A number of long coiled-coil proteins are present on the Golgi. Often referred to as “golgins,” they are well conserved in evolution and at least five are likely to have been present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Individual golgins are found in different parts of the Golgi stack, and they are typically anchored to the membrane at their carboxyl termini by a transmembrane domain or by binding a small GTPase. They appear to have roles in membrane traffic and Golgi structure, but their precise function is in most cases unclear. Many have binding sites for Rab family GTPases along their length, and this has led to the suggestion that the golgins act collectively to form a tentacular matrix that surrounds the Golgi to capture Rab-coated membranes in the vicinity of the stack. Such a collective role might explain the lack of cell lethality seen following loss of some of the genes in human familial conditions or mouse models.
Long coiled-coil proteins are present throughout Golgi stacks. These “golgins” are membrane anchored and may collectively form a matrix that is recognized by the Rab GTPases required for Golgi trafficking.
Membrane-bound organelles are a defining feature of eukaryotic cells, and play a central role in most of their fundamental processes. The Rab G proteins are the single largest family of proteins that participate in the traffic between organelles, with 66 Rabs encoded in the human genome. Rabs direct the organelle-specific recruitment of vesicle tethering factors, motor proteins, and regulators of membrane traffic. Each organelle or vesicle class is typically associated with one or more Rab, with the Rabs present in a particular cell reflecting that cell's complement of organelles and trafficking routes.
Through iterative use of hidden Markov models and tree building, we classified Rabs across the eukaryotic kingdom to provide the most comprehensive view of Rab evolution obtained to date. A strikingly large repertoire of at least 20 Rabs appears to have been present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA), consistent with the 'complexity early' view of eukaryotic evolution. We were able to place these Rabs into six supergroups, giving a deep view into eukaryotic prehistory.
Tracing the fate of the LECA Rabs revealed extensive losses with many extant eukaryotes having fewer Rabs, and none having the full complement. We found that other Rabs have expanded and diversified, including a large expansion at the dawn of metazoans, which could be followed to provide an account of the evolutionary history of all human Rabs. Some Rab changes could be correlated with differences in cellular organization, and the relative lack of variation in other families of membrane-traffic proteins suggests that it is the changes in Rabs that primarily underlies the variation in organelles between species and cell types.
Organelles; G proteins; humans; last eukaryotic common ancestor
Specificity in Arf1 GEF recruitment to the trans-Golgi, and thus in localized Arf1 activation, is provided by an Arf-like G protein.
The small G protein Arf1 regulates Golgi traffic and is activated by two related types of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). GBF1 acts at the cis-Golgi, whereas BIG1 and its close paralog BIG2 act at the trans-Golgi. Peripheral membrane proteins such as these GEFs are often recruited to membranes by small G proteins, but the basis for specific recruitment of Arf GEFs, and hence Arfs, to Golgi membranes is not understood. In this paper, we report a liposome-based affinity purification method to identify effectors for small G proteins of the Arf family. We validate this with the Drosophila melanogaster Arf1 orthologue (Arf79F) and the related class II Arf (Arf102F), which showed a similar pattern of effector binding. Applying the method to the Arf-like G protein Arl1, we found that it binds directly to Sec71, the Drosophila ortholog of BIG1 and BIG2, via an N-terminal region. We show that in mammalian cells, Arl1 is necessary for Golgi recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 but not GBF1. Thus, Arl1 acts to direct a trans-Golgi–specific Arf1 GEF, and hence active Arf1, to the trans side of the Golgi.
A systematic approach to visualize proteins exiting the endoplasmic reticulum paired with their cargo receptors identifies novel cargo for known receptors and reveals the mechanism of one conserved receptor, Erv14.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secreted and membrane proteins. To exit the ER, proteins are packaged into COPII vesicles through direct interaction with the COPII coat or aided by specific cargo receptors. Despite the fundamental role of such cargo receptors in protein traffic, only a few have been identified; their cargo spectrum is unknown and the signals they recognize remain poorly understood. We present here an approach we term “PAIRS” (pairing analysis of cargo receptors), which combines systematic genetic manipulations of yeast with automated microscopy screening, to map the spectrum of cargo for a known receptor or to uncover a novel receptor for a particular cargo. Using PAIRS we followed the fate of ∼150 cargos on the background of mutations in nine putative cargo receptors and identified novel cargo for most of these receptors. Deletion of the Erv14 cargo receptor affected the widest range of cargo. Erv14 substrates have a wide array of functions and structures; however, they are all membrane-spanning proteins of the late secretory pathway or plasma membrane. Proteins residing in these organelles have longer transmembrane domains (TMDs). Detailed examination of one cargo supported the hypothesis that Erv14 dependency reflects the length rather than the sequence of the TMD. The PAIRS approach allowed us to uncover new cargo for known cargo receptors and to obtain an unbiased look at specificity in cargo selection. Obtaining the spectrum of cargo for a cargo receptor allows a novel perspective on its mode of action. The rules that appear to guide Erv14 substrate recognition suggest that sorting of membrane proteins at multiple points in the secretory pathway could depend on the physical properties of TMDs. Such a mechanism would allow diverse proteins to utilize a few receptors without the constraints of evolving location-specific sorting motifs.
All cells sense their environment, respond to it, and communicate with neighboring cells. To perform these functions, cells use an impressive array of proteins that they display on their surface membranes and secrete into their external environment. Newly synthesized proteins destined for the surface of nucleated cells, or to be secreted into the environment must enter the secretory pathway through the endoplasmic reticulum. Those that reside there remain behind, but most leave for their next destination as cargo proteins in lipid vesicles. To be packaged into vesicles, many of them require a “cargo receptor,” which recognizes and tethers specific cargo proteins in the vesicles. Our study takes a systematic approach to identify the range of cargo proteins that bind to each of the known receptors in yeast. By using this approach, we both discover new cargo for known cargo receptors and delineate the rule that governs cargo selection for one cargo receptor, Erv14. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel approach to identify the cargo for any receptor or to discover new cargo receptors.
Lysosomes move bidirectionally on microtubules, and this motility can be stimulated by overexpression of the small GTPase Arl8. By using affinity chromatography, we find that Arl8-GTP binds to the soluble protein SKIP (SifA and kinesin-interacting protein, aka PLEKHM2). SKIP was originally identified as a target of the Salmonella effector protein SifA and found to bind the light chain of kinesin-1 to activate the motor on the bacteria's replicative vacuole. We show that in uninfected cells both Arl8 and SKIP are required for lysosomes to distribute away from the microtubule-organizing center. We identify two kinesin light chain binding motifs in SKIP that are required for lysosomes to accumulate kinesin-1 and redistribute to the cell periphery. Thus, Arl8 binding to SKIP provides a link from lysosomal membranes to plus-end-directed motility. A splice variant of SKIP that lacks a light chain binding motif does not stimulate movement, suggesting fine-tuning by alternative splicing.
► The lysosomal GTPase Arl8 binds to the kinesin-1 linker SKIP ► SKIP and Arl8 are required for the normal intracellular distribution of lysosomes ► SKIP and Arl8 are required for the acid-induced centripetal movement of lysosomes ► SKIP contains a kinesin light chain binding site subject to alternative splicing
The integral membrane protein Atg9 is delivered to the autophagosome in yeast and mammalian cells. We find that Atg9 does not originate from mitochondria and cannot reach the autophagosome directly from the ER. Instead, pairwise combinations of mutations in Golgi-endosomal traffic components cause defects in Atg9 delivery during starvation.
While many of the proteins required for autophagy have been identified, the source of the membrane of the autophagosome is still unresolved with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), endosomes, and mitochondria all having been evoked. The integral membrane protein Atg9 is delivered to the autophagosome during starvation and in the related cytoplasm-to-vacuole (Cvt) pathway that occurs constitutively in yeast. We have examined the requirements for delivery of Atg9-containing membrane to the yeast autophagosome. Atg9 does not appear to originate from mitochondria, and Atg9 cannot reach the forming autophagosome directly from the ER or early Golgi. Components of traffic between Golgi and endosomes are known to be required for the Cvt pathway but do not appear required for autophagy in starved cells. However, we find that pairwise combinations of mutations in Golgi-endosomal traffic components apparently only required for the Cvt pathway can cause profound defects in Atg9 delivery and autophagy in starved cells. Thus it appears that membrane that contains Atg9 is delivered to the autophagosome from the Golgi-endosomal system rather than from the ER or mitochondria. This is underestimated by examination of single mutants, providing a possible explanation for discrepancies between yeast and mammalian studies on Atg9 localization and autophagosome formation.
This work demonstrates that α-synuclein inhibits the biosynthetic secretory pathway of mammalian cells potently and directly under nontoxic conditions and in the absence of insoluble α-synuclein aggregates. A potential mechanism involving α-synuclein binding to ER/Golgi SNAREs and inhibiting fusogenic SNARE complex assembly is elucidated.
Toxicity of human α-synuclein when expressed in simple organisms can be suppressed by overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport machinery, suggesting that inhibition of constitutive secretion represents a fundamental cause of the toxicity. Whether similar inhibition in mammals represents a cause of familial Parkinson's disease has not been established. We tested elements of this hypothesis by expressing human α-synuclein in mammalian kidney and neuroendocrine cells and assessing ER-to-Golgi transport. Overexpression of wild type or the familial disease-associated A53T mutant α-synuclein delayed transport by up to 50%; however, A53T inhibited more potently. The secretory delay occurred at low expression levels and was not accompanied by insoluble α-synuclein aggregates or mistargeting of transport machinery, suggesting a direct action of soluble α-synuclein on trafficking proteins. Co-overexpression of ER/Golgi arginine soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (R-SNAREs) specifically rescued transport, indicating that α-synuclein antagonizes SNARE function. Ykt6 reversed α-synuclein inhibition much more effectively than sec22b, suggesting a possible neuroprotective role for the enigmatic high expression of ykt6 in neurons. In in vitro reconstitutions, purified α-synuclein A53T protein specifically inhibited COPII vesicle docking and fusion at a pre-Golgi step. Finally, soluble α-synuclein A53T directly bound ER/Golgi SNAREs and inhibited SNARE complex assembly, providing a potential mechanism for toxic effects in the early secretory pathway.
The various membranes of eukaryotic cells differ in composition, but it is at present unclear if this results in differences in physical properties. The sequences of transmembrane domains (TMDs) of integral membrane proteins should reflect the physical properties of the bilayers in which they reside. We used large datasets from both fungi and vertebrates to perform a comprehensive comparison of the TMDs of proteins from different organelles. We find that TMDs are not generic but have organelle-specific properties with a dichotomy in TMD length between the early and late parts of the secretory pathway. In addition, TMDs from post-ER organelles show striking asymmetries in amino acid compositions across the bilayer that is linked to residue size and varies between organelles. The pervasive presence of organelle-specific features among the TMDs of a particular organelle has implications for TMD prediction, regulation of protein activity by location, and sorting of proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway.
► Transmembrane domains (TMDs) vary in length and residue composition between organelles ► TMD lengths differ pre- versus post-Golgi but not between apical and basolateral surfaces ► The differences between TMDs are large enough to have value in predicting location ► Pervasive differences mean TMDs could collectively contribute to membrane properties
The yeast triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases Tgl3p and Tgl5p not only contain a TAG lipase, but also an acyltransferase motif. We show that purified Tgl3p and Tgl5p indeed exhibit lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity. Both Tgl3p and Tgl5p affect the level of glycerophospholipids, and Tgl3p is also important for efficient sporulation of yeast.
In the yeast, mobilization of triacylglycerols (TAGs) is facilitated by the three TAG lipases Tgl3p, Tgl4p, and Tgl5p. Motif search analysis, however, indicated that Tgl3p and Tgl5p do not only contain the TAG lipase motif GXSXG but also an H-(X)4-D acyltransferase motif. Interestingly, lipid analysis revealed that deletion of TGL3 resulted in a decrease and overexpression of TGL3 in an increase of glycerophospholipids. Similar results were obtained with TGL5. Therefore, we tested purified Tgl3p and Tgl5p for acyltransferase activity. Indeed, both enzymes not only exhibited lipase activity but also catalyzed acylation of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidic acid, respectively. Experiments using variants of Tgl3p created by site-directed mutagenesis clearly demonstrated that the two enzymatic activities act independently of each other. We also showed that Tgl3p is important for efficient sporulation of yeast cells, but rather through its acyltransferase than lipase activity. In summary, our results demonstrate that yeast Tgl3p and Tgl5p play a dual role in lipid metabolism contributing to both anabolic and catabolic processes.
The ARF-GEF ARNO promotes motility by activating ARF6 and a subsequent downstream activation of Rac. ARNO is shown to associate with the Rac GEF Dock180 via its coiled-coil domain. Knockdown of scaffold proteins that bind ARNO disrupts the formation of this complex and disrupts ARF-to-Rac signaling.
ARFs are small GTPases that regulate vesicular trafficking, cell shape, and movement. ARFs are subject to extensive regulation by a large number of accessory proteins. The many different accessory proteins are likely specialized to regulate ARF signaling during particular processes. ARNO/cytohesin 2 is an ARF-activating protein that promotes cell migration and cell shape changes. We report here that protein–protein interactions mediated by the coiled-coil domain of ARNO are required for ARNO induced motility. ARNO lacking the coiled-coil domain does not promote migration and does not induce ARF-dependent Rac activation. We find that the coiled-coil domain promotes the assembly of a multiprotein complex containing both ARNO and the Rac-activating protein Dock180. Knockdown of either GRASP/Tamalin or IPCEF, two proteins known to bind to the coiled-coil of ARNO, prevents the association of ARNO and Dock180 and prevents ARNO-induced Rac activation. These data suggest that scaffold proteins can regulate ARF dependent processes by biasing ARF signaling toward particular outputs.
Genetic and biochemical evidence is presented that the Exo70 subunit of the exocyst is a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 GTPases in yeast. Prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and affects the site of binding within Exo70. Thus, interaction of the Rho GTPases with Exo70 is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis.
The Rho3 and Cdc42 members of the Rho GTPase family are important regulators of exocytosis in yeast. However, the precise mechanism by which they regulate this process is controversial. Here, we present evidence that the Exo70 component of the exocyst complex is a direct effector of both Rho3 and Cdc42. We identify gain-of-function mutants in EXO70 that potently suppress mutants in RHO3 and CDC42 defective for exocytic function. We show that Exo70 has the biochemical properties expected of a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42. Surprisingly, we find that C-terminal prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and influences the sites of binding within Exo70. Finally, we demonstrate that the phenotypes associated with novel loss-of-function mutants in EXO70, are entirely consistent with Exo70 as an effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 function in secretion. These data suggest that interaction with the Exo70 component of the exocyst is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPases.
Transcytosis via caveolae is critical for maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating the tissue delivery of macromolecules, hormones, and lipids. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that interactions between F-actin cross-linking protein filamin A and caveolin-1 facilitate the internalization and trafficking of caveolae. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of filamin A, but not filamin B, reduced the uptake and transcytosis of albumin by ∼35 and 60%, respectively, without altering the actin cytoskeletal structure or cell–cell adherens junctions. Mobility of both intracellular caveolin-1–green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled vesicles measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and membrane-associated vesicles measured by total internal reflection-fluorescence microscopy was decreased in cells with reduced filamin A expression. In addition, in melanoma cells that lack filamin A (M2 cells), the majority of caveolin-1-GFP was localized on the plasma membrane, whereas in cells in which filamin A expression was reconstituted (A7 cells and M2 cells transfected with filamin A-RFP), caveolin-1-GFP was concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Filamin A association with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells was confirmed by cofractionation of these proteins in density gradients, as well as by coimmunoprecipitation. Moreover, this interaction was enhanced by Src activation, associated with increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation, and blocked by Src inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest that filamin A association with caveolin-1 promotes caveolae-mediated transport by regulating vesicle internalization, clustering, and trafficking.
Fungal sphingolipids have inositol-phosphate head groups, which are essential for the viability of cells. These head groups are added by inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase, and AUR1 has been thought to encode this enzyme. Here, we show that an essential protein encoded by KEI1 is a novel subunit of IPC synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Kei1 is localized in the medial-Golgi and that Kei1 is cleaved by Kex2, a late Golgi processing endopeptidase; therefore, it recycles between the medial- and late Golgi compartments. The growth defect of kei1-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant, is effectively suppressed by the overexpression of AUR1, and Aur1 and Kei1 proteins form a complex in vivo. The kei1-1 mutant is hypersensitive to aureobasidin A, a specific inhibitor of IPC synthesis, and the IPC synthase activity in the mutant membranes is thermolabile. A part of Aur1 is missorted to the vacuole in kei1-1 cells. We show that the amino acid substitution in kei1-1 causes release of Kei1 during immunoprecipitation of Aur1 and that Aur1 without Kei1 has hardly detectable IPC synthase activity. From these results, we conclude that Kei1 is essential for both the activity and the Golgi localization of IPC synthase.
The mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) lysosomal targeting signal on acid hydrolases is synthesized by the sequential action of uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase) and GlcNAc-1-phosphodiester α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (“uncovering enzyme” or UCE). Mutations in the two genes that encode GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase give rise to lysosomal storage diseases (mucolipidosis type II and III), whereas no pathological conditions have been associated with the loss of UCE activity. To analyze the consequences of UCE deficiency, the UCE gene was inactivated via insertional mutagenesis in mice. The UCE −/− mice were viable, grew normally and lacked detectable histologic abnormalities. However, the plasma levels of six acid hydrolases were elevated 1.6- to 5.4-fold over wild-type levels. These values underestimate the degree of hydrolase hypersecretion as these enzymes were rapidly cleared from the plasma by the mannose receptor. The secreted hydrolases contained GlcNAc-P-Man diesters, exhibited a decreased affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and failed to bind to the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. These data demonstrate that UCE accounts for all the uncovering activity in the Golgi. We propose that in the absence of UCE, the weak binding of the acid hydrolases to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor allows sufficient sorting to lysosomes to prevent the tissue abnormalities seen with GlcNAc-1-phosphotranferase deficiency.
Aspergillus nidulans hyphae grow exclusively by apical extension. Golgi equivalents (GEs) labeled with mRFP-tagged PHOSBP domain form a markedly polarized, dynamic network of ring-shaped and fenestrated cisternae that remains intact during “closed” mitosis. mRFP-PHOSBP GEs advance associated with the growing apex where secretion predominates but do not undergo long-distance movement toward the tip that could account for their polarization. mRFP-PHOSBP GEs overlap with the trans-Golgi resident Sec7 but do not colocalize with also polarized accretions of the early Golgi marker GrhAGrh1-GFP, indicating that early and late Golgi membranes segregate spatially. AnSec23-GFP ER exit sites (ERES) are numerous, relatively static foci localizing across the entire cell. However, their density is greatest near the tip, correlating with predominance of early and trans-Golgi elements in this region. Whereas GrhA-GFP structures and ERES reach the apical dome, mRFP-PHOSBP GEs are excluded from this region, which contains the endosome dynein loading zone. After latrunculin-mediated F-actin disruption, mRFP-PHOSBP GEs fragment and, like AnSec23-GFP ERES, depolarize. Brefeldin A transiently collapses late and early GEs into distinct aggregates containing Sec7/mRFP-PHOSBP and GrhA-GFP, respectively, temporarily arresting apical extension. Rapid growth reinitiates after washout, correlating with reacquisition of the normal Golgi organization that, we conclude, is required for apical extension.
Vesicles and other carriers destined for the Golgi apparatus must be guided to the correct cisternae. Golgins, long coiled-coil proteins that localize to particular Golgi subdomains via their C termini, are candidate regulators of vesicle sorting. In this study, we report that the GRIP domain golgins, whose C termini bind the Arf-like 1 G protein on the trans-Golgi, can also bind four members of the Rab family of G proteins. The Rab2-, Rab6-, Rab19-, and Rab30-binding sites are within the coiled-coil regions that are not required for Golgi targeting. Binding sites for two of these Rabs are also present on two coiled-coil proteins of the cis-Golgi, the Drosophila melanogaster orthologues of GM130 and GMAP-210. We suggest an integrated model for a tentacular Golgi in which coiled-coil proteins surround the Golgi to capture and retain Rab-containing membranes, excluding other structures such as ribosomes. Binding sites for diverse Rabs could ensure that incoming carriers are captured on first contact and moved to their correct destination within the stack.
Genome-wide screening for sensitivity to chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by dithiothreitol and tunicamycin (TM) identified mutants deleted for Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) function (SOD1, CCS1) or affected in NADPH generation via the pentose phosphate pathway (TKL1, RPE1). TM-induced ER stress led to an increase in cellular superoxide accumulation and an increase in SOD1 expression and Sod1p activity. Prior adaptation of the hac1 mutant deficient in the unfolded protein response (UPR) to the superoxide-generating agent paraquat reduced cell death under ER stress. Overexpression of the ER oxidoreductase Ero1p known to generate hydrogen peroxide in vitro, did not lead to increased superoxide levels in cells subjected to ER stress. The mutants lacking SOD1, TKL1, or RPE1 exhibited decreased UPR induction under ER stress. Sensitivity of the sod1 mutant to ER stress and decreased UPR induction was partially rescued by overexpression of TKL1 encoding transketolase. These data indicate an important role for SOD and cellular NADP(H) in cell survival during ER stress, and it is proposed that accumulation of superoxide affects NADP(H) homeostasis, leading to reduced UPR induction during ER stress.
Yeast and animal homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complexes contain conserved subunits, but HOPS-mediated traffic in animals might require additional proteins. Here, we demonstrate that SPE-39 homologues, which are found only in animals, are present in RAB5-, RAB7-, and RAB11-positive endosomes where they play a conserved role in lysosomal delivery and probably function via their interaction with the core HOPS complex. Although Caenorhabditis elegans spe-39 mutants were initially identified as having abnormal vesicular biogenesis during spermatogenesis, we show that these mutants also have disrupted processing of endocytosed proteins in oocytes and coelomocytes. C. elegans SPE-39 interacts in vitro with both VPS33A and VPS33B, whereas RNA interference of VPS33B causes spe-39–like spermatogenesis defects. The human SPE-39 orthologue C14orf133 also interacts with VPS33 homologues and both coimmunoprecipitates and cosediments with other HOPS subunits. SPE-39 knockdown in cultured human cells altered the morphology of syntaxin 7-, syntaxin 8-, and syntaxin 13-positive endosomes. These effects occurred concomitantly with delayed mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated cathepsin D delivery and degradation of internalized epidermal growth factor receptors. Our findings establish that SPE-39 proteins are a previously unrecognized regulator of lysosomal delivery and that C. elegans spermatogenesis is an experimental system useful for identifying conserved regulators of metazoan lysosomal biogenesis.
We have investigated the role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in membrane bud formation in the Golgi apparatus. Addition of propranolol to specifically inhibit phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP), an enzyme responsible for converting phosphatidic acid into DAG, effectively prevents formation of membrane buds. The effect of PAP inhibition on Golgi membranes is rapid and occurs within 3 min. Removal of the PAP inhibitor then results in a rapid burst of buds, vesicles, and tubules that peaks within 2 min. The inability to form buds in the presence of propranolol does not appear to be correlated with a loss of ARFGAP1 from Golgi membranes, as knockdown of ARFGAP1 by RNA interference has little or no effect on actual bud formation. Rather, knockdown of ARFGAP1 results in an increase in membrane buds and a decrease of vesicles and tubules suggesting it functions in the late stages of scission. How DAG promotes bud formation is discussed.
Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] is a key player in early endosomal trafficking and is mainly produced by class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In neurosecretory cells, class II PI3K-C2α and its lipid product PtdIns(3)P have recently been shown to play a critical role during neuroexocytosis, suggesting that two distinct pools of PtdIns(3)P might coexist in these cells. However, the precise characterization of this additional pool of PtdIns(3)P remains to be established. Using a selective PtdIns(3)P probe, we have identified a novel PtdIns(3)P-positive pool localized on secretory vesicles, sensitive to PI3K-C2α knockdown and relatively resistant to wortmannin treatment. In neurosecretory cells, stimulation of exocytosis promoted a transient albeit large increase in PtdIns(3)P production localized on secretory vesicles sensitive to PI3K-C2α knockdown and expression of PI3K-C2α catalytically inactive mutant. Using purified chromaffin granules, we found that PtdIns(3)P production is controlled by Ca2+. We confirmed that PtdIns(3)P production from recombinantly expressed PI3K-C2α is indeed regulated by Ca2+. We provide evidence that a dynamic pool of PtdIns(3)P synthesized by PI3K-C2α occurs on secretory vesicles in neurosecretory cells, demonstrating that the activity of a member of the PI3K family is regulated by Ca2+ in vitro and in living neurosecretory cells.
The SM protein UNC-18 has been proposed to regulate several aspects of secretion, including synaptic vesicle docking, priming, and fusion. Here, we show that UNC-18 has a chaperone function in neurons, promoting anterograde transport of the plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein Syntaxin-1. In unc-18 mutants, UNC-64 (Caenorhabditis elegans Syntaxin-1) accumulates in neuronal cell bodies. Colocalization studies and analysis of carbohydrate modifications both suggest that this accumulation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. This trafficking defect is specific for UNC-64 Syntaxin-1, because 14 other SNARE proteins and two active zone markers were unaffected. UNC-18 binds to Syntaxin through at least two mechanisms: binding to closed Syntaxin, or to the N terminus of Syntaxin. It is unclear which of these binding modes mediates UNC-18 function in neurons. The chaperone function of UNC-18 was eliminated in double mutants predicted to disrupt both modes of Syntaxin binding, but it was unaffected in single mutants. By contrast, mutations predicted to disrupt UNC-18 binding to the N terminus of Syntaxin caused significant defects in locomotion behavior and responsiveness to cholinesterase inhibitors. Collectively, these results demonstrate the UNC-18 acts as a molecular chaperone for Syntaxin transport in neurons and that the two modes of UNC-18 binding to Syntaxin are involved in different aspects of UNC-18 function.
Alignment of the mitotic spindle along a preformed axis of polarity is crucial for generating cell diversity in many organisms, yet little is known about the role of the endomembrane system in this process. RAB-11 is a small GTPase enriched in recycling endosomes. When we depleted RAB-11 by RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans, the spindle of the one-cell embryo failed to align along the axis of polarity in metaphase and underwent violent movements in anaphase. The distance between astral microtubules ends and the anterior cortex was significantly increased in rab-11(RNAi) embryos specifically during metaphase, possibly accounting for the observed spindle alignment defects. Additionally, we found that normal ER morphology requires functional RAB-11, particularly during metaphase. We hypothesize that RAB-11, in conjunction with the ER, acts to regulate cell cycle–specific changes in astral microtubule length to ensure proper spindle alignment in Caenorhabditis elegans early embryos.
Biological membranes consist of lipid bilayers. The lipid compositions between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane differ, generating lipid asymmetry. Maintenance of proper lipid asymmetry is physiologically quite important, and its collapse induces several cellular responses including apoptosis and platelet coagulation. Thus, a change in lipid asymmetry must be restored to maintain “lipid asymmetry homeostasis.” However, to date no lipid asymmetry-sensing proteins or any related downstream signaling pathways have been identified. We recently demonstrated that expression of the putative yeast sphingoid long-chain base transporter/translocase Rsb1 is induced when glycerophospholipid asymmetry is altered. Using mutant screening, we determined that the pH-responsive Rim101 pathway, the protein kinase Mck1, and the transcription factor Mot3 all act in lipid asymmetry signaling, and that the Rim101 pathway was activated in response to a change in lipid asymmetry. The activated transcription factor Rim101 induces Rsb1 expression via repression of another transcription repressor, Nrg1. Changes in lipid asymmetry are accompanied by cell surface exposure of negatively charged phospholipids; we speculate that the Rim101 pathway recognizes the surface charges.