The consolidation of acute care surgery (ACS) services at 3 of 6 hospitals in a Canadian health region sought to alleviate a relative shortage of surgeons able to take emergency call. We examined how this affected patient access and outcomes.
Using the generalized linear model and statistical process control, we analyzed ACS-related episodes that occurred between 39 months prior to and 17 months after the model’s implementation (n = 14 713).
Time to surgery increased after the consolidation. Wait times increased primarily for patients presenting at nonreferral hospitals who were likely to require transfer to a referral hospital. Although ACS teams enabled referral hospitals to handle a much higher volume of patients without increasing within-hospital wait times, overall system wait times were lengthened by the growing frequency of patient transfers. Wait times for inpatient admission were difficult to interpret because there was a trend toward admitting patients directly to the ACS service, bypassing the emergency department (ED). For patients who did go through the ED, wait times for inpatient admission increased after the consolidation; however, this trend was cancelled out by the apparently zero waits of patients who bypassed the ED. Regionalization showed no impact on length of stay, readmissions, mortality or complications.
Consolidation enabled the region to ensure adequate surgical coverage without harming patients. The need to transfer patients who presented at nonreferral hospitals led to longer waits.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM) and white matter (WM) has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post- central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD) and mean diffusivity (MD) increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV) in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS), and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.
β-Galactosidase from the psychrotrophic and halotolerant Planococcus sp. L4 (BgaP) was crystallized and a complete data set was collected. There are six protein subunits in the asymmetric unit.
β-Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of a galactosyl moiety from the nonreducing termini of oligosaccharides or from glycosides. A novel GH family 42 cold-active β-galactosidase identified from the psychrotrophic and halotolerant Planococcus sp. L4 (BgaP) was crystallized and a complete data set was collected from a single frozen crystal on an in-house X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 104.29, b = 118.12, c = 121.12 Å, α = 62.66, β = 69.48, γ = 70.74°. A likely Matthews coefficient of 2.58 Å3 Da−1 and solvent content of 52.32% suggested the presence of six protein subunits in the asymmetric unit.
cold-active β-galactosidases; Planococcus sp. L4; BgaP
Chronic constriction injury of trigeminal infraorbital nerve results in transient analgesia followed by whisker pad mechanical allodynia in rats. Neuregulin1 expressed on axonal membranes binds receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB promoting Schwann cell development and remyelination. This study investigated whether orofacial mechanical allodynia is signaled by ErbB3/ErbB2 heterodimers in injured nerves.
Whisker pad mechanical allodynia (von Frey stimuli) was quantified in wild type rats and in transgenic rats with Sleeping Beauty transposon mutation for neuregulin1 transgene. Pain-related behavior was retested after intraperitoneal injection of ErbB2 inhibitor, Lapatinib, an agent shown by others to reduce breast cancer pain. Infraorbital nerve injury was evaluated histologically with myelin and neuronal biomarkers. ErbB3 changes over time were measured with western blots.
Whisker pad mechanical hypersensitivity began in week 2 in wild type rats (3.11 ± 5.93 vs. 18.72 ± 0.00g after sham surgery, n = 9, p < 0.001) indicating trigeminal neuropathic pain, but was not evident in transgenic rats (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.38-3.35). Initiation of statistically significant mechano-hypersensitivity was delayed until week 6 after surgery in transgenic rats (3.44 ± 4.60g vs. 18.72 ± 0.00g, n = 4, p < 0.001). Mechanical allodynia which persisted 8 weeks in wild type rats was alleviated by Lapatinib (15 ± 3.89g vs. 2.45 ± 1.13g, n = 6, p < 0.001). Infraorbital nerve damage was verified histologically. Statistically significant ErbB3 increases (weeks 5 and 10) in wild type and transgenic rats (week 10) coincided with time points when mechanical hypersensitivity was present.
Neuregulin1/ErbB3/ErbB2 is a causal mechanism in nerve injury induced trigeminal neuropathic pain. Understanding peripheral glial mechanisms after nerve injury will improve neuropathic pain treatment.
Many aspects of tissue damage following acute or chronic inflammatory reactions can be directly attributed to the concomitant biosynthesis and release of inducible early pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Conversely, systemic inflammation is impacted by consequences of tissue damage. Dysregulated TNFα contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and arthritis. Inflammatory stimuli trigger proteolytic cleavage and shedding of extracellular domains of TNFα receptors giving rise to two soluble fragments (p55 sTNFR1 and p75 sTNFR2) that block further binding, activity and synthesis of TNFα. We hypothesized that absence of sTNFR inhibitory feedback control would result in accumulated high levels of TNFα and other inflammatory factors promoting the cardinal signs of chronic inflammation and pain.
The present study reports a translational murine model of chronic arthritis precipitated by two consecutive inflammatory insults. The “double hit” procedures provoke a chronic inflammatory response and pain related behaviors in mice that are dually deficient in p55 (TNFR1) and p75 (TNFR2). The inflammation and pain related behaviors are transient in similarly treated wild type (WT) mice. The complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) method was used initially to induce knee joint inflammation, tactile mechanical and heat hypersensitivity, and gait disturbance. After these transient effects of the insult were resolved, a recrudescence persisting at least through 23 weeks was promoted by gastrointestinal (GI) insult with dilute intra-colonic mustard oil (MO) only in the mutant mice and was reversed by a P2X7 antagonist. Serum Proteome Profiling analysis revealed high levels of serum inflammatory factors TNFα, RANTES, CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CCL2 (MCP-1).
In conclusion, these data suggest that impaired signaling of TNFα due to deficit of the two protective soluble p55 and p75 sTNFR inhibitory factors plays a pivotal role in re-activation of the immune response to GI insult that can produce recrudescence of inflammatory injury and a chronic pain state through promotion of high levels of serum inflammatory factors.
TNFα; recrudescence; autoimmune; arthritis; P2X7
To explore the function of PPARγ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPARγ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPARγ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPARγ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPARγ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPARγ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPARγ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
Glucocorticoids production is increased in many pathological conditions that are associated with muscle loss, but their role in causing muscle wasting is not fully understood. We have demonstrated a new mechanism of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy: Dexamethasone (Dex) suppresses satellite cell function contributing to the development of muscle atrophy. Specifically, we found that Dex decreases satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism involved Dex-induced upregulation of myostatin and suppression of Akirin1, a promyogenic gene. When myostatin was inhibited in Dex-treated mice, Akirin1 expression increased as did satellite cell activity, muscle regeneration and muscle growth. In addition, silencing myostatin in myoblasts or satellite cells prevented Dex from suppressing Akirin1 expression and cellular proliferation and differentiation. Finally, overexpression of Akirin1 in myoblasts increased their expression of MyoD and myogenin and improved cellular proliferation and differentiation, theses improvements were no longer suppressed by Dex. We conclude that glucocorticoids stimulate myostatin which inhibits Akirin1 expression and the reparative functions of satellite cells. These responses attribute to muscle atrophy. Thus, inhibition of myostatin or increasing Akirin1 expression could lead to therapeutic strategies for improving satellite cell activation and enhancing muscle growth in diseases associated with increased glucocorticoid production.
Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL.
AAL; ethylene; hormonal interactions; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid; tomato
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) is an important member of the FGF gene family. It is widely used in clinical applications for scald and wound healing in order to stimulate cell proliferation. Further it is applied for inhibiting stem cell differentiation in cultures. Due to a shortage of plasma and low expression levels of recombinant rbFGF in conventional gene expression systems, we explored the production of recombinant rbFGF in rice grains (Oryza sativa bFGF, OsrbFGF). An expression level of up to 185.66 mg/kg in brown rice was obtained. A simple purification protocol was established with final recovery of 4.49% and resulting in a yield of OsrbFGF reaching up to 8.33 mg/kg OsrbFGF. The functional assay of OsrbFGF indicated that the stimulating cell proliferation activity on NIH/3T3 was the same as with commercialized rbFGF. Wound healing in vivo of OsrbFGF is equivalent to commercialized rbFGF. Our results indicate that rice endosperm is capable of expressing small molecular mass proteins, such as bFGF. This again demonstrates that rice endosperm is a promising system to express various biopharmaceutical proteins.
recombinant human bFGF; rice endosperm; protein expression and processing; cell proliferation and wound healing
Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been applied to studies in mice. A mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) model is introduced here which successfully and reliably promotes vibrissal whisker pad hypersensitivity.
The chronic orofacial neuropathic pain model is induced after surgical placement of chromic gut suture in the infraorbital nerve fissure in the maxillary bone. Slight compression and chemical effects of the chromic gut suture on the portion of the infraorbital nerve contacted cause mild nerve trauma. Nerve edema is observed in the contacting infraorbital nerve bundle as well as macrophage infiltration in the trigeminal ganglia. Centrally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, increased immunoreactivity for an activated microglial marker is evident (OX42, postoperative day 70). Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad are significantly decreased on day 3 after chromic gut suture placement, persisting at least 10 weeks. The mechanical allodynia is reversed by suppression of microglial activation. Cold allodynia was detected at 4 weeks.
A simple, effective, and reproducible chronic mouse model mimicking clinical orofacial neuropathic pain (Type 2) is induced by placing chromic gut suture between the infraorbital nerve and the maxillary bone. The method produces mild inflammatory compression with significant continuous mechanical allodynia persisting at least 10 weeks and cold allodynia measureable at 4 weeks.
Orofacial neuropathic pain; Infraorbital nerve; Inflammation; Nerve compression; Chromic gut suture; Mechanical allodynia; Trigeminal ganglia; Trigeminal nucleus; Mice; Hypersensitivy; Tic douloureux
Our recent studies have shown that bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the recruitment and activation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 6 was induced in the kidney in a murine model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction. Therefore, we investigated if interleukin 6 play a role in the recruitment and maturation of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors in the kidney during the development of renal fibrosis. Wild-type and interleukin 6 knockout mice were subjected to unilateral obstructive injury for up to two weeks. Interleukin 6 knockout mice accumulated similar number of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors and myofibroblasts in the kidney in response to obstructive injury compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, IL-6 knockout mice expressed comparable α-SMA in the obstructed kidney compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, targeted disruption of Interleukin 6 did not affect gene expression of profibrotic chemokine and cytokines in the obstructed kidney. Finally, there were no significant differences in renal interstitial fibrosis or expression of extracellular matrix proteins between wild-type and interleukin 6 knockout mice following obstructive injury. Our results indicate that interleukin 6 does not play a significant role in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived fibroblast precursors and the development of renal fibrosis.
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method.
Class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductases are potential targets for novel antibiotic development. In order to obtain a precise structural model for use in virtual screening and inhibitor design, HMG-CoA reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected from a single frozen crystal on a home X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 773.4836, b = 90.3055, c = 160.5592 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be 54.1% (V
M = 2.68 Å3 Da−1).
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductases; Streptococcus pneumoniae
Simultaneous resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in carbapeneme non-susceptible (CNS) isolates will inevitably create problems. The present study was performed to characterize the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs) and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs) among the CNS Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) isolates in a Chinese teaching hospital, and to acquire their molecular epidemiological characteristics.
The β-lactamases genes (including class A carbapenemase genes blaKPC and blaSME, metallo-β-lactamase genes (MBLs) blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM, and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs),blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV), QRDs (including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6′)-Ib-cr) and ARDs (including aac(6′)-Ib, armA and rmtB) of these 35 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. The clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Of the 35 isolates, 9 (25.7%) harbored a carbapenemase gene; 23 (65.7%) carried ESBLs; 24 (68.6%) were QRD positive; and 27 (77.1%) were ARD positive. Among the 5 blaIMP-8 positive strains, 4 (80%) contained both ESBL and QRD genes, and all the 5 (100%) harbored ARD genes. Of the 23 ESBLs positive isolates, 6 (26.1%) were carbapenemase positive, 14 (60.9%) were QRD positive, and 18 (78.3%) were ARD positive. PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 35 isolates, indicating that the high prevalence of CNS E. cloacae isolates was not caused by clonal dissemination.
QRD and ARD genes were highly prevalent among the CNS E. cloacae isolates. Multiple resistant genes were co-expressed in the same isolates. The CNS E. cloacae isolate co-expressing blaNDM-1, blaIMP-26, qnrA1 and qnrS1 was first reported.
One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expression levels of lycopene biosynthetic genes in JA-deficient mutants (spr2 and def1) and a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys) with increased JA levels and constitutive JA signalling. The lycopene content was significantly decreased in the fruits of spr2 and def1, but was enhanced in 35S::prosys fruits. Simultaneously, the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes followed a similar trend. Lycopene synthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) vapour-treated fruits showed an inverted U-shaped dose response, which significantly enhanced the fruit lycopene content and restored lycopene accumulation in spr2 and def1 at a concentration of 0.5 µM. The results indicated that JA plays a positive role in lycopene biosynthesis. In addition, the role of ET in JA-induced lycopene accumulation was also examined. Ethylene production in tomato fruits was depressed in spr2 and def1 while it increased in 35S::prosys. However, the exogenous application of MeJA to Never ripe (Nr), the ET-insensitive mutant, significantly promoted lycopene accumulation, as well as the expression of lycopene biosynthetic genes. Based on these results, it is proposed that JA might function independently of ethylene to promote lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits.
Ethylene (ET); fruit; jasmonic acid (JA); lycopene; mutant; tomato
Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired.
This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP.
ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to DNA engineering and gene functional analysis.
Asymmetric; Bridge PCR; Intramolecular homologous recombination; Myostatin
Glycosylation is one of the most abundant protein modifications in nature, having roles in protein stability, secretion and function. Alterations in mucin-type O-glycosylation are responsible for a number of human diseases and developmental defects, as well as associated with certain types of cancer. However, the mechanistic role of this form of glycosylation in many of these instances is unclear. Here we describe how one glycosyltransferase responsible for initiating mucin-type O-glycosylation (pgant3), specifically modulates integrin-mediated cell adhesion by influencing the secretion and localization of an integrin ligand. The integrin ligand Tiggrin, is normally O-glycosylated and localized to the basal matrix, where adhesion of two opposing cell layers takes place. In pgant3 mutants, Tiggrin is no longer O-glycosylated and fails to be properly secreted to the basal cell layer interface, resulting in disruption of proper cell adhesion. pgant3-mediated effects are dependent upon the enzymatic activity of PGANT3 and cannot be rescued by another pgant family member, indicating a unique role for this glycosyltransferase. These results provide in vivo evidence for the role of O-glycosylation in the secretion of specific extracellular matrix proteins, that thereby influences the composition of the cellular “microenvironment” and modulates cell adhesion events. The studies described in this review provide insight into the long-standing association between aberrant O-glycosylation and tumorigenesis, as changes in tumor environment and cell adhesion are hallmarks of cancer progression.
We investigated the influence of pre-analytical factors on the results of clinical tests and thereby analyzed approaches to improve quality management in clinical laboratories.
Unqualified clinical samples were selected from all the samples received at our clinical laboratory. The data were collected for 2009 and 2010, i.e., the years before and after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system. The rate and causes of generation of unqualified samples were analyzed, and measures to improve the laboratory practices were studied and implemented.
A total of 1,051 unqualified samples were identified from among the 553,158 samples (the overall incidence rate of unqualified samples was 0.19%). The number of unqualified samples substantially varied according to the nature of the sample, and clinical samples collected for routine blood tests or coagulation tests were the predominant unqualified samples. The main causes of generation of unqualified samples were insufficient sample volumes and improper methods of mixing the samples. The rate of generation of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the implementation of improvement measures (0.26% in 2009 vs. 0.13% in 2010, P<0.001).
The number of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system, which promoted active communication among and training of the clinical staff to reduce the occurrence of pre-analytical errors. Comprehensive control of pre-analytical factors is an important approach in improving the clinical laboratory practices.
Quality management; Clinical laboratory; Analysis; Samples
The title compound, [Pb2(C7H5O2)2(NO3)2(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2], crystallizes as a dinuclear centrosymmetric dimer containing two PbII atoms bridged by two benzoate ligands. Each PbII atom is seven-coordinated by a water molecule, a nitrate anion, a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand and two benzoate anions. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and by π–π stacking between neighboring phen ligands, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.557 (3) Å.
We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus.
Extensive elongation of lens fiber cells is a central feature of lens morphogenesis. Our study investigates the role of N-cadherin junctions in this process in vivo. We investigate both the molecular players involved in N-cadherin junctional maturation and the subsequent function of these junctions as epicenters for the assembly of an actin cytoskeleton that drives morphogenesis. We present the first evidence of nascent cadherin junctions in vivo, and show they are a prominent feature along lateral interfaces of undifferentiated lens epithelial cells. Maturation of these N-cadherin junctions, required for lens cell differentiation, preceded organization of a cortical actin cytoskeleton along the cells’ lateral borders, but was linked to recruitment of α-catenin and dephosphorylation of N-cadherin-linked β-catenin. Biochemical analysis revealed differentiation-specific recruitment of actin regulators cortactin and Arp3 to maturing N-cadherin junctions of differentiating cells, linking N-cadherin junctional maturation with actin cytoskeletal assembly during fiber cell elongation. Blocking formation of mature N-cadherin junctions led to reduced association of α-catenin with N-cadherin, prevented organization of actin along lateral borders of differentiating lens fiber cells and blocked their elongation. These studies provide a molecular link between N-cadherin junctions and the organization of an actin cytoskeleton that governs lens fiber cell morphogenesis in vivo.
Increased expression of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is associated with proliferation and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) increases transcription and expression of IGF-IR. Now, we show that mesenteric arteries of rats infused with Ang II develop thickening and increased IGF-IR expression. To determine how Ang II transcriptionally regulates IGF-IR expression in VSMCs, we generated 5′-end deletions of the IGF-IR promoter and measured Ang II-induced promoter-luciferase activity in VSMCs. Activities from these promoter sequences suggested that the Ang II-responsive region is located between −270 and −135 of the IGF-IR promoter. Using a DNase I foot printing analysis, we identified two putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-like sequences located in the same region of the IGF-IR promoter. When we mutated either of these NF-κB-like sites, Ang II-induced IGF-IR promoter ac tivity decreased sharply. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift, anti-p50 of NF-κB supershift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that both the p65 and p50 subunits of NF-κB will bind to this Ang II response element in the IGF-IR promoter. When we blocked the Ras/MAPK kinase 1 pathway or the inhibitory-κB kinase pathway, both Ang II-induced IGF-IR promoter activity and expression of IGF-IR protein significantly declined. Our results indicate that the mechanism by which Ang II stimulates IGF-IR expression in VSMCs involves NF-κB binding to NF-κB sites in the IGF-IR promoter, leading to expression of IGF-IR through both Ras/MAPK kinase 1-and inhibitory-κB kinase-dependent pathways. Because IGF-IR is a major factor associated with thickening of mesenteric vessels, our results provide potential therapeutic targets.
The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese herbs' efficacy on adhesive properties of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The effects of Chinese herbal solution on the hemagglutination and adhesion by E. coli strain were studied. E. coli C16 was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection. The MIC value of herbal solution for the E. coli C16 was 0.1g/ml. The MBC value was 0.2g/ml. The effects of herbal solution on the hemagglutination abilities of E. coli C16 were dependent on the herbal solution used. The strain C16 lost half of its hemagglutination abilities when the herbal solution concentration was at MIC (0.05g/ml). Herbal solution decreased the adherence of strain C16 in a dose-dependent way. The numbers of adherent bacteria were reduced to 45% of the control values after growth with herbal solution at MIC. The results show that anti-adhesion is one mode of action for Chinese herbs used against pathogens.
Chinese herbs; Escherichia coli; Adhesion; Hemagglutination
The fetal response to small tendon injury results in regenerative or scarless healing and is characterized by a markedly diminished cellular inflammatory response, lack of fibroplasia, and restoration of normal tissue architecture. We hypothesized that increasing fetal tendon wound size would lead to increased wound inflammation and a change from regenerative to reparative healing and scar formation. We created small or large tendon wounds in early gestation fetal sheep and used histology to assess tissue architecture, immunohistochemistry to assess the cellular inflammatory response, ovine specific gene microarrays, and real time RT-PCR to measure gene expression in response to injury. Small tendon wounds demonstrated a regenerative healing phenotype with orderly deposition of collagen fibers while large tendon wounds demonstrated disorderly collagen deposition consistent with scar formation. Small tendon wounds had few inflammatory cells at 7 and 28 days after injury, whereas the large wounds showed a significant inflammatory cell infiltrate at 7 days that resolved by 28 days. At 3 days, differential expression of genes involved in the response to injury and inflammation were seen between large and small tendon wounds. By real-time PCR at 7 days, large tendon wounds also had significantly increased expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, transforming growth factor-β1, and transforming growth factor-β3, compared to the small wounds. Increasing fetal tendon wound size results in increased proinflammatory gene expression inflammatory cell infiltration, and a change from regenerative to reparative healing. This model allows the process of regenerative healing to be examined without the confounding variable of gestational age.
Regenerative Healing; Scar; Inflammation; Cytokine
Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD.
AAL toxin; ethylene (ET); jasmonic acid (JA); PCD; tomato
Drosophila melanogaster offers many unique advantages for deciphering the complexities of glycan biosynthesis and function. The completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project as well as the comprehensive catalogue of existing mutations and phenotypes have lead to a prolific database where many of the genes involved in glycan synthesis, assembly, modification, and recognition have been identified and characterized. Recent biochemical and molecular studies have elucidated the structure of the glycans present in Drosophila. Powerful genetic approaches have uncovered a number of critical biological roles for glycans during development that impact on our understanding of their function during mammalian development. Here, we summarize key recent findings and provide evidence for the usefulness of this model organism in unraveling the complexities of glycobiology across many species.
Development; Drosophila; glycosylation