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1.  Sustained Release of Prindopril Erbumine from Its Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications 
The preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan-prindopril erbumine was accomplished and confirmed by X-ray diffraction, TEM, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopic studies. X-ray diffraction and TEM results demonstrated that the magnetic nanoparticles were pure iron oxide phase, having a spherical shape with a mean diameter of 6 nm, compared to 15 nm after coating with chitosan-prindopril erbumine (FCPE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study shows that the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles takes place due to the presence of some bands that were emerging after the coating process, which belong to the prindopril erbumine (PE). The thermal stability of the PE in an FCPE nanocomposite was remarkably enhanced. The release study showed that around 89% of PE could be released within about 93 hours by a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4, which was found to be of sustained manner governed by first order kinetic. Compared to the control (untreated), cell viability study in 3T3 cells at 72 h post exposure to both the nanoparticles and the pure drug was found to be sustained above 80% using different doses.
doi:10.3390/ijms141223639
PMCID: PMC3876068  PMID: 24300098
superparamagnetic nanoparticles; chitosan; prindopril erbumine; drug delivery
2.  Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system 
Background
Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs.
Methods and results
We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line.
Conclusion
Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S43035
PMCID: PMC3791920  PMID: 24106420
superparamagnetic nanoparticles; 6-mercaptopurine; controlled release; cytotoxicity; drug delivery
3.  Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats 
Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats.
doi:10.1155/2013/601838
PMCID: PMC3671281  PMID: 23762147
4.  Preparation of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with gallic acid for drug delivery 
Background and methods
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared using a sonochemical method under atmospheric conditions at a Fe2+ to Fe3+ molar ratio of 1:2. The iron oxide nanoparticles were subsequently coated with chitosan and gallic acid to produce a core-shell structure.
Results
X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the magnetic nanoparticles were pure Fe3O4 with a cubic inverse spinel structure. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were of spherical shape with a mean diameter of 11 nm, compared with 13 nm for the iron oxide-chitosan-gallic acid (FCG) nanocarriers.
Conclusion
The magnetic nanocarrier enhanced the thermal stability of the drug, gallic acid. Release of the active drug from the FCG nanocarrier was found to occur in a controlled manner. The gallic acid and FCG nanoparticles were not toxic in a normal human fibroblast (3T3) line, and anticancer activity was higher in HT29 than MCF7 cell lines.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S35746
PMCID: PMC3500033  PMID: 23166439
magnetic nanoparticles; chitosan; superparamagnetic; controlled-release; gallic acid; drug delivery
5.  Evaluation of insulin expression and secretion in genetically engineered gut K and L-cells 
BMC Biotechnology  2012;12:64.
Background
Gene therapy could provide an effective treatment of diabetes. Previous studies have investigated the potential for several cell and tissue types to produce mature and active insulin. Gut K and L-cells could be potential candidate hosts for gene therapy because of their special features.
Results
In this study, we isolated gut K and L-cells to compare the potential of both cell types to produce insulin when exposed to similar conditions. The isolated pure K and L-cells were transfected with recombinant plasmids encoding insulin and with specific promoters for K or L-cells. Insulin expression was studied in response to glucose or meat hydrolysate. We found that glucose and meat hydrolysate efficiently induced insulin secretion from K and L-cells. However, the effects of meat hydrolysate on insulin secretion were more potent in both cells compared with glucose. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that L-cells secreted more insulin compared with K-cells regardless of the stimulator, although this difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
The responses of K and L-cells to stimulation with glucose or meat hydrolysate were generally comparable. Therefore, both K and L-cells show similar potential to be used as surrogate cells for insulin gene expression in vitro. The potential use of these cells for diabetic gene therapy warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-12-64
PMCID: PMC3469342  PMID: 22989329
Diabetes gene therapy; Insulin expression; K-cells; L-cells
6.  Engineering an L-cell line that expresses insulin under the control of the glucagon-like peptide-1 promoter for diabetes treatment 
BMC Biotechnology  2011;11:99.
Background
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated disease with a pathophysiology that includes hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and other metabolic impairments leading to many clinical complications. It is necessary to develop appropriate treatments to manage the disease and reduce possible acute and chronic side effects. The advent of gene therapy has generated excitement in the medical world for the possible application of gene therapy in the treatment of diabetes. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) promoter, which is recognised by gut L-cells, is an appealing candidate for gene therapy purposes. The specific properties of L-cells suggest that L-cells and the GLP-1 promoter would be useful for diabetes therapy approaches.
Results
In this study, L-cells were isolated from a primary intestinal cell line to create suitable target cells for insulin expression studies. The isolated cells displayed L-cell properties and were therefore used as an L-cell surrogate. Next, the isolated L-cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid consisting of an insulin gene located downstream of the GLP-1 promoter. The secretion tests revealed that an increase in glucose concentration from 5 mM to 25 mM induced insulin gene expression in the L-cells by 2.7-fold. Furthermore, L-cells quickly responded to the glucose stimulation; the amount of insulin protein increased 2-fold in the first 30 minutes and then reached a plateau after 90 minutes.
Conclusion
Our data showed that L-cells efficiently produced the mature insulin protein. In addition, the insulin protein secretion was positively regulated with glucose induction. In conclusion, GLP-1 promoter and L-cell could be potential candidates for diabetes gene therapy agents.
doi:10.1186/1472-6750-11-99
PMCID: PMC3229441  PMID: 22047106
7.  Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction regulates the expression of antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes in stressed rat's liver 
Background
Gamma-oryzanol (OR), a phytosteryl ferulate mixture extracted from rice bran oil, has a wide spectrum of biological activities in particular, it has antioxidant properties.
Methods
The regulatory effect of gamma-oryzanol rich fraction (ORF) extracted and fractionated from rice bran using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in comparison with commercially available OR on 14 antioxidant and oxidative stress related genes was determined in rat liver. Rats were subjected to a swimming exercise program for 10 weeks to induce stress and were further treated with either ORF at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or OR at 100 mg/kg in emulsion forms for the last 5 weeks of the swimming program being carried out. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System (GeXPS) was used to study the multiplex gene expression of the selected genes.
Results
Upon comparison of RNA expression levels between the stressed and untreated group (PC) and the unstressed and untreated group (NC), seven genes were found to be down-regulated, while seven genes were up-regulated in PC group compared to NC group. Further treatment of stressed rats with ORF at different doses and OR resulted in up-regulation of 10 genes and down regulation of four genes compared to the PC group.
Conclusions
Gamma-oryzanol rich fraction showed potential antioxidant activity greater than OR in the regulation of antioxidants and oxidative stress gene markers.
doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-23
PMCID: PMC2859356  PMID: 20331906

Results 1-7 (7)