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1.  Biochemical Aspects of the Soybean Response to Herbivory Injury by the Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e109735.
Plant defense response is an elaborate biochemical process shown to depend on the plant genetic background and on the biological stressor. This work evaluated the soybean biochemical foliar response to brown stink bug herbivory injury through an analysis of redox metabolism and proteomic 2DE profiles of susceptible (BRS Silvania RR) and resistant (IAC-100) varieties. The activity of lipoxygenase-3, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase was monitored every 24 h up to 96 h. In the susceptible variety, injury caused an increase in the activities of lipoxygenase 3 and guaiacol peroxidase, no change in ascorbate peroxidase, and a decrease in catalase. In the resistant variety, injury did not cause an alteration of any of these enzymes. The proteomic profiles were evaluated after 24 h of injury and revealed to have a similar proportion (4–5%) of differential protein expression in both varieties. The differential proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, in the susceptible variety were related to general stress responses, to plant defense, and to fungal infections. However, in the resistant variety, the identified change in protein profile was related to Calvin cycle enzymes. While the susceptible variety showed adaptive changes in redox metabolism and expression of stress-responsive proteins, the resistant showed a defense response to circumvent the biological stressor.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109735
PMCID: PMC4204818  PMID: 25333272
3.  Developing the evidence base for adult social care practice: The NIHR School for Social Care Research 
In a foreword to Shaping the Future of Care Together, Prime Minister Gordon Brown says that a care and support system reflecting the needs of our times and meeting our rising aspirations is achievable, but ‘only if we are prepared to rise to the challenge of radical reform’. A number of initiatives will be needed to meet the challenge of improving social care for the growing older population. Before the unveiling of the green paper, The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) announced that it has provided £15m over a five-year period to establish the NIHR School for Social Care Research. The School’s primary aim is to conduct or commission research that will help to improve adult social care practice in England. The School is seeking ideas for research topics, outline proposals for new studies and expert advice in developing research methods.
doi:10.1179/175016810X12670238442101
PMCID: PMC3191519  PMID: 22003363
social care; research; England; National Institute for Health Research
5.  A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) spore germination 
BMC Biotechnology  2011;11:14.
Background
Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP) leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris.
Results
A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP), was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α)8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18), and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w) enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%.
Conclusions
Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-11-14
PMCID: PMC3045311  PMID: 21299880

Results 1-5 (5)