ISG15 is an interferon-induced ubiquitin-like modifier which can be conjugated to distinct, but largely unknown, proteins. ISG15 has been implicated in a variety of biological activities, which encompass antiviral defense, immune responses, and pregnancy. Mice lacking UBP43 (USP18), the ISG15-deconjugating enzyme, develop a severe phenotype with brain injuries and lethal hypersensitivity to poly(I:C). It has been reported that an augmented conjugation of ISG15 in the absence of UBP43 induces prolonged STAT1 phosphorylation and that the ISG15 conjugation plays an important role in the regulation of JAK/STAT and interferon signaling (O. A. Malakhova, M. Yan, M. P. Malakhov, Y. Yuan, K. J. Ritchie, K. I. Kim, L. F. Peterson, K. Shuai, and D. E. Zhang, Genes Dev. 17:455-460, 2003). Here, we report that ISG15−/− mice are viable and fertile and display no obvious abnormalities. Lack of ISG15 did not affect the development and composition of the main cellular compartments of the immune system. The interferon-induced antiviral state and immune responses directed against vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus were not significantly altered in the absence of ISG15. Furthermore, interferon- or endotoxin-induced STAT1 tyrosine-phosphorylation, as well as expression of typical STAT1 target genes, remained unaffected by the lack of ISG15. Thus, ISG15 is dispensable for STAT1 and interferon signaling.