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BMC Biophysics (1)
EMBO Molecular Medicine (1)
PLoS ONE (1)
Dotti, Carlos G (2)
Menchón, Silvia A (2)
Ahmed, Tariq (1)
Balschun, Detlef (1)
Dotti, Carlos G. (1)
Gärtner, Annette (1)
Herreras, Oscar (1)
Korovaichuk, Alejandra (1)
Martin, Mauricio G (1)
Martín, Mauricio G (1)
Menchón, Silvia A. (1)
Munck, Sebastian (1)
Román, Pablo (1)
Salas, Isabel (1)
Venero, Cesar (1)
Year of Publication
Constitutive hippocampal cholesterol loss underlies poor cognition in old rodents
Martin, Mauricio G
Dotti, Carlos G
EMBO Molecular Medicine
Cognitive decline is one of the many characteristics of aging. Reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are thought to be responsible for this decline, although the precise mechanisms underlying LTP and LTD dampening in the old remain unclear. We previously showed that aging is accompanied by the loss of cholesterol from the hippocampus, which leads to PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. Given that Akt de-phosphorylation is required for glutamate receptor internalization and LTD, we hypothesized that the decrease in cholesterol in neuronal membranes may contribute to the deficits in LTD typical of aging. Here, we show that cholesterol loss triggers p-Akt accumulation, which in turn perturbs the normal cellular and molecular responses induced by LTD, such as impaired AMPA receptor internalization and its reduced lateral diffusion. Electrophysiology recordings in brain slices of old mice and in anesthetized elderly rats demonstrate that the reduced hippocampal LTD associated with age can be rescued by cholesterol perfusion. Accordingly, cholesterol replenishment in aging animals improves hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in the water maze test.
aging; cholesterol; learning; LTD; PI3K
APM_GUI: analyzing particle movement on the cell membrane and determining confinement
Martín, Mauricio G
Dotti, Carlos G
Single-particle tracking is a powerful tool for tracking individual particles with high precision. It provides useful information that allows the study of diffusion properties as well as the dynamics of movement. Changes in particle movement behavior, such as transitions between Brownian motion and temporary confinement, can reveal interesting biophysical interactions. Although useful applications exist to determine the paths of individual particles, only a few software implementations are available to analyze these data, and these implementations are generally not user-friendly and do not have a graphical interface,.
Here, we present APM_GUI (Analyzing Particle Movement), which is a MatLab-implemented application with a Graphical User Interface. This user-friendly application detects confined movement considering non-random confinement when a particle remains in a region longer than a Brownian diffusant would remain. In addition, APM_GUI exports the results, which allows users to analyze this information using software that they are familiar with.
APM_GUI provides an open-source tool that quantifies diffusion coefficients and determines whether trajectories have non-random confinements. It also offers a simple and user-friendly tool that can be used by individuals without programming skills.
Neuronal (Bi)Polarity as a Self-Organized Process Enhanced by Growing Membrane
Dotti, Carlos G.
Early in vitro and recent in vivo studies demonstrated that neuronal polarization occurs by the sequential formation of two oppositely located neurites. This early bipolar phenotype is of crucial relevance in brain organization, determining neuronal migration and brain layering. It is currently considered that the place of formation of the first neurite is dictated by extrinsic cues, through the induction of localized changes in membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics leading to deformation of the cells' curvature followed by the growth of a cylindrical extension (neurite). It is unknown if the appearance of the second neurite at the opposite pole, thus the formation of a bipolar cell axis and capacity to undergo migration, is defined by the growth at the first place, therefore intrinsic, or requires external determinants. We addressed this question by using a mathematical model based on the induction of dynamic changes in one pole of a round cell. The model anticipates that a second area of growth can spontaneously form at the opposite pole. Hence, through mathematical modeling we prove that neuronal bipolar axis of growth can be due to an intrinsic mechanism.
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