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author:("krause, joerg")
1.  A Structural Basis for BRD2/4-Mediated Host Chromatin Interaction and Oligomer Assembly of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and Murine Gammaherpesvirus LANA Proteins 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(10):e1003640.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) establishes a lifelong latent infection and causes several malignancies in humans. Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a related γ2-herpesvirus frequently used as a model to study the biology of γ-herpesviruses in vivo. The KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) and the MHV68 mLANA (orf73) protein are required for latent viral replication and persistence. Latent episomal KSHV genomes and kLANA form nuclear microdomains, termed ‘LANA speckles’, which also contain cellular chromatin proteins, including BRD2 and BRD4, members of the BRD/BET family of chromatin modulators. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal DNA binding domains (CTD) of kLANA and MHV-68 mLANA. While these structures share the overall fold with the EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus, they differ substantially in their surface characteristics. Opposite to the DNA binding site, both kLANA and mLANA CTD contain a characteristic lysine-rich positively charged surface patch, which appears to be a unique feature of γ2-herpesviral LANA proteins. Importantly, kLANA and mLANA CTD dimers undergo higher order oligomerization. Using NMR spectroscopy we identified a specific binding site for the ET domains of BRD2/4 on kLANA. Functional studies employing multiple kLANA mutants indicate that the oligomerization of native kLANA CTD dimers, the characteristic basic patch and the ET binding site on the kLANA surface are required for the formation of kLANA ‘nuclear speckles’ and latent replication. Similarly, the basic patch on mLANA contributes to the establishment of MHV-68 latency in spleen cells in vivo. In summary, our data provide a structural basis for the formation of higher order LANA oligomers, which is required for nuclear speckle formation, latent replication and viral persistence.
Author Summary
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi Sarcoma, Primary Effusion lymphoma and the plasma cell variant of Multicentric Castleman's Disease. Its oncogenic effect is linked to its ability to persist in a latent form for the life time of infected individuals. During latency viral genomes are replicated and passed to daughter cells in synchrony with the infected cell without the formation of new virions. A key viral protein in this process is the latency-associated nuclear antigen, LANA. In latently infected cells, viral genomes and LANA form characteristic nuclear microdomains, termed ‘LANA speckles’, which also contain cellular chromatin components. We have solved the crystal structure of the c-terminal, DNA-binding, domain (CTD) of KSHV LANA (kLANA) and its homologue mLANA of a related murine γ2-herpesvirus, which is frequently used as a model to study latent persistence in vivo. We also identified the binding site for two chromatin proteins, BRD2/4, by NMR spectroscopy. We demonstrate the functional importance of these structural features, and their contribution to latent replication and ‘LANA speckle’ formation, in cell culture and in vivo experiments. Our results provide a structural basis for the assembly of LANA-containing nuclear structures that are required for latent viral replication and persistence.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003640
PMCID: PMC3798688  PMID: 24146614
2.  Crystal structure of the conserved domain of the DC lysosomal associated membrane protein: implications for the lysosomal glycocalyx 
BMC Biology  2012;10:62.
Background
The family of lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) comprises the multifunctional, ubiquitous LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, and the cell type-specific proteins DC-LAMP (LAMP-3), BAD-LAMP (UNC-46, C20orf103) and macrosialin (CD68). LAMPs have been implicated in a multitude of cellular processes, including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport and aging. LAMP-2 isoform A acts as a receptor in chaperone-mediated autophagy. LAMP-2 deficiency causes the fatal Danon disease. The abundant proteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are major constituents of the glycoconjugate coat present on the inside of the lysosomal membrane, the 'lysosomal glycocalyx'. The LAMP family is characterized by a conserved domain of 150 to 200 amino acids with two disulfide bonds.
Results
The crystal structure of the conserved domain of human DC-LAMP was solved. It is the first high-resolution structure of a heavily glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein. The structure represents a novel β-prism fold formed by two β-sheets bent by β-bulges and connected by a disulfide bond. Flexible loops and a hydrophobic pocket represent possible sites of molecular interaction. Computational models of the glycosylated luminal regions of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 indicate that the proteins adopt a compact conformation in close proximity to the lysosomal membrane. The models correspond to the thickness of the lysosomal glycoprotein coat of only 5 to 12 nm, according to electron microscopy.
Conclusion
The conserved luminal domain of lysosome-associated membrane proteins forms a previously unknown β-prism fold. Insights into the structure of the lysosomal glycoprotein coat were obtained by computational models of the LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 luminal regions.
doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-62
PMCID: PMC3409847  PMID: 22809326

Results 1-2 (2)