. We accomplished this by implanting debulked SCC, from surgical discard, into nude rats. Human SCC remained viable and continued to proliferate for at least 4 weeks and showed evidence of neovascularization. At 4 weeks, SCC implants showed a trend toward increased PCNA positive cells compared to fresh SCC cells/mm2 tissue) supporting continued proliferation throughout engraftment. Von Willebrand's Factor (VWF) positive cells were found within implants and likely represented rat vessel neovascularization. Human Langerhans' (Langerin+) cells, but no T cells (CD3+, CD8+, FoxP3+), macrophages (CD163), or NK cells (NKp46), were present in SCC implants at 4 weeks. These findings support the possibility that LCs fail to migrate from cutaneous SCC and thus contribute to lack of effective antitumor response. Our findings also provide a novel model system for further study of primary cutaneous SCC.
The present study aimed to identify the stem cell characteristics of side population (SP) cells sorted from the widely-used HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line. The SP cells were sorted from the HeLa cell line using fluorescence-activating cell sorting (FACS). Stem cell characteristics of the SP cells, including proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation and the ability to form xenografts, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The SP cells demonstrated strong tumorigenesis following in vivo transplantation into five to six-week-old female Balb/c mice. The SP cells were observed to be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with non-side population (NSP) cells. A higher expression of CD133 was observed in the SP cells compared with the NSP cells following FACS. The results demonstrated that the SP cells from the HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line exhibit stem cell characteristics in vitro and also have a strong ability to form tumors in vivo. The cell surface marker CD133 may serve as a potential molecular marker for the identification of cervical cancer stem cells (CSCs).
cervical carcinoma; HeLa cell line; side population cells; cancer stem cells; CD133
Tau protein is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as tauopathies including Alzheimer disease, and Tau fibrillization is thought to be related to neuronal toxicity. Physiological inhibitors of Tau fibrillization hold promise for developing new strategies for treatment of Alzheimer disease. Because protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is both an enzyme and a chaperone, and implicated in neuroprotection against Alzheimer disease, we want to know whether PDI can prevent Tau fibrillization. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between PDI and Tau protein and the effect of PDI on Tau fibrillization.
As evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, human PDI interacts and co-locates with some endogenous human Tau on the endoplasmic reticulum of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that one full-length human PDI binds to one full-length human Tau (or human Tau fragment Tau244–372) monomer with moderate, micromolar affinity at physiological pH and near physiological ionic strength. As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays, Sarkosyl-insoluble SDS-PAGE, and transmission electron microscopy, full-length human PDI remarkably inhibits both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244–372 fibrillization in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we find that two molecules of the a-domain of human PDI interact with one Tau244–372 molecule with sub-micromolar affinity, and inhibit both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244–372 fibrillization more strongly than full-length human PDI.
We demonstrate for the first time that human PDI binds to Tau protein mainly through its thioredoxin-like catalytic domain a, forming a 1∶1 complex and preventing Tau misfolding. Our findings suggest that PDI could act as a physiological inhibitor of Tau fibrillization, and have applications for developing novel strategies for treatment and early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.
Amniotic fluid (AF) contains heterogeneous and multipotential cell types. A pure mesenchymal stem cells group can be sorted from AF using flow cytometry. In order to evaluate a possible therapeutic application of these cells, the human AF-derived c-kit+ stem cells (c-kit+ AFS) were compared with the c-kit− (unselected) stem cells (c-kit− AFS). Our findings revealed that the optimal period to obtain c-kit+ AFS cells was between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. Following cell sorting, c-kit+ AFS cells shared similar morphological and proliferative characteristics as the c-kit− AFS cells. Both c-kit+ and c-kit− AFS cells had the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells through surface marker identification by flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis. Both c-kit+ and c-kit− AFS cells could differentiate along adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. However, the myocardial differentiation capacity was enhanced in c-kit+ AFS cells by detecting GATA-4, cTnT, α-actin, Cx43 mRNA and protein expression after myocardial induction; whereas induced c-kit− AFS cells were only detected with GATA-4 mRNA and protein expression. The c-kit+ AFS cells could have potential clinical application for myogenesis in cardiac regenerative therapy.
C-kit; Human amniotic fluid stem cells; Myocardium; Differentiation
Adiponectin is an adipokine that can suppress the proliferation of various human carcinoma cells. Although its anti-tumor activities have been suggested by many clinical investigations and animal studies, the underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized. In MMTV-polyomavirus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT) transgenic mice models, reduced- or complete loss-of-adiponectin expression promotes mammary tumor development. The present study demonstrated that while tumor development in control MMTV-PyVT mice is associated with a progressively decreased circulating cholesterol concentration, adiponectin deficient MMTV-PyVT mice showed significantly elevated total- and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol contents in tumors derived from adiponectin deficient mice were dramatically augmented. High fat high cholesterol diet further accelerated the tumor development in adiponectin deficient PyVT mice. The protein levels of LDL receptor (LDLR) were found to be upregulated in adiponectin-deficient tumor cells. In human breast carcinoma cells, treatment with LDL-cholesterol or overexpressing LDLR elevates nuclear beta-catenin activity and facilitates tumor cell proliferation. On the other hand, adiponectin decreased LDLR protein expression in breast cancer cells and inhibited LDL-cholesterol-induced tumor cell proliferation. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence demonstrated a stimulatory effect of adiponectin on autophagy process, which mediated the down-regulation of LDLR. Adiponectin-induced reduction of LDLR was blocked by treatment with a specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that adiponectin elicits tumor suppressive effects by modulating cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR expression in breast cancer cells, which is at least in part attributed to its role in promoting autophagic flux.
Adiponectin; breast cancer; autophagy; cholesterol; LDLR
AIM: To investigate the dynamic features of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression in rat hepatocarcinogenesis, and the relationship between IGF-IR and hepatocytes malignant transformation at mRNA or protein level.
METHODS: Hepatoma models were made by inducing with 2-fluorenylacetamide (2-FAA) on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Morphological changes of hepatocytes were observed by pathological Hematoxylin and eosin staining, the dynamic expressions of liver and serum IGF-IR were quantitatively analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The distribution of hepatic IGF-IR was located by immunohistochemistry. The fragments of IGF-IR gene were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and confirmed by sequencing.
RESULTS: Rat hepatocytes after induced by 2-FAA were changed dynamically from granule-like degeneration, precancerous to hepatoma formation with the progressing increasing of hepatic mRNA or IGF-IR expression. The incidences of liver IGF-IR, IGF-IR mRNA, specific IGF-IR concentration (ng/mg wet liver), and serum IGF-IR level (ng/mL) were 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.63 ± 0.17, and 1.33 ± 0.47 in the control; 50.0%, 61.1%, 0.65 ± 0.2, and 1.51 ± 0.46 in the degeneration; 88.9%, 100%, 0.66 ± 0.14, and 1.92 ± 0.29 in the precancerosis; and 100%, 100%, 0.96 ± 0.09, and 2.43 ± 0.57 in the cancerous group, respectively. IGF-IR expression in the cancerous group was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that in any of other groups at mRNA or protein level. The closely positive IGF-IR relationship was found between livers and sera (r = 0.91, t = 14.222, P < 0.01), respectively.
CONCLUSION: IGF-IR expression may participate in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and its abnormality should be an early marker for hepatocytes malignant transformation.
Hepatoma; Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor; Immunohistochemistry; Gene amplification; Sequencing; Rat hepatoma model
DBA/2J mouse has been used as a model for spontaneous secondary glaucoma. Here, we investigated changes in expression of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunits and Cdk5/p35/NMDAR signaling in retinas of DBA/2J mice using Western blot technique. The protein levels of NR1 and NR2A subunits in retinas of DBA/2J mice at all ages (6–12 months) were not different from those in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, the protein levels of NR2B subunits, in addition to age-dependent change, significantly increased with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in DBA/2J mice at 6 and 9 months as compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, expression of Cdk5, p35 and ratio of p-NR2AS1232/NR2A progressively increased with time in both strains, suggestive of activated Cdk5/p35 signaling pathway. However, the changes in these proteins were in the same levels in both strain mice, except a significant increase of p35 proteins at 6 months in DBA/2J mice. Meanwhile, the protein levels of Brn-3a, a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) maker, remarkably decreased at 9–12 months in DBA/2J mice, which was in parallel with the changes of NR2B expression. Our results suggest that elevated IOP-induced increase in expression of NR2B subunits of NMDARs may be involved in RGC degeneration of DBA/2J mice.
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel member of IL-1 family, has been recently implicated in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-33 can be produced by various types of tissues and cells and induce gene expression of Th2-associated cytokines via binding to the orphan receptor ST2. By promoting Th2 type immune response, IL-33 plays important roles in the allergy, whereas its function in autoimmune diseases attracts more attention. Recent studies reported the correlation of IL-33 with rheumatic diseases, and most of them found that the IL-33 expression levels were consistent with disease activity and development. Furthermore, evidence has indicated that IL-33-related treatment may ameliorate the pathogenic conditions and attenuate disease progression of those rheumatic diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the roles of IL-33 in rheumatic diseases would be beneficial to understand the pathogenesis and therapy of these diseases. In this paper, we will summarize the roles of IL-33 in the rheumatic diseases.
Xylanolytic enzymes are widely used in processing industries, e.g., pulp and paper, food, livestock feeds, and textile. Furthermore, certain xylanotic enzymes have demonstrated the capability to improve the resistance and immunity of plants. Screening of high-yield microbial xylanolytic enzyme producers is significant for improving large-scale cost-effective xylanolytic enzyme production. This study provided new evidence of high-level xylanolytic enzyme production by a novel fungus, designated Leptosphaerulina chartarum SJTU59. Under laboratory conditions, L. chartarum SJTU59 produced xylanolytic enzymes of up to 17.566 U/mL (i.e., 878.307 U/g substrate). The enzyme solution was relatively stable over a wide range of pH (pH 3.0 to pH 9.0) and temperature (40°C to 65°C) while showing high resistance to the majority of metal ions tested. Composition analysis of the hydrolytic products of xylan showed sufficient degradation by xylanolytic enzymes from L. chartarum SJTU59, mainly the monosaccharide xylose, and a small amount of xylobiose were enzymatically produced; whereas in the presence of sufficient xylan substrates, mainly xylooligosaccharides, an emerging prebiotic used in food industry, were produced. In addition, the xylanolytic enzyme preparation from L. chartarum SJTU59 could initiate tissue necrosis and oxidative burst in tobacco leaves, which may be related to enhanced plant defense to adversity and disease. L. chartarum SJTU59 possessed a complex xylanolytic enzyme system, from which two novel endo-β-1,4-xylanases of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10, one novel endo-β-1,4-xylanase of the GH family 11, and one novel β-xylosidase of the GH family 43 were obtained via rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends. Given the high yield and stable properties of xylanolytic enzymes produced by L. chartarum SJTU59, future studies will be conducted to characterize the properties of individual xylanolytic enzymes from L. chartarum SJTU59. xylanolytic enzymes-encoding gene(s) of potential use for industrial and agricultural applications will be screened to construct genetically engineered strains.
Identifying prognostic factors for osteosarcoma (OS) aids in the selection of patients who require more aggressive management. CD133 has been found to be a prognostic factor of certain tumor types. However, the association between CD133 expression and the prognosis of OS remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the association of CD133 expression in OS with clinical factors and overall survival, and further investigated its potential role in metastasis in vitro. We found CD133 expression in 65.7% (46/70) of OS samples using immunohistochemistry, and it was positively correlated with lung metastasis analyzed by Chi-square test (P=0.002) and shorter overall survival time using the Kaplan-Meier method compared by log-rank test (P=0.000). Multivariate analysis showed that CD133 expression was an independent prognostic factor of patients with OS. To test for direct participation of CD133, we separated CD133+ and CD133− cells in the MG63 cell line using magnetic-activated cell sorting and found that CD133+ cells were more active in migration by scratch wound-healing assay and invasion by Matrigel invasion assay compared with CD133− cells. Elevated mRNA expression of the stemness gene octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) and NANOG, and the metastasis-related receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) were also found in CD133+ cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Thus, expression of CD133 was correlated with lung metastasis and poor prognosis in OS patients. CD133+ cells may be a type of cancer stem cell with high expression of self-renewal capacity and metastasis-related genes.
osteosarcoma; CD133; prognosis; lung metastasis
Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed.
A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits. The selection regions were not distributed randomly or uniformly throughout the genome. Instead, clusters of selection hotspots in certain genomic regions were observed. Moreover, a set of candidate genes (4.38% of the total annotated genes) significantly affected by selection underlying soybean domestication and genetic improvement were identified.
Given the uniqueness of the soybean germplasm sequenced, this study drew a clear picture of human-mediated evolution of the soybean genomes. The genomic resources and information provided by this study would also facilitate the discovery of genes/loci underlying agronomically important traits.
Artificial selection; Evolution; Genetic diversity; Population genomics; Soybean
Schistosoma japonicum is a parasitic flatworm that causes human schistosomiasis, a significant cause of morbidity in China and the Philippines. Here we present a draft genomic sequence for the worm, which is the first reported for any flatworm, indeed for the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The genome provides a global insight into the molecular architecture and host interaction of this complex metazoan pathogen, revealing that it can exploit host nutrients, neuroendocrine hormones and signaling pathways for growth, development and maturation. Having a complex nervous system and a well developed sensory system, S. japonicum can accept stimulation of the corresponding ligands as a physiological response to different environments, such as fresh water or the tissues of its intermediate and mammalian hosts. Numerous proteinases, including cercarial elastase, are implicated in mammalian skin penetration and haemoglobin degradation. The genomic information will serve as a valuable platform to facilitate development of new interventions for schistosomiasis control.