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1.  BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:488.
Background
As major regulators of normal chondrogenesis, the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGFB) signaling pathways may be involved in the development and progression of central chondrosarcoma. In order to uncover their possible implication, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic quantitative study of the expression of BMPs, TGFBs and their receptors and to assess activity of the corresponding pathways in central chondrosarcoma.
Methods
Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative RT-PCR in 26 central chondrosarcoma and 6 healthy articular cartilage samples. Expression of endoglin and nuclear localization of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis.
Results
The expression of TGFB3 and of the activin receptor-like kinase ALK2 was found to be significantly higher in grade III compared to grade I chondrosarcoma. Nuclear phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and Smad2 were found in all tumors analyzed and the activity of both signaling pathways was confirmed by functional reporter assays in 2 chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis furthermore revealed that phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and endoglin expression were significantly higher in high-grade compared to low-grade chondrosarcoma and correlated to each other.
Conclusions
The BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways were found to be active in central chondrosarcoma cells. The correlation of Smad1/5/8 activity to endoglin expression suggests that, as described in other cell types, endoglin could enhance Smad1/5/8 signaling in high-grade chondrosarcoma cells. Endoglin expression coupled to Smad1/5/8 activation could thus represent a functionally important signaling axis for the progression of chondrosarcoma and a regulator of the undifferentiated phenotype of high-grade tumor cells.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-488
PMCID: PMC3495847  PMID: 23088614
Conventional central chondrosarcoma; Bone tumor; Chondrogenic differentiation; Bone morphogenic proteins; Transforming growth factor β
2.  Chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells: role of tissue source and inducing factors 
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cell therapy in cartilage. Although their therapeutic potential is clear, the requirements and conditions for effective induction of chondrogenesis in MSCs and for the production of a stable cartilaginous tissue by these cells are far from being understood. Different sources of MSCs have been considered for cartilage tissue engineering, mainly based on criteria of availability, as for adipose tissue, or of proximity to cartilage and the joint environment in vivo, as for bone marrow and synovial tissues. Focussing on human MSCs, this review will provide an overview of studies featuring comparative analysis of the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs from different sources. In particular, it will examine the influence of the cells' origin on the requirements for the induction of chondrogenesis and on the phenotype achieved by the cells after differentiation.
doi:10.1186/scrt31
PMCID: PMC2983444  PMID: 20959030

Results 1-2 (2)