Duabanga grandiflora or known in Malaysia as Berembang Bukit, Megawasih, or Pedada Bukit, is a native plant of the Southeast Asian countries. In this study, the anti-viral properties of D. grandiflora were investigated.
The D. grandiflora leaf extracts were obtained with ethyl acetate, hexane, and ethanol as solvents and labelled 37 leaf ethyl acetate (37 L EA), 37 leaf hexane (37 L H), 37 leaf ethanol (37 L ET), respectively. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on Vero cells were determined by the 3-(4,5-Diamethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay.
Among extracts, 37 L EA was most cytotoxic to Vero cells, followed by 37 L H and 37 L ET, with CC50 of 218, 833, and >1000 μg/mL, respectively. The cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction, inhibition, and virucidal assays and the selective index (SI) were employed to determine the effect of the extracts on infectivity and replication of pseudorabies virus (PrV) in Vero cells. The D. grandiflora leaf extracts showed dose-dependent antiviral activities, with higher activities at high doses. The 37 L ET and 37 L EA showed anti-viral effects through plaque formation and viral replication inhibitions, and virucidal property. The SI of the 37 L ET and 37 L EA by the viral replication inhibition assay was 8.3 and 1.9, respectively, and by the CPE reduction assay, 6.7 and 2.9, respectively.
Ethanol is the best solvent for the preparation of D. grandiflora leaf extract as an antiviral agent.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1120-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.