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1.  Flax Fiber Hydrophobic Extract Inhibits Human Skin Cells Inflammation and Causes Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix and Wound Closure Activation 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:862391.
Inflammation is the basis of many diseases, with chronic wounds amongst them, limiting cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. Our previous preclinical study of flax fiber applied as a wound dressing and analysis of its components impact on the fibroblast transcriptome suggested flax fiber hydrophobic extract use as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing preparation. The extract contains cannabidiol (CBD), phytosterols, and unsaturated fatty acids, showing great promise in wound healing. In in vitro proliferation and wound closure tests the extract activated cell migration and proliferation. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases in skin cells was increased, suggesting activation of extracellular components remodeling. The expression of cytokines was diminished by the extract in a cannabidiol-dependent manner, but β-sitosterol can act synergistically with CBD in inflammation inhibition. Extracellular matrix related genes were also analyzed, considering their importance in further stages of wound healing. The extract activated skin cell matrix remodeling, but the changes were only partially cannabidiol- and β-sitosterol-dependent. The possible role of fatty acids also present in the extract is suggested. The study shows the hydrophobic flax fiber components as wound healing activators, with anti-inflammatory cannabidiol acting in synergy with sterols, and migration and proliferation promoting agents, some of which still require experimental identification.
doi:10.1155/2015/862391
PMCID: PMC4539444  PMID: 26347154
2.  Natural phenolics greatly increase flax (Linum usitatissimum) oil stability 
BMC Biotechnology  2015;15:62.
Background
Flaxseed oil is characterized by high content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promoted as a human dietary supplement protecting against atherosclerosis. The disadvantage of the high PUFA content in flax oil is high susceptibility to oxidation, which can result in carcinogenic compound formation. Linola flax cultivar is characterized by high linoleic acid content in comparison to traditional flax cultivars rich in linolenic acid. The changes in fatty acid proportions increase oxidative stability of Linola oil and broaden its use as an edible oil for cooking. However one of investigated transgenic lines has high ALA content making it suitable as omega-3 source. Protection of PUFA oxidation is a critical factor in oil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of phenylpropanoid contents on the oil properties important during the whole technological process from seed storage to grinding and oil pressing, which may influence health benefits as well as shelf-life, and to establish guidelines for the selection of new cultivars.
Methods
The composition of oils was determined by chromatographic (GS-FID and LC-PDA-MS) methods. Antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites were analyzed by DPPH method. The stability of oils was investigated: a) during regular storage by measuring acid value peroxide value p-anisidine value malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and trienes; b) by using accelerated rancidity tests by TBARS reaction; c) by thermoanalytical - differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Results
In one approach, in order to increase oil stability, exogenous substances added are mainly lipid soluble antioxidants from the isoprenoid pathway, such as tocopherol and carotene. The other approach is based on transgenic plant generation that accumulates water soluble compounds. Increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in flax seeds was achieved by three different strategies that modify genes coding for enzymes from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The three types of transgenic flax had different phenylpropanoid profiles detected in oil, highly increasing its stability.
Conclusions
We found that hydrophilic phenylpropanoids more than lipophilic isoprenoid compounds determine oil stability however they can work synergistically. Among phenolics the caffeic acid was most effective in increasing oil stability.
doi:10.1186/s12896-015-0178-0
PMCID: PMC4485345  PMID: 26123633
Flaxseed oil; Oil stability; Antioxidant activity; Phenolic compounds; Radical scavenging activity
3.  Dietary habits of lung cancer patients from the Lower Silesia region of Poland 
Contemporary Oncology  2015;19(5):391-395.
Aim of the study
Assessment of lung cancer patients’ dietary habits before treatment enable medical staff to provide more individual, precise and complex care to patients, taking into consideration their nutritional status. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate dietary habits related to lung cancer risk of lung cancer patients in comparison with controls from the Lower Silesia region of Poland.
Material and methods
Assessments of dietary habits, based on a validated questionnaire related to lung cancer risk were performed on 92 lung cancer patients and compared with the results obtained in 157 controls. Dietary patterns were evaluated concerning on eating frequency of high- and low- glycemic index products, vegetables and fruits, vegetable and fruit juices, green tea, liquid dairy products, meat and fried products over the previous year. Alcohol consumption was assessed on a dichotomous scale (yes or no).
Results
Majority of patients had inappropriate dietary habits, such as low consumption of low GI cereal products, vegetables, fruit and green tea, and a high consumption frequency of fried products.
Conclusions
Reported dietary mistakes indicate the need for dietary education among people at lung cancer risk and with newly diagnosed disease, to enhance their nutritional status.
doi:10.5114/wo.2015.54084
PMCID: PMC4709398  PMID: 26793024
lung cancer; dietary habits; vegetable; fruits
4.  The Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Cold-Pressed Oils 
In our study, we characterized the antioxidant activity and oxidative stability of cold-pressed macadamia, avocado, sesame, safflower, pumpkin, rose hip, Linola, flaxseed, walnut, hempseed, poppy, and milk thistle oils. The radical scavenging activity of the non-fractionated fresh oil, as well as the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions of the oil was determined using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The fatty acid composition of the fresh and stored oils was analyzed by gas chromatography. The acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value and conjugated diene and triene contents in the fresh oils, as well as in those stored throughout the whole period of their shelf life, were measured by CEN ISO methods. The antioxidant activity of the oils expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ranged from 0.17 to 2.32 mM. The lipophilic fractions of the oils were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than the hydrophilic ones. There were no significant changes in fatty acid composition and only slight changes in the oxidative stability parameters of the oils during their shelf life. Through the assessment of the relationship between antiradical activity and the oxidative stability of oils, it is proposed that a DPPH assay predicts the formation of oxidation products in cold-pressed oils—however, the correlations differ in fractionated and nonfractionated oils.
doi:10.1007/s11746-014-2479-1
PMCID: PMC4110403  PMID: 25076788
Oxidative stability; DPPH; Shelf life; Cold-pressed oils
5.  Effects of Exposure to Dietary Chromium on Tissue Mineral Contents in Rats Fed Diets with Fiber 
Biological Trace Element Research  2014;159(1-3):325-331.
This study evaluated the effects of diets with fiber (cellulose and/or pectin) supplemented with chromium(III) on homeostasis of selected minerals in femurs, thigh muscles, livers, and kidneys of rats. For 6 weeks, male rats were fed experimental diets: a fiber-free diet (FF), a diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), 5 % pectin (PEC), or 2.5 % cellulose and 2.5 % pectin (CEL + PEC). These diets had 2.53 or 0.164 mg Cr/kg diet. The tissue levels of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cr were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Supplementing diets with Cr resulted in significantly higher Cr levels in the femurs of rats fed the CEL diet and significantly higher Cr and Fe levels in the rats fed the CEL + PEC diet compared to the rats fed FF diet. Muscle Ca content was significantly lower in the rats fed the CEL + PEC + Cr diet compared to the rats fed FF + Cr diet. The rats consuming the PEC + Cr diet had the highest liver Cr content. The highest kidney Zn content was observed in the rats fed diets containing Cr and one type of fiber. These results indicate that diets containing chromium at elevated dose and fiber have a significant effect on the mineral balance in rat tissues.
doi:10.1007/s12011-014-9973-z
PMCID: PMC4052011  PMID: 24752971
Cellulose; Pectin; Chromium; Calcium; Magnesium; Iron; Zinc; Rats
7.  Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application 
BMC Biotechnology  2011;11:10.
Background
Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products.
Results
Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations.
Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids) and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification.
Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a significant decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds was detected.
Conclusions
All analysed products from generated transgenic plants were enriched with antioxidant compounds derived from phenylopropanoid pathway Thus the products provide valuable source of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignan for biomedical application. The compounds composition and quantity from transgenic plants was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. Thus the infrared spectroscopy appeared to be suitable method for characterization of flax products.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-11-10
PMCID: PMC3040132  PMID: 21276227

Results 1-7 (7)