Background and aims
Fruit structural characters have traditionally been important in the taxonomy of the family Apiaceae. Previous investigations using a limited number of taxa have shown that the carpophore may be especially useful in helping to circumscribe subfamily Azorelloideae. The present study examines, for the first time, carpophore structure in 92 species from 43 genera, representing all subfamilies of Apiaceae, and including all genera assigned to subfamily Azorelloideae. Phylogenetic interpretations are made for the first time, using all available information, and a standard terminology is proposed to describe the various character states found in carpophores.
Carpophore structure was studied in detail using light microscopy.
Carpophores, when present, may be categorized into two main groups (B and C) based mainly on the arrangement of the vascular bundles in transverse section, and further divided into six sub-types according to the length of the carpophore (short in B1 and C1) and whether they are entire (B1–B3 and C1) or bifurcate (B4 and C2). Free carpophores are absent in subfamily Mackinlayoideae, and in tribes Lichtensteinieae and Phlyctidocarpeae, which have two opposite vascular bundles (Group A). Entire carpophores with one or two vascular bundles, or bifurcate carpophores with lateral vascular bundles (arranged side by side within the commissural plane), are the main types characterizing Azorelloideae. The short, hygroscopic carpophores found in Choritaenia are unique in Apiaceae and provide additional evidence for the exclusion of this genus from Azorelloideae. Carpophore type C2 is typical for most Apioideae sensu lato (exceptions are, for example, Arctopus and Alepidea, which have type B2).
A single carpophore and ventral vascular bundles not forming free carpophores are proposed to be the ancestral conditions in Apiaceae, while bifurcate carpophores with opposite vascular bundles are the derived state, present in most Apioideae. Secondary reductions seem to have occurred in several unrelated lineages in all major groups, e.g. many Azorelloideae, several protoapioids (including nearly all members of the tribe Saniculeae) and 29 euapioid genera (e.g. some Oenantheae).
Apiaceae; Apiales; Azorelloideae; carpophore; descriptive terminology; euapioids; phylogeny; protoapioids; Umbelliferae; vascular bundle
In order to develop a new tool for diagnosis of breast cancer based on autoantibodies against a panel of biomarkers, a clinical trial including blood samples from 507 subjects was conducted. All subjects showed a breast abnormality on exam or breast imaging and final biopsy pathology of either breast cancer patients or healthy controls. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the samples were tested for autoantibodies against a predetermined number of biomarkers in various models that were used to determine a diagnosis, which was compared to the clinical status. Our new assay achieved a sensitivity of 95.2% [CI = 92.8–96.8%] at a fixed specificity of 49.5%. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 80.1% [CI = 72.6–87.6%]. These results suggest that a blood test which is based on models comprising several autoantibodies to specific biomarkers may be a new and novel tool for improving the diagnostic evaluation of breast cancer.
breast cancer; autoantibodies; diagnostic testing; biomarkers
In addition to being an important mediator of migration and invasion of tumor cells, β3 integrin can also enhance TGF-β1 signaling. However, it is not known whether β3 might influence the induction of metastatic phenotype of tumor cells, especially non-metastatic tumor cells which express low level of β3. Here we report that H2O2 and HOCl, the reactive oxygen species produced by neutrophils, could cooperate with TGF-β1 to induce metastatic phenotype of non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl, but not TGF-β1 or H2O2/HOCl, induced β3 expression by triggering the enhanced activation of p38 MAPK. Intriguingly, β3 in turn promoted TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl-mediated induction of metastatic phenotype of HCC cells by enhancing TGF-β1 signaling. β3 promoted TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl-induced expression of itself via positive feed-back effect on p38 MAPK activation, and also promoted TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl-induced expression of α3 and SNAI2 by enhancing the activation of ERK pathway, thus resulting in higher invasive capacity of HCC cells. By enhancing MAPK activation, β3 enabled TGF-β1 to augment the promoting effect of H2O2/HOCl on anoikis-resistance of HCC cells. TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl-induced metastatic phenotype was sufficient for HCC cells to extravasate from circulation and form metastatic foci in an experimental metastasis model in nude mice. Inhibiting the function of β3 could suppress or abrogate the promoting effects of TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl on invasive capacity, anoikis-resistance, and extravasation of HCC cells. These results suggest that β3 could function as a modulator to promote TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl-mediated induction of metastatic phenotype of non-metastatic tumor cells, and that targeting β3 might be a potential approach in preventing the induction of metastatic phenotype of non-metastatic tumor cells.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging epidemic with high prevalence in Western countries. Genome-wide association studies had reported that a variation in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene is associated with high susceptibility to NAFLD. However, the relationship between this variation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been well established. We investigated the impact of PNPLA3 genetic variation (rs738409: C>G) on HCC risk and prognosis in the United States by conducting a case–control study that included 257 newly diagnosed and pathologically confirmed Caucasian patients with HCC (cases) and 494 healthy controls. Multivariate logistics and Cox regression models were used to control for the confounding effects of HCC risk and prognostic factors. We observed higher risk of HCC for subjects with a homozygous GG genotype than for those with CC or CG genotypes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 3.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–6.41). We observed risk modification among individuals with diabetes mellitus (OR = 19.11; 95% CI, 5.13–71.20). The PNPLA3 GG genotype was significantly associated with underlying cirrhosis in HCC patients (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.05–5.87). Moreover, GG allele represents an independent risk factor for death. The adjusted hazard ratio of the GG genotype was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.26–3.52) compared with CC and CG genotypes. PNPLA3 genetic variation (rs738409: C>G) may determine individual susceptibility to HCC development and poor prognosis. Further experimental investigations are necessary for thorough assessment of the hepatocarcinogenic role of PNPLA3.
molecular epidemiology; genetic susceptibility; case–control; single nucleotide polymorphism
Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STaP13F) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LTR192G elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STaA14Q) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LTS63K/R192G/L211A, tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTaA14Q-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STaA14Q for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTaA14Q-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea.
Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx1) is an antioxidant and plays an important role in H2O2-mediated cell signaling. We previously found that the expression level of Prdx1 was elevated in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue using a proteomics approach. Since overexpressed protein can induce an autoimmune response, to further examine whether serum from ESCC patients exhibits immunoreactivity against Prdx1, autoantibody responses to Prdx1 were evaluated by ELISA, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from patients with ESCC and normal individuals. Immunohistochemical study with tissue array slides and western blot analysis with cancer cell lines were also performed to analyze the protein expression profiles of Prdx1 in ESCC tissues and cancer cell lines. The results demonstrated that the positive rate of autoantibody against Prdx1 in ESCC sera was 13.2% (9/68), whereas this rate was 0% (0/89) in normal individuals. Data also showed that expression of Prdx1 was significantly increased in ESCC tissues when compared to expression in paired adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). The data indicate that Prdx1 may contribute to malignant transformation of the esophagus, and may be used as a biomarker in the immunodiagnosis of ESCC.
autoantibody; peroxiredoxin 1; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; biomarker; immunodiagnosis
Background and Methods
Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analyzed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Individuals with a first-degree relative with lung cancer had a 1.51-fold increase in risk of lung cancer, after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders(95% CI: 1.39, 1.63). The association was strongest for those with a family history in a sibling, after adjustment (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.05). No modifying effect by histologic type was found. Never smokers showed a lower association with positive familial history of lung cancer (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52), slightly stronger for those with an affected sibling (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93), after adjustment.
The increased risk among never smokers and similar magnitudes of the effect of family history on lung cancer risk across histological types suggests familial aggregation of lung cancer is independent of those associated with cigarette smoking. While the role of genetic variation in the etiology of lung cancer remains to be fully characterized, family history assessment is immediately available and those with a positive history represent a higher risk group.
The role of miR-26a in cancer cells seemed controversial in previous studies. Until now, the role of miR-26a in gastric cancer remains undefined. In this study, we found that miR-26a was strongly downregulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and cell lines, and its expression levels were associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage, as well as overall survival and replase-free survival of GC. We also found that ectopic expression of miR-26a inhibited GC cell proliferation and GC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. We further identified a novel mechanism of miR-26a to suppress GC growth and metastasis. FGF9 was proved to be a direct target of miR-26a, using luciferase assay and western blot. FGF9 overexpression in miR-26a-expressing cells could rescue invasion and growth defects of miR-26a. In addition, miR-26a expression inversely correlated with FGF9 protein levels in GC. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-26a functions as a tumor suppressor in GC development and progression, and holds promise as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for GC.
Cancer metastasis is a highly coordinated and dynamic multistep process in which cancer cells interact with a variety of host cells. Morphological studies have documented the association of circulating tumor cells with host platelets, where a surface coating of platelets protects tumor cells from mechanical trauma and the immune system. Cantharidin is an active constituent of mylabris, a traditional Chinese medicine. Cantharidin and norcantharidin are potent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitors that exhibit in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity against several types of cancer, including breast cancer. We investigated whether cantharidin and norcantharidin could repress the ability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to adhere to platelets. Using MTT, clone formation, apoptosis, adhesion and wound-healing assays, we found that cantharidin and norcantharidin induced apoptosis and repressed MCF-7 cell growth, adhesion and migration. Moreover, we developed a flow cytometry-based analysis of tumor cell adhesion to platelets. We proved that cantharidin and norcantharidin repressed MCF-7 cell adhesion to platelets through downregulation of α2 integrin, an adhesion molecule present on the surface of cancer cells. The repression of α2 integrin expression was found to be executed through the protein kinase C pathway, the activation of which could have been due to PP2A inhibition.
cantharidin and norcantharidin; breast cancer; platelet; integrin α2; protein kinase C; protein phosphatase 2A
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quorum-sensing (QS) system is closely related to biofilm formation. We previously demonstrated that 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1) has synergistic effects on antibiofilm and antivirulence factors (pyocyanin and exopolysaccharide) of P. aeruginosa when combined with conventional antibiotics, while it has little inhibitory effect on its growth. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the effect of AL-1 on QS systems, especially the Las and Rhl systems. This investigation showed that AL-1 can inhibit LasR–3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) interactions and repress the transcriptional level of QS-regulated genes. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR data showed that AL-1 significantly reduced the expression levels of lasR, lasI, rhlR, and rhlI in a dose-dependent manner. AL-1 not only decreased the expression level of Psl, which is positively regulated by the Las system, but also increased the level of secretion of ExoS, which is negatively regulated by the Rhl system, indicating that AL-1 has multiple effects on both the Las and Rhl systems. It is no wonder that AL-1 showed synergistic effects with other antimicrobial agents in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.
Japanese scallop has been cultured on a large-scale in China for many years. However, serious marine pollution in recent years has resulted in considerable loss to this industry. Moreover, due to the lack of genomic resources, limited research has been carried out on this species. To facilitate the understanding at molecular level immune and stress response mechanism, an extensive transcriptomic profiling and digital gene expression (DGE) database of Japanese scallop upon cadmium exposure was carried out using the Illumina sequencing platform.
RNA-seq produced about 112 million sequencing reads from the tissues of adult Japanese scallops. These reads were assembled into 194,839 non-redundant sequences with open reading frame (ORF), of which 14,240 putative amino acid sequences were assigned biological function annotation and were annotated with gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous group terms. In addition, we identified 720 genes involved in response to stimulus and 302 genes involved in immune-response pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptomic changes in the gill and digestive gland of Japanese scallops following cadmium exposure using a tag-based DGE system. A total of 7,556 and 3,002 differentially expressed genes were detected, respectively, and functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotations.
This study provides a comprehensive transcripts sequence resource for the Japanese scallop and presents a survey of gene expression in response to heavy metal exposure in a non-model marine invertebrate via the Illumina sequencing platform. These results may contribute to the in-depth elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in bivalve responses to marine pollutants.
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) recognized by cellular and/or humoral effectors of the immune system are attractive targets for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to human cancer. Different approaches can be used to comprehensively characterize and validate the identified TAA/anti-TAA systems, which are potential biomarkers in cancer immunodiagnosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The high fatality rate of HCC within one year after its detection might be partly attributed to a lack of diagnostic methods that enable the early detection. Our previous studies have shown that novel autoantibodies can appear which are not detected prior to pre-malignant conditions during transition from chronic liver disease to HCC. The hypothesis we advance is the transition to malignancy can be associated with autoantibody response to certain cellular proteins that might have some role in tumorigenesis. We propose that the information that the cancer patient’s immune system is conveying in the form of autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) should be utilized to a greater extent in identifying early signs of tumorigenesis. In this review, we will focus on the important features of TAA and the possibility that autoantibodies to TAAs can be used as biomarkers in immunodiagnosis and prognosis of HCC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Tumor associate antigen; Autoimmunity; Biomarker; Immunoserological diagnosis
Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies.
Xuezhikang is the extract of red yeast rice, which has been widely used for the management of atherosclerotic disease, but the molecular basis of its antiatherosclerotic effects has not yet been fully identified. Here we investigated the changes of eNOS in vascular endothelia and RBCs, eNOS regulatory factor Caveolin-1 in endothelia, and hemorheological parameters in atherosclerotic rats to explore the protective effects of Xuezhikang.
Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 12/group) group C, controls; group M, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induced atherosclerotic models; group X, HCD+Xuezhikang; and group L, HCD +Lovastatin. In group X, Xuezhikang inhibited oxidative stress, down-regulated caveolin-1 in aorta wall (P<0.05), up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and erythrocytes (P<0.05), increased NOx (nitrite and nitrate) in plasma and cGMP in erythrocyte plasma and aorta wall (P<0.05), increased erythrocyte deformation index (EDI), and decreased whole blood viscosity and plasma viscosity (P<0.05), with the improvement of arterial pathology.
Xuezhikang up-regulated eNOS expression in vascular endothelia and RBCs, increased plasma NOx and improved abnormal hemorheology in high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerotic rats. The elevated eNOS/NO and improved hemorheology may be beneficial to atherosclerotic disease.
The enolase2 gene is usually expressed in mature neurons and also named neuron specific enolase (NSE). In the present study, we first obtained the NSE gene cDNA sequence by using the RACE method based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) fragment from the cDNA library of Gekko japonicus and identified one transcript of about 2.2 kb in central nervous system of Gekko japonicus by Northern blotting. The open reading frame of NSE is 1305 bp, which encodes a 435 amino-acid protein. We further investigated the multi-tissue expression pattern of NSE by RT-PCR and found that the expression of NSE mRNA was very high in brain, spinal cord and low in heart, while it was not detectable in other tissues. The real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate the time-dependent change in the expression of the NSE mRNA level after gecko spinal cord transection and found it significantly increased at one day, reaching its highest level three days post-injury and then decreasing at the seventh day of the experiment. The recombinant plasmid of pET-32a-NSE was constructed and induced to express His fused NSE protein. The purified NSE protein was used to immunize rabbits to generate polyclonal antisera. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:65536 determined by ELISA. Western blotting showed that the prepared antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant and endogenous NSE protein. The result of immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals were present in neurons of the brain and the spinal cord. This study provided the tools of cDNA and polyclonal antibody for studying NSE function in Gekko japonicus.
Gekko japonicus; Molecular cloning; Neuron specific enolase (NSE); polyclonal antibody
Microtubules are nearly uniformly oriented in the axons of vertebrate neurons, but are non-uniformly oriented in their dendrites. Studies to date suggest a scenario for establishing these microtubule patterns whereby microtubules are transported into the axon and nascent dendrites with plus-ends-leading, and then additional microtubules of the opposite orientation are transported into the developing dendrites. Here, we used contemporary tools to confirm that depletion of kinesin-6 (also called CHO1/MKLP1 or kif23) from rat sympathetic neurons causes a reduction in the appearance of minus-end-distal microtubules in developing dendrites, which in turn causes them to assume an axon-like morphology. Interestingly, we observed a similar phenomenon when we depleted kinesin-12 (also called kif15 or HKLP2). Both motors are best known for their participation in mitosis in other cell types, and both are enriched in the cell body and dendrites of neurons. Unlike kinesin-12, which is present throughout the neuron, kinesin-6 is barely detectable in the axon. Accordingly, depletion of kinesin-6, unlike depletion of kinesin-12, has no impact on axonal branching or navigation. Interestingly, depletion of either motor results in faster growing axons with greater numbers of mobile microtubules. Based on these observations, we posit a model whereby these two motors generate forces that attenuate the transport of microtubules with plus-ends-leading from the cell body into the axon. Some of these microtubules are not only prevented from moving into the axon, but are driven with minus-ends-leading into developing dendrites. In this fashion, these so-called “mitotic” motors co-regulate the microtubule patterns of axons and dendrites.
microtubule; neuron; dendrite; axon; kinesin-6; kinesin-12; neuronal polarity; microtubule polarity; motor protein
The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5′-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5′-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. −456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (−641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5′-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter.
Dementia and parkinsonism are late-onset symptoms associated with repetitive head injury, as documented in multiple contact-sport athletes. Clinical symptomatology is the likely phenotype of chronic degeneration and circuit disruption in the substantia nigra (SN). To investigate the initiating neuropathology, we hypothesize that a single diffuse brain injury is sufficient to initiate SN neuropathology including neuronal loss, vascular disruption and microglial activation, contributing to neurodegeneration and altered dopamine regulation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham or moderate midline fluid percussion brain injury. Stereological estimates indicated a significant 44% loss of the estimated total neuron number in the SN at 28-days post-injury, without atrophy of neuronal nuclear volumes, including 25% loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons by 28-days post-injury. Multi-focal vascular compromise occurred 1–2 days post-injury, with ensuing microglial activation (significant 40% increase at 4-days). Neurodegeneration (silver-stain technique) encompassed on average 21% of the SN by 7-days post-injury and increased to 29% by 28-days compared to sham (1%). Whole tissue SN, but not striatum, dopamine metabolism was altered at 28-days post-injury, without appreciable gene or protein changes in dopamine synthesis or regulation elements. Together, single moderate diffuse brain injury resulted in SN neurovascular pathology potentially associated with neuroinflammation or dopamine dysregulation. Compensatory mechanisms may preserve dopamine signaling acutely, but subsequent SN damage with aging or additional injury may expose clinical symptomatology of motor ataxias and dementia.
substantia nigra; PCR; concussion; Parkinsons; brain injury
There is growing interest in discovery of novel bioactive natural products from Burkholderia thailandensis. Here we report a significantly improved genome sequence and reannotation of Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB43, which will facilitate the discovery of new natural products through genome mining and studies of the metabolic versatility of this bacterium.
A novel human gene, FN1BP1 (fibronectin 1 binding protein 1), was identified using the human placenta cDNA library. Northern blotting showed a transcript of ∼2.8 kb in human placenta, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. This mRNA transcript length was similar to the full FN1BP1 sequence obtained previously. We established a conditionally induced stable cell line of Hep3B-Tet-on-FN1BP1 to investigate the preliminary function and mechanism of the secretory FN1BP1 protein. Cell-proliferation and colony-conformation assays demonstrated that FN1BP1 protein suppressed Hep3B cell growth and colonization in vitro. Analysis of Atlas human cDNA expression indicated that after FN1BP1 Dox-inducing expression for 24 h, 19 genes were up-regulated and 22 genes were down-regulated more than two-fold. Most of these gene changes were related to cell-cycle-arrest proteins (p21cip1, p15, and cyclin E1), transcription factors (general transcription factors, zinc finger proteins, transcriptional enhancer factors), SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) complex units, early-response proteins, and nerve growth or neurotrophic factors. Down-regulated genes were subject to colony-stimulating factors (e.g., GMSFs), and many repair genes were involved in DNA damage (RAD, ERCC, DNA topoisomerase, polymerase, and ligase). Some interesting genes (p21cip1, ID2, GMSF, ERCC5, and RPA1), which changed in the cDNA microarray analysis, were confirmed by semi-qRT-PCR, and similar changes in expression were observed. FCM cell-cycle analysis indicated that FN1BP1 over-expression could result in G1 phase arrest. FN1BP1 might inhibit cell growth and/or colony conformation through G1 phase arrest of the Hep3B cell cycle. These results indicate the potential role of FN1BP1 as a treatment target for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Trichloroethylene, a chlorinated solvent widely used as a degreasing agent, is a common environmental contaminant. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic exposure to tri-chloroethylene may contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons could be reproduced by systemic exposure of adult Fisher 344 rats to trichloroethylene. In our experiments, oral administration of trichloroethylene induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the number of both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons were not decreased in the striatum. There was a robust decline in striatal levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid without a significant depletion of striatal dopamine. Rats treated with trichloroethylene showed defects in rotarod behavior test. We also found a significantly reduced mitochondrial complex I activity with elevated oxidative stress markers and activated microglia in the nigral area. In addition, we observed intracellular α-synuclein accumulation in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, with some in nigral neurons, but little in neurons of cerebral cortex. Overall, our animal model exhibits some important features of Parkinsonism, and further supports that trichloroethylene may be an environmental risk factors for Parkinson’s disease.
neurodegeneration; Parkinson’s disease; substantia nigra; trichloroethylene; tyrosine hydroxylase; α-synuclein
Wnt signaling plays critical roles in development of various organs and pathogenesis of many diseases, and augmented Wnt signaling has recently been implicated in mammalian aging and aging-related phenotypes. We here report that complement C1q activates canonical Wnt signaling and promotes aging-associated decline in tissue regeneration. Serum C1q concentration is increased with aging, and Wnt signaling activity is augmented during aging in the serum and in multiple tissues of wild-type mice, but not in those of C1qa-deficient mice. C1q activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to Frizzled receptors and subsequently inducing C1s-dependent cleavage of the ectodomain of Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6. Skeletal muscle regeneration in young mice is inhibited by exogenous C1q treatment, whereas aging-associated impairment of muscle regeneration is restored by C1s inhibition or C1qa gene disruption. Our findings therefore suggest the unexpected role of complement C1q in Wnt signal transduction and modulation of mammalian aging.
Cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) provide a powerful means for investigating central nervous system disease, neuron development, differentiation, and regeneration. To obtain sufficient neurospheres, subculturing is essential following establishment of the primary NSC culture. Passaging the primary neurospheres is a key issue that is often ignored. We evaluated the influence of different passaging schedules on primary cultured NSCs. Passaging was performed on day 5, 7 or 9. We observed more neurospheres with diameters of 200–250 μm on day 7 than on day 5 or 9. Prolonging the time of primary culture reduced the cell metabolic activity by the MTT assay and cell proliferation by colony-forming assay and the differentiation to neurons from cells at P2 and later decreased. Additionally, more cells were in G0/G1 phase, and higher expression of p16INK4a and lower expression of cyclin D1 was found when the time of primary culture was prolonged to 9 days compared to 7-days cultures. Thus, in this study, we established that the optimal time for subculturing aggregated NSCs was on day 7 based on the primary culture.
Neurosphere; Neural stem cells; Primary culture; Cell passage; Optimal time
Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare benign disorder characterized histologically by lymphatic sinus dilatation due to histiocyte proliferation. Rosai-Dorfman disease accompanied by IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration is an even rarer situation. To the best of our knowledge, no imaging report of fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of Rosai-Dorfman disease with IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration has been published, although a series of pathological research has focused on this phenomenon.
We reviewed the 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan of a 78-year-old Chinese woman with a solid mass that was found in her right breast during a health checkup. 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed a hypermetabolic nodule in her right breast and slightly heterogeneous increased fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake of the pulmonary nodules, which were histologically proven to be mammary Rosai-Dorfman disease with IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and pulmonary amyloidosis, respectively. A literature review was performed to gather information on this rare disease process.
Although distinguishing benign lymphoplasmacytic proliferation from malignancy may be difficult with 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in light of the pattern and intensity of fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake, our case highlights that whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging not only can display the extent of the disease to help complete staging but also can provide functional information about disease activity to guide biopsy.
Rosai-Dorfman disease; IgG4-related sclerosing disease; Amyloidosis; Position emission tomography