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1.  Non-Structured Amino-Acid Impact on GH11 Differs from GH10 Xylanase 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45762.
The Aspergillus niger xylanase (Xyn) was used as a model to investigate impacts of un-structured residues on GH11 family enzyme, because the β-jelly roll structure has five residues (Ser1Ala2Gly3Ile4Asn5) at N-terminus and two residues (Ser183Ser184) at C-terminus that do not form to helix or strand. The N- or/and C-terminal residues were respectively deleted to construct three mutants. The optimal temperatures of XynΔN, XynΔC, and XynΔNC were 46, 50, and 46°C, and the thermostabilities were 15.7, 73.9, 15.5 min at 50°C, respectively, compared to 48°C and 33.9 min for the Xyn. After kinetic analysis, the substrate-binding affinities for birch-wood xylan decreased in the order XynΔC>Xyn>XynΔNC>XynΔN, while the Kcat values increased in the order XynΔC
PMCID: PMC3448673  PMID: 23029229
BMC Biotechnology  2012;12:28.
Domain fusion is limited at enzyme one terminus. The issue was explored by swapping a mesophilic Aspergillus niger GH11 xylanase (Xyn) with a hyper-thermophilic Thermotoga maritima glucanase (Glu) to construct two chimeras, Xyn-Glu and Glu-Xyn, with an intention to create thermostable xylanase containing glucanase activity.
When expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), the two chimeras exhibited bi-functional activities of xylanase and glucanase. The Xyn-Glu Xyn moiety had optimal reaction temperature (Topt) at 50 °C and thermal in-activation half-life (t1/2) at 50 °C for 47.6 min, compared to 47 °C and 17.6 min for the Xyn. The Glu-Xyn Xyn moiety had equivalent Topt to and shorter t1/2 (5.2 min) than the Xyn. Both chimera Glu moieties were more thermostable than the Glu, and the three enzyme Topt values were higher than 96 °C. The Glu-Xyn Glu moiety optimal pH was 5.8, compared to 3.8 for the Xyn-Glu Glu moiety and the Glu. Both chimera two moieties cooperated with each other in degrading substrates.
Domain-swapping created different effects on each moiety properties. Fusing the Glu domain at C-terminus increased the xylanase thermostability, but fusing the Glu domain at N-terminus decreased the xylanase thermostability. Fusing the Xyn domain at either terminus increased the glucanase thermostability, and fusing the Xyn domain at C-terminus shifted the glucanase pH property 2 units higher towards alkaline environments. Fusing a domain at C-terminus contributes more to enzyme catalytic activity; whereas, fusing a bigger domain at N-terminus disturbs enzyme substrate binding affinity.
PMCID: PMC3413519  PMID: 22676349
Xylanase; Glucanase; Domain-swapping; Fusing

Results 1-2 (2)