The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in the onset and progression of several inflammatory diseases. The RAGE primary transcript undergoes numerous alternative splicing (AS) events, some of which are species-specific. Here, we characterize the mouse-specific mRAGE_v4 splice variant, which is conserved in rodents and absent in primates. mRAGE_v4 derives from exon 9 skipping and encodes a receptor (M-RAGE) that lacks 9 amino acids between the transmembrane and the immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. RNA-Seq data confirm that in mouse lung mRAGE_v4 is the most abundant RAGE mRNA isoform after mRAGE, which codes for full-length RAGE (FL-RAGE), while in heart all RAGE variants are almost undetectable. The proteins M-RAGE and FL-RAGE are roughly equally abundant in mouse lung. Contrary to FL-RAGE, M-RAGE is extremely resistant to shedding because it lacks the peptide motif recognized by both ADAM10 and MMP9, and does not contribute significantly to soluble cRAGE formation. Thus, a cassette exon in RAGE corresponds to a specific function of the RAGE protein–the ability to be shed. Given the differences in RAGE AS variants between rodents and humans, caution is due in the interpretation of results obtained in mouse models of RAGE-dependent human pathologies.
The NqrA and NqrC subunits of the respiratory Na+-NQR complex were crystallized and analyzed by X-ray crystallography at 1.9 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively.
The Na+-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from Vibrio cholerae is a membrane protein complex consisting of six different subunits NqrA–NqrF. The major domains of the NqrA and NqrC subunits were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized. The structure of NqrA1–377 was solved in space groups C2221 and P21 by SAD phasing and molecular replacement at 1.9 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. NqrC devoid of the transmembrane helix was co-expressed with ApbE to insert the flavin mononucleotide group covalently attached to Thr225. The structure was determined by molecular replacement using apo-NqrC of Parabacteroides distasonis as search model at 1.8 Å resolution.
Vibrio cholerae; Na+-translocating NQR; covalently bound FMN
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor involved in inflammatory processes and is associated with diabetic complications, tumor outgrowth, and neurodegenerative disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling events upon binding of a variety of ligands, such as glycated proteins, amyloid-β, HMGB1, and S100 proteins. The X-ray crystal structure of the VC1 ligand-binding region of the human RAGE ectodomain was determined at 1.85 Å resolution. The VC1 ligand-binding surface was mapped onto the structure from titrations with S100B monitored by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. These NMR chemical shift perturbations were used as input for restrained docking calculations to generate a model for the VC1-S100B complex. Together, the arrangement of VC1 molecules in the crystal and complementary biochemical studies suggest a role for self-association in RAGE function. Our results enhance understanding of the functional outcomes of S100 protein binding to RAGE and provide insight into mechanistic models for how the receptor is activated.
The human receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is involved in inflammatory and immune responses. Most importantly, RAGE is considered a receptor for HMGB1 and several S100 proteins, which are Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage. In this study we show that the Ager gene coding for RAGE first appeared in mammals, and is closely related to other genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as ALCAM, BCAM and MCAM that appeared earlier during metazoan evolution. RAGE is expressed at very low levels in most cells, but when expressed at high levels, it mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components and to other cells through homophilic interactions. Our results suggest that RAGE evolved from a family of CAMs, and might still act as an adhesion molecule, in particular in the lung where it is highly expressed or under pathological conditions characterized by an increase of its protein levels.
S100 proteins are small dimeric calcium-binding proteins which control cell cycle, growth and differentiation via interactions with different target proteins. Intrinsic disorder is a hallmark among many signaling proteins and S100 proteins have been proposed to contain disorder-prone regions. Interestingly, some S100 proteins also form amyloids: S100A8/A9 forms fibrils in prostatic inclusions and S100A6 fibrillates in vitro and seeds SOD1 aggregation. Here we report a study designed to investigate whether β-aggregation is a feature extensive to more members of S100 family. In silico analysis of seven human S100 proteins revealed a direct correlation between aggregation and intrinsic disorder propensity scores, suggesting a relationship between these two independent properties. Averaged position-specific analysis and structural mapping showed that disorder-prone segments are contiguous to aggregation-prone regions and that whereas disorder is prominent on the hinge and target protein-interaction regions, segments with high aggregation propensity are found in ordered regions within the dimer interface. Acidic conditions likely destabilize the seven S100 studied by decreasing the shielding of aggregation-prone regions afforded by the quaternary structure. In agreement with the in silico analysis, hydrophobic moieties become accessible as indicated by strong ANS fluorescence. ATR-FTIR spectra support a structural inter-conversion from α-helices to intermolecular β-sheets, and prompt ThT-binding takes place with no noticeable lag phase. Dot blot analysis using amyloid conformational antibodies denotes a high diversity of conformers; subsequent analysis by TEM shows fibrils as dominant species. Altogether, our data suggests that β-aggregation and disorder-propensity are related properties in S100 proteins, and that the onset of aggregation is likely triggered by loss of protective tertiary and quaternary interactions.
The mammalian Diaphanous-related formin, mDia1, governs microtubule and microfilament dynamics while functioning as an effector for Rho small GTP-binding proteins during key cellular processes such as adhesion, cytokinesis, cell polarity and morphogenesis. The cytoplasmic domain of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain of mDia1; mDia1 is required for RAGE ligand-induced cellular migration in transformed cells.
As a key mechanism in vascular remodeling is the induction of smooth muscle cell migration, we tested the role of mDia1 in this process.
Methods and Results
We report that endothelial denudation injury to the murine femoral artery significantly upregulates mDia1 mRNA transcripts and protein in the injured vessel, particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells within the expanding neointima. Loss of mDia1 expression significantly reduces pathological neointimal expansion consequent to injury. In primary murine aortic smooth muscle cells, mDia1 is required for RAGE ligand-induced membrane translocation of c-Src, which leads to Rac1 activation, redox phosphorylation of AKT/GSK3β and consequent smooth muscle cell migration.
We conclude that mDia1 integrates oxidative and signal transduction pathways triggered, at least in part by RAGE ligands, therefore regulates pathological neointimal expansion.
restenosis; vascular smooth muscle cell; signal transduction; formin; cellular migration
The crystallization of the six-subunit Na+-NQR complex from V. cholerae is reported.
The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by membrane-bound quinone to Na+ translocation across the membrane. Na+-NQR consists of six different subunits (NqrA–NqrF) and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster, a noncovalently bound FAD, a noncovalently bound riboflavin, two covalently bound FMNs and potentially Q8 as cofactors. Initial crystallization of the entire Na+-NQR complex was achieved by the sitting-drop method using a nanolitre dispenser. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded flat yellow-coloured crystals with dimensions of up to 200 × 80 × 20 µm. The crystals diffracted to 4.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 94, b = 146, c = 105 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 111°.
Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase; Na+-NQR; Vibrio cholerae; membrane-protein complexes
The structure of Ca2+-bound EF-hand protein S100A2 was determined by calcium and sulfur SAD at a wavelength of 0.90 Å.
Human S100A2 is an EF-hand protein and acts as a major tumour suppressor, binding and activating p53 in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Ca2+-bound S100A2 was crystallized and its structure was determined based on the anomalous scattering provided by six S atoms from methionine residues and four calcium ions present in the asymmetric unit. Although the diffraction data were recorded at a wavelength of 0.90 Å, which is usually not assumed to be suitable for calcium/sulfur SAD, the anomalous signal was satisfactory. A nine-atom substructure was determined at 1.8 Å resolution using SHELXD, and SHELXE was used for density modification and phase extension to 1.3 Å resolution. The electron-density map obtained was well interpretable and could be used for automated model building by ARP/wARP.
S100A2; EF-hands; calcium; sulfur SAD
Covalent linkage of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 interferes with viral infection and USP18 is the major protease which specifically removes ISG15 from target proteins. Thus, boosting ISG15 modification by protease inhibition of USP18 might represent a new strategy to interfere with viral replication. However, so far no heterologous expression system was available to yield sufficient amounts of catalytically active protein for high-throughput based inhibitor screens.
High-level heterologous expression of USP18 was achieved by applying a chaperone-based fusion system in E. coli. Pure protein was obtained in a single-step on IMAC via a His6-tag. The USP18 fusion protein exhibited enzymatic activity towards cell derived ISG15 conjugated substrates and efficiently hydrolyzed ISG15-AMC. Specificity towards ISG15 was shown by covalent adduct formation with ISG15 vinyl sulfone but not with ubiquitin vinyl sulfone.
The results presented here show that a chaperone fusion system can provide high yields of proteins that are difficult to express. The USP18 protein obtained here is suited to setup high-throughput small molecule inhibitor screens and forms the basis for detailed biochemical and structural characterization.
The temperature dependence, between 10 and 120 K, of electron spin–lattice relaxation at X-band was analyzed for a series of eight pyrrolate–imine complexes and for ten other copper(II) complexes with varying ligands and geometry including copper-containing prion octarepeat domain and S100 type proteins. The geometry of the CuN4 coordination sphere for pyrrolate–imine complexes with R = H, methyl, n-butyl, diphenylmethyl, benzyl, 2-adamantyl, 1-adamantyl, and tert-butyl has been shown to range from planar to pseudo-tetrahedral. The fit to the recovery curves was better for a distribution of values of T1 than for a single time constant. Distributions of relaxation times may be characteristic of Cu(II) in glassy solution. Long-pulse saturation recovery and inversion recovery measurements were performed. The temperature dependence of spin–lattice relaxation rates was analyzed in terms of contributions from the direct process, the Raman process, and local modes. It was necessary to include more than one process to fit the experimental data. There was a small contribution from the direct process at low temperature. The Raman process was the dominant contribution to relaxation between about 20 and 60 K. Debye temperatures were between 80 and 120 K. For samples with similar Debye temperatures the coefficient of the Raman process tended to increase as gz increased, as expected if modulation of spin–orbit coupling is a major factor in relaxation rates. Above about 60 K local modes with energies in the range of 260–360 K (180–250 cm−1) dominated the relaxation. For molecules with similar geometry, relaxation rates were faster for more flexible molecules than for more rigid ones. Relaxation rates for the copper protein samples were similar to rates for small molecules with comparable coordination spheres. At each temperature studied the range of relaxation rates was less than an order of magnitude. The spread was smaller between 20 and 60 K where the Raman process dominates, than at higher temperatures where local modes dominate the relaxation.
Spin echo dephasing time constants, Tm, were calculated from two-pulse spin echo decays. Near 10 K Tm was dominated by proton spins in the surroundings. As temperature was increased motion and spin–lattice relaxation made increasing contributions to Tm. Near 100 K spin-lattice relaxation dominated Tm.
Copper(II); Electron spin relaxation; Inversion recovery; Saturation recovery; Spin echo dephasing
Human recombinant tumour suppressor S100A2 and a mutant lacking cysteine residues have been purified and crystallized. Only the crystals of the mutant protein diffracted to appropriate resolution and a complete data set was recorded at 1.7 Å.
S100A2 is a Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein that is mainly localized in the nucleus. There, it acts as a tumour suppressor by binding and activating p53. Wild-type S100A2 and a S100A2 variant lacking cysteines have been purified. CD spectroscopy showed that there are no changes in secondary-structure composition. The S100A2 mutant was crystallized in a calcium-free form. The crystals, with dimensions 30 × 30 × 70 µm, diffract to 1.7 Å and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 57.8, c = 59.8 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicates that there are two subunits per asymmetric unit.
S100A2; EF-hands; calcium; p53
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is an important cell surface receptor being pursued as a therapeutic target because it has been implicated in complications arising from diabetes and chronic inflammatory conditions. RAGE is a single membrane spanning receptor containing a very small ~40 residue cytosolic domain and a large extracellular region comprised of 3 Ig-like domains. In this study, high level bacterial expression systems and purification protocols were generated for the extracellular region of RAGE (sRAGE) and the five permutations of single and tandem domain constructs to enable biophysical and structural characterization of its tertiary and quaternary structure. The structure and stability of each of these six protein constructs was assayed by biochemical methods including limited proteolysis, dynamic light scattering, CD, and NMR. A homology model of sRAGE was constructed to aid in the interpretation of the experimental data. Our results show that the V and C1 domains are not independent domains, but rather form an integrated structural unit. In contrast, C2 is attached to VC1 by a flexible linker and is fully independent. The interaction with a known RAGE ligand, Ca2+-S100B, was mapped to VC1, with the major contribution from the V domain but clearly defined secondary effects from the C1 domain. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to models for RAGE signaling.
The FAD domain of the NqrF subunit from the Na+-translocating NADH dehydrogenase from V. cholerae has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded at 3.1 Å.
The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by quinone to the transport of Na+ across the membrane. The NqrF subunit oxidizes NADH and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. The FAD-containing domain of NqrF has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The purified NqrF FAD domain exhibited high rates of NADH oxidation and contained stoichiometric amounts of the FAD cofactor. Initial crystallization of the flavin domain was achieved by the sitting-drop technique using a Cartesian MicroSys4000 robot. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded yellow hexagonal crystals with dimensions of 30 × 30 × 70 µm. The protein mainly crystallizes in long hexagonal needles with a diameter of up to 30 µm. Crystals diffract to 2.8 Å and belong to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.3, c = 90.2 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°.
NqrF FAD domain; Na+ translocation; redox pump
The pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae is influenced by sodium ions which are actively extruded from the cell by the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR). To study the function of the Na+-NQR in the respiratory chain of V. cholerae, we examined the formation of organic radicals and superoxide in a wild-type strain and a mutant strain lacking the Na+-NQR. Upon reduction with NADH, an organic radical was detected in native membranes by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy which was assigned to ubisemiquinones generated by the Na+-NQR. The radical concentration increased from 0.2 mM at 0.08 mM Na+ to 0.4 mM at 14.7 mM Na+, indicating that the concentration of the coupling cation influences the redox state of the quinone pool in V. cholerae membranes. During respiration, V. cholerae cells produced extracellular superoxide with a specific activity of 10.2 nmol min−1 mg−1 in the wild type compared to 3.1 nmol min−1 mg−1 in the NQR deletion strain. Raising the Na+ concentration from 0.1 to 5 mM increased the rate of superoxide formation in the wild-type V. cholerae strain by at least 70%. Rates of respiratory H2O2 formation by wild-type V. cholerae cells (30.9 nmol min−1 mg−1) were threefold higher than rates observed with the mutant strain lacking the Na+-NQR (9.7 nmol min−1 mg−1). Our study shows that environmental Na+ could stimulate ubisemiquinone formation by the Na+-NQR and hereby enhance the production of reactive oxygen species formed during the autoxidation of reduced quinones.
Human recombinant EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein S100B has been purified and crystallized. A complete data set was recorded to 1.9 Å.
S100B, a Ca2+-binding protein, acts intracellularly as a Ca2+-signalling protein but is also secreted to the extracellular space, acting in a cytokine-like manner through its receptor RAGE. Recombinant human S100B has been purified and crystallized in the Ca2+-bound state. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates that S100B can exist as a dimer and as a multimer in solution. Crystals of S100B diffract to 1.9 Å and belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 81.6, c = 71.5 Å, α = 90, β = 107, γ = 90°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray data indicate that there are four homodimers per asymmetric unit.
S100B; calcium-binding protein; RAGE