Glucocorticoids production is increased in many pathological conditions that are associated with muscle loss, but their role in causing muscle wasting is not fully understood. We have demonstrated a new mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: Dexamethasone (Dex) suppresses satellite cell function contributing to the development of muscle atrophy. Specifically, we found that Dex decreases satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved Dex-induced upregulation of myostatin and suppression of Akirin1, a promyogenic gene. When myostatin was inhibited in Dex-treated mice, Akirin1 expression increased as did satellite cell activity, muscle regeneration and muscle growth. In addition, silencing myostatin in myoblasts or satellite cells prevented Dex from suppressing Akirin1 expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation. Finally, overexpression of Akirin1 in myoblasts increased their expression of MyoD and myogenin and improved cellular proliferation and differentiation, theses improvements were no longer suppressed by Dex. We conclude that glucocorticoids stimulate myostatin which inhibits Akirin1 expression and the reparative functions of satellite cells. These responses attribute to muscle atrophy. Thus, inhibition of myostatin or increasing Akirin1 expression could lead to therapeutic strategies for improving satellite cell activation and enhancing muscle growth in diseases associated with increased glucocorticoid production.
Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL.
AAL; ethylene; hormonal interactions; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; tomato
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is an important member of the FGF gene family. It is widely used in clinical applications for scald and wound healing in order to stimulate cell proliferation. Further it is applied for inhibiting stem cell differentiation in cultures. Due to a shortage of plasma and low expression levels of recombinant rbFGF in conventional gene expression systems, we explored the production of recombinant rbFGF in rice grains (Oryza sativa bFGF, OsrbFGF). An expression level of up to 185.66 mg/kg in brown rice was obtained. A simple purification protocol was established with final recovery of 4.49% and resulting in a yield of OsrbFGF reaching up to 8.33 mg/kg OsrbFGF. The functional assay of OsrbFGF indicated that the stimulating cell proliferation activity on NIH/3T3 was the same as with commercialized rbFGF. Wound healing in vivo of OsrbFGF is equivalent to commercialized rbFGF. Our results indicate that rice endosperm is capable of expressing small molecular mass proteins, such as bFGF. This again demonstrates that rice endosperm is a promising system to express various biopharmaceutical proteins.
recombinant human bFGF; rice endosperm; protein expression and processing; cell proliferation and wound healing
Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been applied to studies in mice. A mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) model is introduced here which successfully and reliably promotes vibrissal whisker pad hypersensitivity.
The chronic orofacial neuropathic pain model is induced after surgical placement of chromic gut suture in the infraorbital nerve fissure in the maxillary bone. Slight compression and chemical effects of the chromic gut suture on the portion of the infraorbital nerve contacted cause mild nerve trauma. Nerve edema is observed in the contacting infraorbital nerve bundle as well as macrophage infiltration in the trigeminal ganglia. Centrally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, increased immunoreactivity for an activated microglial marker is evident (OX42, postoperative day 70). Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad are significantly decreased on day 3 after chromic gut suture placement, persisting at least 10 weeks. The mechanical allodynia is reversed by suppression of microglial activation. Cold allodynia was detected at 4 weeks.
A simple, effective, and reproducible chronic mouse model mimicking clinical orofacial neuropathic pain (Type 2) is induced by placing chromic gut suture between the infraorbital nerve and the maxillary bone. The method produces mild inflammatory compression with significant continuous mechanical allodynia persisting at least 10 weeks and cold allodynia measureable at 4 weeks.
Orofacial neuropathic pain; Infraorbital nerve; Inflammation; Nerve compression; Chromic gut suture; Mechanical allodynia; Trigeminal ganglia; Trigeminal nucleus; Mice; Hypersensitivy; Tic douloureux
Our recent studies have shown that bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 6 was induced in the kidney in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Therefore, we investigated if interleukin 6 play a role in the recruitment and maturation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in the kidney during the development of renal fibrosis. Wild-type and interleukin 6 knockout mice were subjected to unilateral obstructive injury for up to two weeks. Interleukin 6 knockout mice accumulated similar number of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors and myofibroblasts in the kidney in response to obstructive injury compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, IL-6 knockout mice expressed comparable α-SMA in the obstructed kidney compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, targeted disruption of Interleukin 6 did not affect gene expression of profibrotic chemokine and cytokines in the obstructed kidney. Finally, there were no significant differences in renal interstitial fibrosis or expression of extracellular matrix proteins between wild-type and interleukin 6 knockout mice following obstructive injury. Our results indicate that interleukin 6 does not play a significant role in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors and the development of renal fibrosis.
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method.
Class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductases are potential targets for novel antibiotic development. In order to obtain a precise structural model for use in virtual screening and inhibitor design, HMG-CoA reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected from a single frozen crystal on a home X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 773.4836, b = 90.3055, c = 160.5592 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be 54.1% (V
M = 2.68 Å3 Da−1).
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductases; Streptococcus pneumoniae
Simultaneous resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in carbapeneme non-susceptible (CNS) isolates will inevitably create problems. The present study was performed to characterize the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs) and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs) among the CNS Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) isolates in a Chinese teaching hospital, and to acquire their molecular epidemiological characteristics.
The β-lactamases genes (including class A carbapenemase genes blaKPC and blaSME, metallo-β-lactamase genes (MBLs) blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM, and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs),blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV), QRDs (including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6′)-Ib-cr) and ARDs (including aac(6′)-Ib, armA and rmtB) of these 35 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. The clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Of the 35 isolates, 9 (25.7%) harbored a carbapenemase gene; 23 (65.7%) carried ESBLs; 24 (68.6%) were QRD positive; and 27 (77.1%) were ARD positive. Among the 5 blaIMP-8 positive strains, 4 (80%) contained both ESBL and QRD genes, and all the 5 (100%) harbored ARD genes. Of the 23 ESBLs positive isolates, 6 (26.1%) were carbapenemase positive, 14 (60.9%) were QRD positive, and 18 (78.3%) were ARD positive. PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 35 isolates, indicating that the high prevalence of CNS E. cloacae isolates was not caused by clonal dissemination.
QRD and ARD genes were highly prevalent among the CNS E. cloacae isolates. Multiple resistant genes were co-expressed in the same isolates. The CNS E. cloacae isolate co-expressing blaNDM-1, blaIMP-26, qnrA1 and qnrS1 was first reported.
One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expression levels of lycopene biosynthetic genes in JA-deficient mutants (spr2 and def1) and a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys) with increased JA levels and constitutive JA signalling. The lycopene content was significantly decreased in the fruits of spr2 and def1, but was enhanced in 35S::prosys fruits. Simultaneously, the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes followed a similar trend. Lycopene synthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapour-treated fruits showed an inverted U-shaped dose response, which significantly enhanced the fruit lycopene content and restored lycopene accumulation in spr2 and def1 at a concentration of 0.5 µM. The results indicated that JA plays a positive role in lycopene biosynthesis. In addition, the role of ET in JA-induced lycopene accumulation was also examined. Ethylene production in tomato fruits was depressed in spr2 and def1 while it increased in 35S::prosys. However, the exogenous application of MeJA to Never ripe (Nr), the ET-insensitive mutant, significantly promoted lycopene accumulation, as well as the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes. Based on these results, it is proposed that JA might function independently of ethylene to promote lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits.
Ethylene (ET); fruit; jasmonic acid (JA); lycopene; mutant; tomato
Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired.
This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP.
ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to DNA engineering and gene functional analysis.
Asymmetric; Bridge PCR; Intramolecular homologous recombination; Myostatin
We assessed the effects of Chinese herbs on the uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. A total of 56 pre-menopausal women with uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were included. Urine cultures were carried out. All organisms were proved to be fluoroquinolone-resistant at baseline. The patients were orally administrated Chinese herbal concoction for ten days. Chinese herbal concoction eradicated the primary pathogen in 71.4% of the patients at the 1-week follow-up. Among the 20 patients who had bacteriologic failures in the Day 5 of treatment, 2 developed superinfection. Of the failures in the group, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia rettgeri were implicated in 50.0%, 50.0% and 100.0% of the failures, respectively. The clinical outcomes were also good, with cure or improvement for more than 80% of all subjects. About 14% of the study subjects reported at least one potential adverse event. The adverse events most frequently reported were nausea and diarrhea. All patients tolerated the symptoms. The adverse reactions did not prevail after discontinuation of the medication. Chinese herbal therapy may be an acceptable alternative for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant uropathogens.
Chinese herbs; Urinary tract infection; Fluoroquinolone-resistant
Glycosylation is one of the most abundant protein modifications in nature, having roles in protein stability, secretion and function. Alterations in mucin-type O-glycosylation are responsible for a number of human diseases and developmental defects, as well as associated with certain types of cancer. However, the mechanistic role of this form of glycosylation in many of these instances is unclear. Here we describe how one glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating mucin-type O-glycosylation (pgant3), specifically modulates integrin-mediated cell adhesion by influencing the secretion and localization of an integrin ligand. The integrin ligand Tiggrin, is normally O-glycosylated and localized to the basal matrix, where adhesion of two opposing cell layers takes place. In pgant3 mutants, Tiggrin is no longer O-glycosylated and fails to be properly secreted to the basal cell layer interface, resulting in disruption of proper cell adhesion. pgant3-mediated effects are dependent upon the enzymatic activity of PGANT3 and cannot be rescued by another pgant family member, indicating a unique role for this glycosyltransferase. These results provide in vivo evidence for the role of O-glycosylation in the secretion of specific extracellular matrix proteins, that thereby influences the composition of the cellular “microenvironment” and modulates cell adhesion events. The studies described in this review provide insight into the long-standing association between aberrant O-glycosylation and tumorigenesis, as changes in tumor environment and cell adhesion are hallmarks of cancer progression.
We investigated the influence of pre-analytical factors on the results of clinical tests and thereby analyzed approaches to improve quality management in clinical laboratories.
Unqualified clinical samples were selected from all the samples received at our clinical laboratory. The data were collected for 2009 and 2010, i.e., the years before and after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system. The rate and causes of generation of unqualified samples were analyzed, and measures to improve the laboratory practices were studied and implemented.
A total of 1,051 unqualified samples were identified from among the 553,158 samples (the overall incidence rate of unqualified samples was 0.19%). The number of unqualified samples substantially varied according to the nature of the sample, and clinical samples collected for routine blood tests or coagulation tests were the predominant unqualified samples. The main causes of generation of unqualified samples were insufficient sample volumes and improper methods of mixing the samples. The rate of generation of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the implementation of improvement measures (0.26% in 2009 vs. 0.13% in 2010, P<0.001).
The number of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system, which promoted active communication among and training of the clinical staff to reduce the occurrence of pre-analytical errors. Comprehensive control of pre-analytical factors is an important approach in improving the clinical laboratory practices.
Quality management; Clinical laboratory; Analysis; Samples
The title compound, [Pb2(C7H5O2)2(NO3)2(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2], crystallizes as a dinuclear centrosymmetric dimer containing two PbII atoms bridged by two benzoate ligands. Each PbII atom is seven-coordinated by a water molecule, a nitrate anion, a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand and two benzoate anions. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and by π–π stacking between neighboring phen ligands, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.557 (3) Å.
We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus.
Extensive elongation of lens fiber cells is a central feature of lens morphogenesis. Our study investigates the role of N-cadherin junctions in this process in vivo. We investigate both the molecular players involved in N-cadherin junctional maturation and the subsequent function of these junctions as epicenters for the assembly of an actin cytoskeleton that drives morphogenesis. We present the first evidence of nascent cadherin junctions in vivo, and show they are a prominent feature along lateral interfaces of undifferentiated lens epithelial cells. Maturation of these N-cadherin junctions, required for lens cell differentiation, preceded organization of a cortical actin cytoskeleton along the cells’ lateral borders, but was linked to recruitment of α-catenin and dephosphorylation of N-cadherin-linked β-catenin. Biochemical analysis revealed differentiation-specific recruitment of actin regulators cortactin and Arp3 to maturing N-cadherin junctions of differentiating cells, linking N-cadherin junctional maturation with actin cytoskeletal assembly during fiber cell elongation. Blocking formation of mature N-cadherin junctions led to reduced association of α-catenin with N-cadherin, prevented organization of actin along lateral borders of differentiating lens fiber cells and blocked their elongation. These studies provide a molecular link between N-cadherin junctions and the organization of an actin cytoskeleton that governs lens fiber cell morphogenesis in vivo.
Increased expression of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is associated with proliferation and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) increases transcription and expression of IGF-IR. Now, we show that mesenteric arteries of rats infused with Ang II develop thickening and increased IGF-IR expression. To determine how Ang II transcriptionally regulates IGF-IR expression in VSMCs, we generated 5′-end deletions of the IGF-IR promoter and measured Ang II-induced promoter-luciferase activity in VSMCs. Activities from these promoter sequences suggested that the Ang II-responsive region is located between −270 and −135 of the IGF-IR promoter. Using a DNase I foot printing analysis, we identified two putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-like sequences located in the same region of the IGF-IR promoter. When we mutated either of these NF-κB-like sites, Ang II-induced IGF-IR promoter ac tivity decreased sharply. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift, anti-p50 of NF-κB supershift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that both the p65 and p50 subunits of NF-κB will bind to this Ang II response element in the IGF-IR promoter. When we blocked the Ras/MAPK kinase 1 pathway or the inhibitory-κB kinase pathway, both Ang II-induced IGF-IR promoter activity and expression of IGF-IR protein significantly declined. Our results indicate that the mechanism by which Ang II stimulates IGF-IR expression in VSMCs involves NF-κB binding to NF-κB sites in the IGF-IR promoter, leading to expression of IGF-IR through both Ras/MAPK kinase 1-and inhibitory-κB kinase-dependent pathways. Because IGF-IR is a major factor associated with thickening of mesenteric vessels, our results provide potential therapeutic targets.
The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the E. coli C16 was 0.1g/ml. The MBC value was 0.2g/ml. The effects of herbal solution on the hemagglutination abilities of E. coli C16 were dependent on the herbal solution used. The strain C16 lost half of its hemagglutination abilities when the herbal solution concentration was at MIC (0.05g/ml). Herbal solution decreased the adherence of strain C16 in a dose-dependent way. The numbers of adherent bacteria were reduced to 45% of the control values after growth with herbal solution at MIC. The results show that anti-adhesion is one mode of action for Chinese herbs used against pathogens.
Chinese herbs; Escherichia coli; Adhesion; Hemagglutination
The fetal response to small tendon injury results in regenerative or scarless healing and is characterized by a markedly diminished cellular inflammatory response, lack of fibroplasia, and restoration of normal tissue architecture. We hypothesized that increasing fetal tendon wound size would lead to increased wound inflammation and a change from regenerative to reparative healing and scar formation. We created small or large tendon wounds in early gestation fetal sheep and used histology to assess tissue architecture, immunohistochemistry to assess the cellular inflammatory response, ovine specific gene microarrays, and real time RT-PCR to measure gene expression in response to injury. Small tendon wounds demonstrated a regenerative healing phenotype with orderly deposition of collagen fibers while large tendon wounds demonstrated disorderly collagen deposition consistent with scar formation. Small tendon wounds had few inflammatory cells at 7 and 28 days after injury, whereas the large wounds showed a significant inflammatory cell infiltrate at 7 days that resolved by 28 days. At 3 days, differential expression of genes involved in the response to injury and inflammation were seen between large and small tendon wounds. By real-time PCR at 7 days, large tendon wounds also had significantly increased expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-β1, and transforming growth factor-β3, compared to the small wounds. Increasing fetal tendon wound size results in increased proinflammatory gene expression inflammatory cell infiltration, and a change from regenerative to reparative healing. This model allows the process of regenerative healing to be examined without the confounding variable of gestational age.
Regenerative Healing; Scar; Inflammation; Cytokine
Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD.
AAL toxin; ethylene (ET); jasmonic acid (JA); PCD; tomato
Drosophila melanogaster offers many unique advantages for deciphering the complexities of glycan biosynthesis and function. The completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project as well as the comprehensive catalogue of existing mutations and phenotypes have lead to a prolific database where many of the genes involved in glycan synthesis, assembly, modification, and recognition have been identified and characterized. Recent biochemical and molecular studies have elucidated the structure of the glycans present in Drosophila. Powerful genetic approaches have uncovered a number of critical biological roles for glycans during development that impact on our understanding of their function during mammalian development. Here, we summarize key recent findings and provide evidence for the usefulness of this model organism in unraveling the complexities of glycobiology across many species.
Development; Drosophila; glycosylation
Abdominal pain is a major reason patients seek medical attention yet relatively little is known about neuronal pathways relaying visceral pain. We have previously characterized pathways transmitting information to the brain about visceral pain. Visceral pain arises from second order neurons in lamina X surrounding the spinal cord central canal. Some of the brain regions of interest receiving axonal terminations directly from lamina X were examined in the present study using enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and one week after induction of a rat pancreatitis model with persistent inflammation and behavioral signs of increased nociception. Analysis of imaging data demonstrates an increase in MRI signal for all the regions of interest selected including the rostral ventromedial medulla, dorsal raphe, periaqueductal grey, medial thalamus, and central amygdala as predicted by the anatomical data, as well as increases in the lateral thalamus, cingulate/retrosplenial and parietal cortex. Occipital cortex was not activated above threshold in any condition and served as a negative control. Morphine attenuated the MRI signal, and the morphine effect was antagonized by naloxone in lower brainstem sites. These data confirm activation of these specific regions of interest known as integration sites for nociceptive information important in behavioral, affective, emotional and autonomic responses to ongoing noxious visceral activation.
morphine; visceral pain; nociception; central pain; pancreatitis
Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are crucial during many stages of
eukaryotic development. Here, we provide the first example that mucin-type
O-linked glycosylation is involved in a developmentally regulated
cell adhesion event in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in one
member of the evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes that initiates
O-linked glycosylation alter epithelial cell adhesion in the
Drosophila wing blade. A transposon insertion mutation in
pgant3 or RNA interference to pgant3 resulted in blistered
wings, a phenotype characteristic of genes involved in integrin-mediated cell
interactions. Expression of wild type pgant3 in the mutant background
rescued the wing blistering phenotype, whereas expression of another family
member (pgant35A) did not, revealing a unique requirement for
pgant3. pgant3 mutants displayed reduced
O-glycosylation along the basal surface of larval wing imaginal
discs, which was restored with wild type pgant3 expression,
suggesting that reduced glycosylation of basal proteins is responsible for
disruption of adhesion in the adult wing blade. Glycosylation reactions
demonstrated that PGANT3 glycosylates certain extracellular matrix (ECM)
proteins. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PGANT3 glycosylates
tiggrin, an ECM protein known to bind integrin. We propose that this
glycosyltransferase is uniquely responsible for glycosylating tiggrin in the
wing disc, thus modulating proper cell adhesion through integrin-ECM
interactions. This study provides the first evidence for the role of
O-glycosylation in a developmentally regulated, integrin-mediated,
cell adhesion event and reveals a novel player in wing blade formation during
Model-based drug development (MBDD) has been recognized as a concept to improve the efficiency of drug development. The acceptance of MBDD from regulatory agencies, industry, and academia has been growing, yet today’s drug development practice is still distinctly distant from MBDD. This manuscript is aimed at clarifying the concept of MBDD and proposing practical approaches for implementing MBDD in the pharmaceutical industry. The following concepts are defined and distinguished: PK–PD modeling, exposure–response modeling, pharmacometrics, quantitative pharmacology, and MBDD. MBDD is viewed as a paradigm and a mindset in which models constitute the instruments and aims of drug development efforts. MBDD covers the whole spectrum of the drug development process instead of being limited to a certain type of modeling technique or application area. The implementation of MBDD requires pharmaceutical companies to foster innovation and make changes at three levels: (1) to establish mindsets that are willing to get acquainted with MBDD, (2) to align processes that are adaptive to the requirements of MBDD, and (3) to create a closely collaborating organization in which all members play a role in MBDD. Pharmaceutical companies that are able to embrace the changes MBDD poses will likely be able to improve their success rate in drug development, and the beneficiaries will ultimately be the patients in need.
drug development; modeling; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; pharmacometrics; simulation
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a glutamate receptor antagonist or a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor on the central visceral nociceptive amplification process present in an experimental pancreatitis model. The acute pancreatitis model was produced by combining intraductal infusion of an irritative bile salt, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDOC), with intraperitoneal injection of a CCK analogue, caerulein, in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Exploratory activities were measured with an automated photobeam activity system and compared among different treatment groups. To confirm the inflammation, the pancreas was weighed and compared histologically with those taken from naive rats.
Exploratory activity changed significantly in rats with experimental pancreatitis (i.e., rearing events, rearing time, active time, distance traveled, and total activity all were decreased; whereas resting time was increased). The inflamed pancreatic tissues were edematous, with moderate to marked acinar atrophy and inflammatory infiltrate. Intrathecal administration (at the T7–T9 spinal levels) of an NMDA receptor antagonist (D-AP5, 1 μg) or a selective PKC inhibitor (GF109203X, 0.15 μg) significantly reversed the changes in exploratory activity when compared with the vehicle-treated group of rats with experimental pancreatitis.
Our results demonstrate that pancreatitis pain is the result of central pain processes that play a role in the amplification of responses to peripheral visceral input through NMDA receptor activation and PKC phosphorylation signaling pathways.
Nociception; Pain; Exploratory activity; Inflammation; Signal transduction
The maturation process of green fluorescent protein (GFP) entails a protein oxidation reaction triggered by spontaneous backbone condensation. The chromophore is generated by full conjugation of the Tyr66 phenolic group with the heterocycle, a process that requires C-H bond scission at the benzylic carbon. We have prepared isotope-enriched protein bearing tyrosine residues deuterated at the beta carbon, and have determined kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on the GFP self-processing reaction. Progress curves for the production of H2O2 and the mature chromophore were analyzed by global curve fitting to a three-step mechanism describing pre-oxidation, oxidation and post-oxidation events. Although a KIE for protein oxidation could not be discerned (kH/kD = 1.1 ± 0.2), a full primary KIE of 5.9 (± 2.8) was extracted for the post-oxidation step. Therefore, the exocyclic carbon is not involved in the reduction of molecular oxygen. Rather, C-H bond cleavage proceeds from the oxidized cyclic imine form, and is the rate-limiting event of the final step. Substantial pH-dependence of maturation was observed upon substitution of the catalytic glutamate (E222Q), indicating an apparent pKa of 9.4 (± 0.1) for the base catalyst. For this variant, a KIE of 5.8 (± 0.4) was determined for the intrinsic time constant that is thought to describe the final step, as supported by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometric results. The data are consistent with general base catalysis of the post-oxidation events yielding green color. Structural arguments suggest a mechanism in which the highly conserved Arg96 serves as catalytic base in proton abstraction from the Tyr66-derived beta carbon.
Protein maturation; chromophore biosynthesis; fluorescent proteins; KIE; deuterium isotope effect; general base catalysis; arginine as catalyst