Due to its accuracy, sensitivity and high throughput, real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used in analysing gene expression. The quality of data from such analyses is affected by the quality of reference genes used. Expression stabilities for nine candidate reference genes widely used in soybean were evaluated under different stresses in this study. Our results showed that EF1A and ACT11 were the best under salinity stress, TUB4, TUA5 and EF1A were the best under drought stress, ACT11 and UKN2 were the best under dark treatment, and EF1B and UKN2 were the best under virus infection. EF1B and UKN2 were the top two genes which can be reliably used in all of the stress conditions assessed.
Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide.
We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts.
Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol.
We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims.
Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts.
suicide; life events; family; marriage; psychological autopsy; culture; China
A systematic study was conducted on round spermatids (ROS) injection (ROSI) using the goat model. After ROSI, the oocytes were treated or not with ionomycin (ROSI+I and ROSI−I, respectively) and compared with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). After ROSI−I, most oocytes were arrested with premature chromatin condensation and few oocytes formed pronuclei. In contrast, most oocytes formed pronuclei after ROSI+I. Some ROS were observed to form asters that organized a dense microtubule network after ROSI+I, but after ROSI−I, no ROS asters were observed. Whereas most of the oocytes showed Ca2+ rises and a significant decline in maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities after ROSI+I, no such changes were observed after ROSI−I. Due to the lack of Ca2+ oscillations after ROSI−I, oocytes were injected with more ROS. Interestingly, different from the results observed in a single ROS injection, injection with four ROS effectively activated oocytes by inducing typical Ca2+ oscillations. Whereas ROSI+I oocytes and ICSI oocytes both showed extensive microtubule networks, no such a network was observed in parthenogenetic oocytes. Together, the results suggest that goat ROS is not able to trigger intracellular Ca2+ rises and thus to inhibit MPF and MAPK activities, but artificial activation improved fertilization and development of ROSI goat oocytes. Goat ROS can organize functional microtubular asters in activated oocytes. A ROS-derived factor(s) may be essential for organization of a functional microtubule network to unite pronuclei. Goat centrosome is of paternal origin because both ROS and sperm asters organized an extensive microtubule network after intra-oocyte injection.
To understand the mechanisms of liver regeneration better to promote research examining liver diseases and marine biology, normal and regenerative liver tissues of Chiloscyllium plagiosum were harvested 0 h and 24 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) and used to isolate small RNAs for miRNA sequencing. In total, 91 known miRNAs and 166 putative candidate (PC) miRNAs were identified for the first time in Chiloscyllium plagiosum. Through target prediction and GO analysis, 46 of 91 known miRNAs were screened specially for cellular proliferation and growth. Differential expression levels of three miRNAs (xtr-miR-125b, fru-miR-204, and hsa-miR-142-3p_R-1) related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis were measured in normal and regenerating liver tissues at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h using real-time PCR. The expression of these miRNAs showed a rising trend in regenerative liver tissues at 6 h and 12 h but exhibited a downward trend compared to normal levels at 24 h. Differentially expressed genes were screened in normal and regenerating liver tissues at 24 h by DDRT-PCR, and ten sequences were identified. This study provided information regarding the function of genes related to liver regeneration, deepened the understanding of mechanisms of liver regeneration, and resulted in the addition of a significant number of novel miRNAs sequences to GenBank.
The Gauss-Seidel method is a standard iterative numerical method widely used to solve a system of equations and, in general, is more efficient comparing to other iterative methods, such as the Jacobi method. However, standard implementation of the Gauss-Seidel method restricts its utilization in parallel computing due to its requirement of using updated neighboring values (i.e., in current iteration) as soon as they are available. Here we report an efficient and exact (not requiring assumptions) method to parallelize iterations and to reduce the computational time as a linear/nearly linear function of the number of CPUs. In contrast to other existing solutions, our method does not require any assumptions and is equally applicable for solving linear and nonlinear equations. This approach is implemented in the DelPhi program, which is a finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann equation solver to model electrostatics in molecular biology. This development makes the iterative procedure on obtaining the electrostatic potential distribution in the parallelized DelPhi several folds faster than that in the serial code. Further we demonstrate the advantages of the new parallelized DelPhi by computing the electrostatic potential and the corresponding energies of large supramolecular structures.
electrostatics; DelPhi; Poisson- Boltzmann equation; Gauss-Seidel iteration; parallel computing
Summary: To address the impending need for exploring rapidly increased transcriptomics data generated for non-model organisms, we developed CBrowse, an AJAX-based web browser for visualizing and analyzing transcriptome assemblies and contigs. Designed in a standard three-tier architecture with a data pre-processing pipeline, CBrowse is essentially a Rich Internet Application that offers many seamlessly integrated web interfaces and allows users to navigate, sort, filter, search and visualize data smoothly. The pre-processing pipeline takes the contig sequence file in FASTA format and its relevant SAM/BAM file as the input; detects putative polymorphisms, simple sequence repeats and sequencing errors in contigs and generates image, JSON and database-compatible CSV text files that are directly utilized by different web interfaces. CBowse is a generic visualization and analysis tool that facilitates close examination of assembly quality, genetic polymorphisms, sequence repeats and/or sequencing errors in transcriptome sequencing projects.
Availability: CBrowse is distributed under the GNU General Public License, available at http://bioinfolab.muohio.edu/CBrowse/
email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Reference intervals of Liver function tests are very important for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of liver diseases. We aim to establish common reference intervals of liver function tests specifically for the Chinese adult population.
A total of 3210 individuals (20–79 years) were enrolled in six representative geographical regions in China. Analytes of ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using three analytical systems mainly used in China. The newly established reference intervals were based on the results of traceability or multiple systems, and then validated in 21 large hospitals located nationwide qualified by the National External Quality Assessment (EQA) of China.
We had been established reference intervals of the seven liver function tests for the Chinese adult population and found there were apparent variances of reference values for the variables for partitioning analysis such as gender(ALT, GGT, total bilirubin), age(ALP, albumin) and region(total protein). More than 86% of the 21 laboratories passed the validation in all subgroup of reference intervals and overall about 95.3% to 98.8% of the 1220 validation results fell within the range of the new reference interval for all liver function tests. In comparison with the currently recommended reference intervals in China, the single side observed proportions of out of range of reference values from our study for most of the tests deviated significantly from the nominal 2.5% such as total bilirubin (15.2%), ALP (0.2%), albumin (0.0%). Most of reference intervals in our study were obviously different from that of other races.
These used reference intervals are no longer applicable for the current Chinese population. We have established common reference intervals of liver function tests that are defined specifically for Chinese population and can be universally used among EQA-approved laboratories located all over China.
There are several controversies in the surgical management of esophageal cancer including the surgical approach, extent of resection, optimal fields of lymph node dissection, and the ideal location of anastomosis. Optimal surgical treatment strategies must include accurate staging and the selection of an appropriate surgical approach. In addition, other considerations include complete resection, lymph node dissection and evaluation of oncologic and functional outcomes. The objective of this article is to review the literature and discuss our surgical approach to esophageal cancer.
Background and Purpose
Persons who perceive their risk for stroke can promote the intervention of stroke risk factors and reduce the risk of stroke occurrence. Our purpose was to assess the knowledge of stroke risk factors and the level of perceived risk for stroke.
In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ≥18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. The knowledge of stroke risk factors and perceived risk for stroke was surveyed.
A total of 941 participants completed the questionnaire survey. The respondents’ awareness rate of stroke risk factors ranged between 53.3% and 87.2%. The community residents’ perceived risk for stroke was only 17.7%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 45–64 years age group, a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and stroke were independent predictors of perceived risk for stroke. Perceived risk for stroke increased as the number of risk factors increased (P<0.001). However, even for respondents with three or more risk factors, only 41% perceived themselves to be at risk for stroke.
In this population-based survey, few community residents perceived risk for stroke, even among those with multiple stroke risk factors, most did not perceive themselves to be at risk for stroke. Persons with 45–64 years old, a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease or stroke were more likely to perceive risk for stroke. The awareness of the risk for stroke has yet to be enhanced among community residents.
The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of time-to-neuropsychiatric (NP) damage and its impact on mortality in 632 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) African American, Hispanic and Caucasian LUMINA patients, age ≥ 16 years and disease duration ≤ 5 years at baseline (T0). Time-to-NP damage and its impact on mortality were examined by Cox proportional hazards regressions. One-hundred eighty-five (29.3%) patients developed NP-damage over a mean (SD) disease duration of 5.6 (3.7) years. After adjusting for neuropsychiatric manifestations present, older age [Hazard ratio (HR)=1.02; 95% [Confidence interval (CI) 1.00–1.04)], Caucasian ethnicity (HR=1.87; 95% CI 1.22-2.87), disease activity over the disease course (HR=1.16; 95% CI 1.12–1.21), diabetes (HR=3.47; 95% CI 1.44–8.38) and abnormal illness-related behaviors (HR=1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.08) were associated with a shorter time to NP-damage. Photosensitivity (HR=0.65; 95% CI 0.44–0.95), anemia (HR=0.56; 95% CI 0.31–0.98), Raynaud’s phenomenon (HR=0.49; 95% CI 0.34–0.72), a medium dose of prednisone (HR=0.56; 95% CI 0.35–0.92) and hydroxychloroquine use (HR=0.58; 95% CI 0.36–0.93) were associated with a longer time. NP-damage did not contribute to mortality. Older age, Caucasian ethnicity, disease activity and abnormal illness-related behaviors are associated with a shorter time-to-NP damage; hydroxychloroquine and a medium dose of prednisone with a longer time.
The purpose of this study was to explore diabetes-related distress and depression and their influence on treatment adherence in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
We surveyed 200 type 2 diabetic patients from two public hospitals using the Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, and Revised Treatment Adherence in Diabetes Questionnaire (RADQ). A multiple regression model was used to explore the relationship between diabetes distress, depression, and treatment adherence.
In the 200 eligible patients, the incidence of depression and diabetes distress was approximately 24% and 64%, respectively. The mean score on the RADQ was 23.0 ± 6.0. Multiple regression analysis showed that DDS scores (β = 5.34, P = 0.000), age (β = 0.15, P = 0.014), and family history (β = 3.2, P = 0.016) had a positive correlation with depression. DDS scores (β = −2.30, P = 0.000) and treatment methods (β = −0.93, P = 0.012) were risk factors for poor treatment adherence, whereas age (β = 0.089, P = 0.000) and cohabitation (β = 0.93, P = 0.012) increased treatment adherence. The independent-samples t- test showed that depression also affected treatment adherence (t = 2.53, P < 0.05).
These findings suggest that the DDS is a predictor of depression and that diabetes distress plays a more important part than depression in treatment adherence. Screening for diabetes distress may be useful for primary prevention of psychologic problems; however, some form of specialized psychologic intervention should be incorporated to promote patient adherence with treatment.
distress; depression; type 2 diabetes; treatment; adherence; People’s Republic of China
There have been many studies concerning the associations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among Chinese populations. However, the results were inconsistent, prompting the necessity of meta-analysis.
Studies published in English and Chinese were mainly searched in EMbase, PubMed and CBM up to January 2012.
Twenty-three studies with 3,551 subjects for ACE I/D and seven studies with 1,296 subjects for AGT M235T were included. Significant associations were found between ACE I/D and PIH under dominant, recessive and allelic models. A separate analysis confined to preeclampsia suggested that ACE I/D was associated with preeclampsia under recessive model and allelic model, but not dominant model. Stratified analyses were conducted as meta-regression analysis indicated that the sample size of case group was a significant source of heterogeneity, which suggested no significant association between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Associations were found between AGT M235T and PIH under dominant genetic model (OR = 1.59; 95 %CI: 1.04–2.42), recessive genetic model (OR = 1.60; 95 %CI: 1.07–2.40), and allelic model (OR = 1.40; 95 %CI: 1.17–1.68). No publication bias was found in either meta-analysis.
The present meta-analysis suggested significant associations between ACE I/D, AGT M235T and PIH in Chinese populations. However, no significant association was found between ACE I/D and PIH in the subgroup of more than 100 cases. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to investigate the associations between gene polymorphisms and PIH in Chinese populations.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); Angiotensinogen (AGT); Meta-analysis; Polymorphism; Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)
The aim of the present study was to create a feasible specific rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion (PC) and to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypoxemia and quantity of contusion lesions. Anesthetized rats were placed in a prone position. Injury energy ranging from 2.1 to 3.0 J was produced by a falling weight passed through a specially designed arched shield to the bilateral chest wall of rats. After injury (4 h), the contusion volume was measured using computer-generated three-dimensional reconstruction from a chest computed tomographic scan and expressed as a percentage of total lung volume. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in blood gas analysis and contusion volume percentage were used to assess the severity of contusion. Heart and lung biopsy was used to confirm the diagnosis and rule out the existence of myocardial contusion. There were 3 cases of death and 1 case of death in the 3.0 J and the 2.4 J group, respectively. PaO2 in the 2.7 J group was significantly lower than that in the lower energy groups (P<0.001). The percentage of pulmonary contusion in the 2.7 J group was significantly higher compared to that of the lower energy groups (P<0.001). PaO2 was negatively correlated with contusion percentage (R2=0.76). Hemorrhage, edema and neutrophil infiltration were determined by lung biopsy. No evidence of myocardial contusion was documented in multiple heart biopsies. The method illustrated in this research effectively duplicates isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion in rats, the severity of which is highly correlated with the contusion size. Thus, 2.7 J can be regarded as the maximal energy for sublethal injury.
lung; computed tomography; blunt chest trauma; pulmonary contusion
Background. To explore the potential role of natural-resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, (human leukocyte antigen, (HLA-DRB1) HLA) -DRB1 gene, and HLA-DQB1 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese Kazakh population. Methods. A case-control study was performed on the Chinese Kazak population. Genetic polymorphisms of NRAMP1 gene (3′UTR) and VDR gene (TaqI and FokI) were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing analysis in TB patients and healthy controls. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1 gene and HLA-DQB1 gene in the two groups were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique and sequencing analysis. Results. There was statistically significant difference in the 3′UTR polymorphism between the TB patients and healthy controls in the Chinese Kazak population (P = 0.002; OR = 1.859; 95% CI = 1.182–2.926). Significant difference was observed in the FokI polymorphism between the TB patients and healthy controls (P = 0.001; OR = 1.530; 95% CI = 1.007–2.325). It does not disclose any significant association between the disease and TaqI (P > 0.05). Alleles HLA-DRB1∗04 and HLA-DQB1∗0201 occurred more frequently in patients than in controls (P = 0.011 and 0.002; OR = 1.889 and 1.802; 95% CI = 1.153–3.095 and 1.230–2.639, resp.). Conclusions. Polymorphisms in the NRAMP1 gene, VDR gene, HLA-DRB1 gene, and HLA-DQB1 gene are statistically associated with susceptibility to TB in the Chinese Kazakh population.
AIM: To assess the differences in clinical benefits and disadvantages of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA) and conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA).
METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database were electronically searched up through January 2013 to identify randomized controlled trails (RCTs) comparing SILA with CLA. Data was extracted from eligible studies to evaluate the pooled outcome effects for the total of 1068 patients. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.2.0. For dichotomous data and continuous data, the risk ratio (RR) and the mean difference (MD) were calculated, respectively, with 95%CI for both. For continuous outcomes with different measurement scales in different RCTs, the standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated with 95%CI. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed when necessary.
RESULTS: Six RCTs were identified that compared SILA (n = 535) with CLA (n = 533). Five RCTs had a high risk of bias and one RCT had a low risk of bias. SILA was associated with longer operative time (MD = 5.68, 95%CI: 3.91-7.46, P < 0.00001), higher conversion rate (RR = 5.14, 95%CI: 1.25-21.10, P = 0.03) and better cosmetic satisfaction score (MD = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.30-0.73, P < 0.00001) compared with CLA. No significant differences were found for total complications (RR = 1.15, 95%CI: 0.76-1.75, P = 0.51), drain insertion (RR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.41-1.25, P = 0.24), or length of hospital stay (SMD = 0.04, 95%CI: -0.08-0.16, P = 0.57). Because there was not enough data among the analyzed RCTs, postoperative pain was not calculated.
CONCLUSION: The benefit of SILA is cosmetic satisfaction, while the disadvantages of SILA are longer operative time and higher conversion rate.
Single incision; Laparoscopic; Appendectomy; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a nontraditional Cdk that is primarily active in postmitotic neurons. An important core function of Cdk5 involves regulating the migration and maturation of embryonic post-mitotic neurons. These developmental roles are dependent on its kinase activity. Initially, there was little evidence indicating a role for Cdk5 in normal cell cycle regulation. Recent data from our lab, however, suggest that Cdk5 plays a crucial role as a cell cycle suppressor in normal post-mitotic neurons and neuronal cell lines. It performs this foundation in a kinase independent manner. Cdk5 normally found in both nucleus and cytoplasm, but it exits the nucleus in neurons risk to death in an AD patient’s brain. The shift in sub-cellular location is accompanied by cell cycle re-entry and neuronal death. This “new” function of Cdk5 raises cautions in the design of Cdk5-directed drugs for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
Cdk5; p27; E2F1; non-catalytic; cell cycle suppressor
Engineered artificial tissues from stem cells show great potential in regenerative medicine, disease therapies and organ transplantation. To date, stem cells are typically co-cultured with inactivated feeder layers to maintain their undifferentiated state, and to ensure reliable cell purity. Herein, we propose a novel microfabricated approach for feeder-separated coculture of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) porous membrane-assembled 3D-microdevice. Normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) without inactivation were specifically co-cultured with mES cells, resulting in the formation of mES cell colonies on spatially controlled co-culture with feeder layers. An excellent undifferentiated state was confirmed by the expressions of Nanog, octamer binding protein 4 (Oct-4) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 5 days culture. As a result, with the significant advantages of efficiency and simplicity, pure mES cell populations (a purity of 89.2%) from mEFs co-cultures were easily collected without any further purification or separation.
While liganded nuclear receptors are established to regulate Pol II-dependent transcription units, their role in regulating Pol III-transcribed DNA repeats remains largely unknown. Here, we report that ~2–3% of the ~100,000–200,000 human DR2 Alu repeats in proximity to activated Pol II transcription units are activated by retinoic acid receptor in human embryonic stem cells to generate Pol III-dependent RNAs. These transcripts are processed, initially in a DICER-dependent fashion, into small RNAs (~28–65nt.), referred to as riRNAs, that cause degradation of a subset of critical stem cell mRNAs, including Nanog, modulating exit from the proliferative stem cell state. This regulation requires AGO3-dependent accumulation of processed DR2 Alu transcripts and subsequent recruitment of AGO3-associated decapping complexes to the target mRNA. In this way, the RAR and Pol III-dependent DR2 Alu transcriptional events in stem cells functionally complement the Pol II-dependent neuronal transcriptional program.
Chronic non-communicable diseases have become the major cause of death in China. This study describes and compares chronic disease mortality between urban and rural residents in Hubei Province, central China.
Death records of all individuals aged 15 years and over who died from 2008 through 2010 in Hubei were obtained from the Disease Surveillance Points system maintained by the Hubei Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Average annual mortality, standardized death rates, years of potential life lost (YLL), average years of potential life lost (AYLL) and rates of life lost were calculated for urban and rural residents. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were calculated to compare the death rates between urban and rural areas.
A total of 86.2% of deaths were attributed to chronic non-communicable diseases in Hubei. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease and neoplasms were the main leading causes in both urban and rural areas, and the mortality rates were higher among rural residents. Lung cancer was the principal cause of mortality from cancer among urban and rural residents, and stomach cancer and liver cancer were more common in rural than urban areas. Breast cancer mortality among women in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (SRR=0.73, 95% CI=0.63–0.85). The standardized mortality for chronic lower respiratory disease among men in rural areas was higher than in urban areas (SRR=4.05, 95% CI=3.82–4.29). Among men, total AYLL from liver cancer and other diseases of liver were remarkably higher than other causes in urban and rural areas. Among women the highest AYLL were due to breast cancer in both urban and rural areas.
Chronic diseases were the major cause of death in Hubei Province. While circulatory system diseases were the leading causes in both urban and rural areas, our study highlights that attention should also be paid to breast cancer among women and chronic lower respiratory disease among rural residents. It is important that governments focus on this public health issue and develop preventive strategies to reduce morbidity and premature mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases.
The gesneriaceous perennial plant, Lysionotus serratus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. It also has a great development potential as an ornamental plant with its attractive foliage and beautiful flowers. An efficient propagation and regeneration system via direct shoot organogenesis from leaf explant was established in this study. High active cytokinin (6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ)) was effective for direct organogenesis of initial induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) growth media containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone or with combination of 0.1 mg L−1 α-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were the most effective for shoot proliferation. High BA concentration (1.0 mg L−1) in the media caused high percentage of vitrified shoots though they introduced high shoot proliferation rate. Histological observation indicated that adventitious shoot regeneration on the medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone occurred directly from leaf epidermal cells without callus formation. Regenerated shoots rooted well on medium containing half-strength MS medium with 0.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and the plantlets successfully acclimatized and grew vigorously in the greenhouse with a 94.2% and 92.1% survival rate.
Hyperamylasemia in patients with lung cancer is rarely, comprising 1% to 3% of all lung cancers. This report describes two cases of lung adenocarcinoma coexisting with hyperamylasemia in two women aged 77 and 57, respectively. In these two cases, CT revealed a normal pancreas. We monitored the serum and urine amylase levels during therapy and found it paralleled tumor response to chemotherapy and metastasis. We suggest that the amylase levels are related to the tumor size and might be a valuable factor in predicting chemotherapy and progression of disease for amylase-producing lung cancer.
Hyperamylasemia; lung adenocarcinoma; chemotherapy
During development, the ventricular conduction system (VCS) arises from the trabecular or spongy myocardium. VCS and trabecular myocytes proliferate at a significantly slower rate than compact zone myocardial cells, establishing a transmural cell cycle gradient. The molecular determinants of VCS/trabecular myocyte cell cycle arrest are not known. Given the importance of pocket proteins (Rb, p107 and p130) in mediating G0/G1 arrest in many cell types, we examined the role of this gene family in regulating cell cycle exit of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system. Using a combinatorial knockout strategy, we found that graded loss of pocket proteins results in a spectrum of heart and lung defects. p107/p130 double knockout (dKO) hearts manifest dysregulated proliferation within the compact myocardium and trabecular bases, while the remaining trabecular region cell cycle exits normally. Consequently, dKO hearts exhibit defective cardiac compaction, septal hyperplasia and biventricular outflow tract obstruction, while the VCS appears relatively normal. Loss of all three pocket proteins (3KO) is necessary to completely disrupt the transmural cell cycle gradient. 3KO hearts exhibit massive overgrowth of the trabecular myocardium and ventricular conduction system, which leads to fetal heart failure and death. Hearts carrying a single pocket protein allele are able to maintain the transmural cell cycle gradient. These results demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of trabecular and conduction myocytes to pocket protein function during ventricular chamber development.
Cardiac conduction system; Cardiogenesis; Cell cycle; Chamber development; Pocket proteins; Trabecular myocardium
The nongreen plastids, such as etioplasts, chromoplasts, etc., as well as chloroplasts, are all derived from proplastids in the meristem. To date, the Min system members in plants have been identified as regulators of FtsZ-ring placement, which are essential for the symmetrical division of chloroplasts. However, the regulation of FtsZ-ring placement in nongreen plastids is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the division site placement of nongreen plastids by examining the etioplasts as representative in Arabidopsis Min system mutants. Surprisingly, the shape and number of etioplasts in cotyledons of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 mutants were similar to that observed in wild-type plants, whereas arc12 and parc6 mutants exhibited enlarged etioplasts that were reduced in number. In order to examine nongreen plastids in true leaves, we silenced the ALB3 gene in these Min system mutant backgrounds to produce immature chloroplasts without the thylakoidal network using virus induced gene silencing (VIGS). Interestingly, consistent with our observations in etioplasts, enlarged and fewer nongreen plastids were only detected in leaves of parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants. Further, the FtsZ-ring assembled properly at the midpoint in nongreen plastids of arc3, arc11 and mcd1 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, but organized into multiple rings in parc6 (VIGS-ALB3) and presented fragmented filaments in arc12 (VIGS-ALB3) plants, suggesting that division site placement in nongreen plastids requires fewer components of the plant Min system. Taken together, these results suggest that division site placement in nongreen plastids is different from that in chloroplasts.
Limited population-based study focused on relationship between eosinophil and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
We aimed to evaluate the relationship between peripheral eosinophil percentage and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a large sample size of Chinese population aged 40 and older.
Design and Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed among 9,111 Chinese adults including 3,561 men and 5,550 women. The glucose metabolism status was confirmed by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and serum insulin levels were used to evaluate insulin resistance. Homeostasis model assessment-B was used to evaluate β cell function.
The average age of participants was 58.5 years. The prevalence of T2D decreased across the tertiles of eosinophil percentage (21.3%, 18.2% and 16.9%, P<0.0001). Each one tertile increase of eosinophil percentage inversely associated with risk of T2D when referred not only to normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.76–0.87, P< 0.0001), but also to impaired glucose regulation (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83–0.97, P = 0.006), respectively, after adjustment for the confounding factors. Compared with the first tertile, the third tertile of eosinophil percentage associated with a 23% decrease of insulin resistance in NGT participants after full adjustments (P = 0.005). Each 1-standard deviation of increment of eosinophil percentage associated with a 37% decrease of insulin resistance (P = 0.005).
Higher peripheral eosinophil percentage was associated with decreased risk of T2D. The inverse relation to insulin resistance was detected in NGT participants.
Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) occurs in a low proportion of uterine leiomyomas and treatment methods for BML are diverse and controversial. The study introduces preliminary experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of BML with the purpose of finding a suitable management strategy for these patients.
Three patients with BML were treated in our department from April 2008 to July 2012. Each of these patients presented with multiple nodules in both lungs, where we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection to harvest enough tissue for histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. The patients were treated with medical castration or surgical castration after the diagnosis of BML.
The ultimate pathologic results ruled out the possibility of leiomyosarcoma and other metastatic diseases, and confirmed that the pulmonary lesions were BML. The lung lesions remained stable in two patients who were treated by surgical castration, and the lung nodules regressed in one patient treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues.
The diagnosis of BML is based on the medical history of uterine myomas and histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of lung nodules. Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection is the best way to harvest tissue for diagnosis. The better outcomes in BML seem to call for medical intervention, either chemical or surgical, after diagnosis is made.
Benign neoplasms; Castration; Metastasis; Pulmonary; Rare diseases