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1.  How to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis 
Atrophic gastritis, is the main consequence of long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection, and is linked to the development of gastric cancer. The severity of atrophic gastritis is related to the lifetime risk of gastric cancer development, especially in terms of its degree and extent of mucosal damage. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to assess the severity of atrophic gastritis, interfere with the disease progress, and reverse gastric mucosal atrophy. In the article, we demonstrated some methods (conventional endoscopy, modern endoscopic technology and noninvasive methods) that may help assess the severity of atrophic gastritis and select the reasonable treatment protocols.
PMCID: PMC3072632  PMID: 21483628
Atrophic gastritis; Endoscopy; Pepsinogen
2.  Preventive and therapeutic effects of NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin in rats colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid 
AIM: To ascertain the molecule mechanism of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor curcumin preventive and therapeutic effects in rats’ colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS).
METHODS: Sixty rats with TNBS-induced colitis were treated with 2.0% curcumin in the diet. Thirty positive control rats were treated with 0.5% sulfasalazine (SASP). Thirty negative control rats and thirty model rats were treated with general diet. Changes of body weight together with histological scores were evaluated. Survival rates were also evaluated. Cell nuclear NF-κB activity in colonic mucosa was evaluated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cytoplasmic IκB protein in colonic mucosa was detected by using Western Blot analysis. Cytokine messenger expression in colonic tissue was assessed by using semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Treatment with curcumin could prevent and treat both wasting and histopathologic signs of rats with TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation. In accordance with these findings, NF-κB activation in colonic mucosa was suppressed in the curcumin-treated groups. Degradations of cytoplasmic IκB protein in colonic mucosa were blocked by curcumin treatment. Proinflammatory cytokine messenger RNA expression in colonic mucosa was also suppressed.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that NF-κB inhibitor curcumin could prevent and improve experimental colitis in murine model with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The findings suggest that NF-κB inhibitor curcumin could be a potential target for the patients with IBD.
PMCID: PMC4305867  PMID: 15793857
IBD; Curcumin; TNBS; NF-κB
3.  GW4064, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, upregulates adipokine expression in preadipocytes and HepG2 cells 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(42):15727-15735.
AIM: To investigate the effect of GW4064 on the expression of adipokines and their receptors during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in HepG2 cells.
METHODS: The mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2), adiponectin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), and the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) and protein levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were determined using fluorescent real-time PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, on days 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes exposed to GW4064. Moreover, mRNA expression of AdipoR2 and OB-Rb was also examined using fluorescent real-time PCR at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h in HepG2 cells treated with GW4064.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of FXR, PPAR-γ2, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and OB-Rb and protein levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin increased along with differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (P < 0.05 for all). The mRNA expression of FXR, PPAR-γ2, adiponectin, leptin, and AdipoR2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and AdipoR2 and OB-Rb in HepG2 cells was significantly increased after treatment with GW4064, when compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for all). A similar trend was observed for protein levels of adipokines (including adiponectin, leptin and resistin). However, the expression of resistin, AdipoR1, and OB-Rb in 3T3-L1 cells did not change after treatment with GW4064.
CONCLUSION: The FXR agonist through regulating, at least partially, the expression of adipokines and their receptors could offer an innovative way for counteracting the progress of metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PMCID: PMC4229537  PMID: 25400456
Farnesoid X receptor; Adipokines; Adipokine receptors; 3T3-L1 cells; HepG2 cells; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
4.  Double balloon enteroscopy in the old: Experience from China 
AIM: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and management of double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) carried out in those aged individuals with suspicious small intestine diseases.
METHODS: DBE is a wonderful invention of the past decade and is widely used as an examination tool for the gastrointestinal tract. From January 2003 to July 2011, data from patients who were ≥ 65 years old and underwent DBE examination in the Nanfang Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine individuals were found and subsequently analyzed. The mean age was 69.63 ± 3.89 years (range 65-84), 34 were males. Indications for DBE were melena/hematochezia (36 cases), abdominal pain (15 cases), diarrhea (3 cases), stool change (1 case), weight loss (1 case), vomiting (2 cases), and debilitation (1 case). The average duration of symptoms was 33.34 ± 64.24 mo. Twenty-seven patients suffered from age-related diseases. Severe complications were not found during and after DBE. Comparison between systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after DBE was statistically significant (mean ± SD, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). Small bowel pathologies were found by DBE in 35 patients, definite diagnoses were made in 31 cases, and detection rate and diagnostic yield for DBE were 68.6% and 60.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: DBE is a safe and effective method for gastrointestinal examination in the aged population. Aging alone is not a risk factor for elderly patients with suspicious gastrointestinal diseases and thorough preparation prior to the DBE procedure should be made for individuals with multiple diseases especially cardiopulmonary disorders.
PMCID: PMC3374992  PMID: 22719197
Double balloon enteroscopy; Capsule endoscopy; Small bowel diseases; Multiple systematic diseases
5.  Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines 
AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice.
METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection.
CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori.
PMCID: PMC2992683  PMID: 21105198
Chinese herbal medicines; Helicobacter pylori; Minimum inhibitory concentration; Gastric; Oral
6.  Expression of Helicobacter pylori AlpA protein and its immunogenicity 
AIM: To construct a recombinant strain which expresses adhesin AlpA of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) and to study the immunogenicity of adhesin AlpA.
METHODS: Gene Ab, which was amplified from H pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR technique, was sequenced and the biological information was analyzed, and inserted into the Nco I and Not I restriction fragments of the expression vector pET-22b(+) using T4 DNA ligase. The resulting plasmid pET-AlpA was transformed into competent E.coli BL21(DE3) cells using ampicillin resistance for selection. Recombinant strains were incubated in 5 mL LB with 100 μg/mL ampicillin overnight at 37 °C. Sonication of BL21(DE3)pET-22b(+)/AlpA was analyzed by Western blot to detect AlpA immunogenicity.
RESULTS: The gene encoding AlpA protein was amplified by PCR with chromosomal DNA of H pylori Sydney strain (SS1) as templates. It revealed that AlpA DNA fragment amplified by PCR had approximately 1 500 nucleotides, compatible with the previous reports. The recombinant plasmid pET-22b(+)/AB was successfully constructed. DNA sequencing showed one open reading frame with the length of 588 bp. It encoded seven conservative regions that showed good antigenicity and hydrophobicity by Parker and Welling method. Furthermore, INTERNET EXPASY, NNPREDICT and ISREC predicted that it was a porin-like structure consisting of β-pleated sheets that were embedded in the outer membrane. BLAST analyzed 836 767 protein sequences and found that the similar sequences were all belonging to H pylori OMP sequences. SDS-PAGE and scan analysis showed that the molecular weight of AB was 22.5 ku and recombinant protein amounted to 29% of the total bacterial protein, among which dissolved expression amounted to 21.9% of sonicated supernatant. The rAB purity amounted to 96% through affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of rAB confirmed that it could be specially recognized by serum form rabbit immunized with AlpA and H pylori infected.
CONCLUSION: Adhesin AlpA recombinant protein may be a potential vaccine for control and treatment of H pylori infection.
PMCID: PMC4305809  PMID: 15818736
H pylori; Immunogenicity
7.  Comparative study of visual acuity and aberrations after intralase femtosecond LASIK: small corneal flap versus big corneal flap 
To study the effect of different flap sizes on visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and aberrations after femtosecond laser for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).
In each of the forty patients enrolled, 1 eye was randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 8.1mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the small flap, while the other eye was treated with a 8.6mm diameter corneal flap, defined as the big flap. Refractive errors, visual acuity, and higher-order aberrations were compared between the two groups at week 1, month 1 and 3 postoperatively.
The postoperative refractive errors and visual acuity all conformed to the intended goal. Postoperative higher-order aberrations were increased, especially in spherical aberration (Z12) and vertical coma (Z7). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of postoperative refractive errors, visual acuity, root mean square of total HOAs (HO-RMS), trefoil 30° (Z6), vertical coma (Z7), horizontal coma (Z8), trefoil 0° (Z9), and spherical aberration (Z12) at any point during the postoperative follow-up.
Both the small and big flaps are safe and effective procedures to correct myopia, provided the exposure stroma meets the excimer laser ablations. The personalized size corneal flap is feasible, as we can design the size of corneal flap based on the principle that the corneal flap diameter should be equal to or greater than the sum of the maximum ablation diameter and apparatus error.
PMCID: PMC3808912  PMID: 24195040
femtosecond laser; laser in situ keratomileusis; refractive surgery; flap; visual acuity; aberration
8.  Heterologous expression of human costimulatory molecule B7-2 and construction of B7-2 immobilized polyhydroxyalkanoate nanoparticles for use as an immune activation agent 
BMC Biotechnology  2012;12:43.
Costimulation of T cells via costimulatory molecules such as B7 is important for eliciting cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Presenting costimulation molecules by immobilizing recombinant B7 on the surface of nanovectors is a novel strategy for complementary therapy. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of biodegradable, non-toxic, biocompatible polyesters, which can be used as a nonspecific immobilizing matrix for protein presentation. Recombinant protein fusion with PHA granule binding protein phasin (PhaP) can be easily immobilized on the surface of PHA nanoparticles through hydrophobic interactions between PhaP and PHA, and therefore provides a low-cost protein presenting strategy.
In this study, the extracellular domain of the B7-2 molecule (also named as CD86) was fused with PhaP at its N-terminal and heterogeneously expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The purified B7-2-PhaP protein was immobilized on the surface of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx)-based nanoparticles. Loading of 240 μg (3.2 pMol) of B7-2-PhaP protein per mg nanoparticles was achieved. Immobilized B7-2-PhaP on PHBHHx nanoparticles induced T cell activation and proliferation in vitro.
A PHA nanoparticle-based B7-2 costimulation molecule-presenting system was constructed. The PHA-based B7 presenting nanosystem provided costimulation signals to induce T cell activation and expansion in vitro. The B7-2-PhaP immobilized PHA nanosystem is a novel strategy for costimulation molecule presentation and may be used for costimulatory molecule complementary therapy.
PMCID: PMC3468374  PMID: 22846711
PHA nanoparticle; B7-2; Costimulation; PhaP; Immobilization
9.  (1E,4E)-1-(Thio­phen-2-yl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethyl­cyclo­hex-1-en-1-yl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one 
In the title curcumin–ionone derivative, C18H22OS, the dihedral angle between the thia­zole ring and the mean plane through the cyclo­hexene ring is 5.16 (10)°. The mol­ecule has an E conformation for each of the olefinic bonds.
PMCID: PMC3379426  PMID: 22719624
10.  Effect of microcystin-LR on protein phosphatase 2A and its function in human amniotic epithelial cells*  
Due to their toxicity, the increased distribution of microcystins (MCs) has become an important worldwide problem. MCs have been recognized as inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through their binding to the PP2A catalytic subunit. However, the exact mechanism of MC toxicity has not been elucidated, especially concerning the cellular response and its autoregulation. To further dissect the role of PP2A in MC-induced toxicity, the present study was undertaken to determine the response of PP2A in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells treated with microcystin-LR (MCLR), one of the MC congeners. The results show that a low-dose treatment of MCLR in FL cells for 6 h induced an increase in PP2A activity, and a high-dose treatment of MCLR for 24 h decreased the activity of PP2A, as expected. The increased mRNA and protein levels of the PP2A C subunit may explain the increased activity of PP2A. Furthermore, MCLR altered microtubule post-translational modifications through PP2A. These results further clarify the underlying mechanism how MCLR affects PP2A and may be helpful for elucidating the complex toxicity of MCLR.
PMCID: PMC3232427  PMID: 22135143
Microcystin-LR; Protein phosphatase 2A; Phosphatase activity; Hormesis; Tubulin; B55α
11.  Ethyl (Z)-2-(2-fluoro­benzyl­idene)-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-2H-thia­zolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxyl­ate 
The title compound, C23H19FN2O3S, a fused-pyrimidine derivative, displays dihedral angles between the thia­zole ring and the benzene ring and substituted benzene ring of 7.10 (14) and 3.48 (12)°, respectively. The dihydro­pyrimidine ring adopts a flattened boat conformation. The olefinic double bond is in a Z configuration.
PMCID: PMC3247408  PMID: 22220026
12.  High Diversity of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria in an Urban River Sediment Habitat▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(17):5972-5976.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been surveyed widely in water bodies, but few studies have determined the diversity of ARB in sediment, which is the most taxon-abundant habitat in aquatic environments. We isolated 56 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria from a single sediment sample taken from an urban river in China. All strains were confirmed for ESBL-producing capability by both the clavulanic acid combination disc method and MIC determination. Of the isolated strains, 39 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae (consisting of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, and Aeromonas) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical analysis. The present study identifies, for the first time, ESBL-producing strains from the families Brucellaceae and Moraxellaceae. The blaCTX-M gene was the most dominant of the ESBL genes (45 strains), while the blaTEM gene was the second-most dominant (22 strains). A total of five types of blaCTX-M fragments were identified, with both known and novel sequences. A library of blaCTX-M cloned from the sediment DNA showed an even higher diversity of blaCTX-M sequences. The discovery of highly diverse ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, particularly blaCTX, in urban river sediment raises alarms for potential dissemination of ARB in communities through river environments.
PMCID: PMC2935080  PMID: 20639374
13.  RNA Interference inhibits Hepatitis B Virus of different genotypes in Vitro and in Vivo 
BMC Microbiology  2010;10:214.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be a potential new tool for HBV therapy. Given the high heterogeneity of HBV strains and the sensitivity towards sequences changes of siRNA, finding a potent siRNA inhibitor against the conservative site on the HBV genome is essential to ensure a therapeutic application.
Forty short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids were constructed to target conserved regions among nine HBV genotypes. HBV 1.3-fold genome plasmids carrying various genotypes were co-transfected with shRNA plasmids into either Huh7 cells or mice. The levels of various viral markers were examined to assess the anti-HBV efficacy of siRNA. Four (B245, B376, B1581 and B1789) were found with the ability to potently inhibit HBV RNA, DNA, surface antigen (HBsAg), e antigen (HBeAg) and core antigen (HBcAg) expression in HBV genotypes A, B, C, D and I (a newly identified genotype) in Huh7 cells and in mice. No unusual cytotoxicity or off-target effects were noted.
Such siRNA suggests an alternate way of inhibiting various HBV genotypes in vitro and in vivo, promising advances in the treatment of HBV.
PMCID: PMC2927532  PMID: 20696079
14.  Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest an Additional Hepatitis B Virus Genotype “I” 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9297.
A novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) strain (W29) was isolated from serum samples in the northwest of China. Phylogenetic and distance analyses indicate that this strain is grouped with a series of distinct strains discovered in Vietnam and Laos that have been proposed to be a new genotype I. TreeOrderScan and GroupScan methods were used to study the intergenotype recombination of this special group. Recombination plots and tree maps of W29 and these putative genotype I strains exhibit distinct characteristics that are unexpected in typical genotype C strains of HBV. The amino acids of P gene, S gene, X gene, and C gene of all genotypes (including subtypes) were compared, and eight unique sites were found in genotype I. In vitro and in vivo experiments were also conducted to determine phenotypic characteristics between W29 and other representative strains of different genotypes obtained from China. Secretion of HBsAg in Huh7 cells is uniformly abundant among genotypes A, B, C, and I (W29), but not genotype D. HBeAg secretion is low in genotype I (W29), whose level is close to genotype A and much lower than genotypes B, C, and D. Results from the acute hydrodynamic injection mouse model also exhibit a similar pattern. From an overview of the results, the viral markers of W29 (I1) in Huh7 cells and mice had a more similar level to genotype A than genotype C, although the latter was closer to W29 in distance analysis. All evidence suggests that W29, together with other related strains found in Vietnam and Laos, should be classified into a new genotype.
PMCID: PMC2824819  PMID: 20174575

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