Mitochondrial functioning and morphology are known to be connected through cycles of organelle fusion and fission that depend upon mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM); however, we lack an understanding of the features and dynamics of natural mitochondrial populations. Using data from our recent study of univariate mitochondrial phenotypic variation in Caenorhabditis briggsae nematodes, we analyzed patterns of phenotypic correlation for 24 mitochondrial traits. Our findings support a role for ΔΨM in shaping mitochondrial dynamics, but no role for mitochondrial ROS. Further, our study suggests a novel model of mitochondrial population dynamics dependent upon cellular environmental context and with implications for mitochondrial genome integrity.
complex I; electron transport chain; membrane potential; mitochondrial dynamics; nad5Δ; reactive oxygen species
We explored the relationship between relaxed selection, oxidative stress, and spontaneous mutation in a set of mutation-accumulation (MA) lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in their common ancestor. We measured steady-state levels of free radicals and oxidatively damaged guanosine nucleosides in the somatic tissues of five MA lines for which nuclear genome base substitution and GC-TA transversion frequencies are known. The two markers of oxidative stress are highly correlated and are elevated in the MA lines relative to the ancestor; point estimates of the per-generation rate of mutational decay (ΔM) of these measures of oxidative stress are similar to those reported for fitness-related traits. Conversely, there is no significant relationship between either marker of oxidative stress and the per-generation frequencies of base substitution or GC-TA transversion. Although these results provide no direct evidence for a causative relationship between oxidative damage and base substitution mutations, to the extent that oxidative damage may be weakly mutagenic in the germline, the case for condition-dependent mutation is advanced.
We have analyzed natural variation in mitochondrial form and function among a set of Caenorhabditis briggsae isolates known to harbor mitochondrial DNA structural variation in the form of a heteroplasmic nad5 gene deletion (nad5Δ) that correlates negatively with organismal fitness. We performed in vivo quantification of 24 mitochondrial phenotypes including reactive oxygen species level, membrane potential, and aspects of organelle morphology, and observed significant among-isolate variation in 18 traits. Although several mitochondrial phenotypes were non-linearly associated with nad5Δ levels, most of the among-isolate phenotypic variation could be accounted for by phylogeographic clade membership. In particular, isolate-specific mitochondrial membrane potential was an excellent predictor of clade membership. We interpret this result in light of recent evidence for local adaptation to temperature in C. briggsae. Analysis of mitochondrial-nuclear hybrid strains provided support for both mtDNA and nuclear genetic variation as drivers of natural mitochondrial phenotype variation. This study demonstrates that multicellular eukaryotic species are capable of extensive natural variation in organellar phenotypes and highlights the potential of integrating evolutionary and cell biology perspectives.
Selfish DNA poses a significant challenge to genome stability and organismal fitness in diverse eukaryotic lineages. Although selfish mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has known associations with cytoplasmic male sterility in numerous gynodioecious plant species and is manifested as petite mutants in experimental yeast lab populations, examples of selfish mtDNA in animals are less common. We analyzed the inheritance and evolution of mitochondrial DNA bearing large heteroplasmic deletions including nad5 gene sequences (nad5Δ mtDNA), in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae. The deletion is widespread in C. briggsae natural populations and is associated with deleterious organismal effects. We studied the inheritance patterns of nad5Δ mtDNA using eight sets of C. briggsae mutation-accumulation (MA) lines, each initiated from a different natural strain progenitor and bottlenecked as single hermaphrodites across generations. We observed a consistent and strong drive toward higher levels of deletion-bearing molecules in the heteroplasmic pool of mtDNA after ten generations of bottlenecking. Our results demonstrate a uniform transmission bias whereby nad5Δ mtDNA accumulates to higher levels relative to intact mtDNA in multiple genetically diverse natural strains of C. briggsae. We calculated an average 1% per-generation transmission bias for deletion-bearing mtDNA relative to intact genomes. Our study, coupled with known deleterious phenotypes associated with high deletion levels, shows that nad5Δ mtDNA are selfish genetic elements that have evolved in natural populations of C. briggsae, offering a powerful new system to study selfish mtDNA dynamics in metazoans.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a preeminent model organism, but the natural ecology of this nematode has been elusive. A four-year survey of French orchards published in BMC Biology reveals thriving populations of C. elegans (and Caenorhabditis briggsae) in rotting fruit and plant stems. Rather than being simply a 'soil nematode', C. elegans appears to be a 'plant-rot nematode'. These studies signal a growing interest in the integrated genomics and ecology of these tractable animals.
See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/59
Variation among lineages in the mutation process has the potential to impact diverse biological processes ranging from susceptibilities to genetic disease to the mode and tempo of molecular evolution. The combination of high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS) with mutation-accumulation (MA) experiments has provided a powerful approach to genome-wide mutation analysis, though insights into mutational variation have been limited by the vast evolutionary distances among the few species analyzed. We performed a HTS analysis of MA lines derived from four Caenorhabditis nematode natural genotypes: C. elegans N2 and PB306 and C. briggsae HK104 and PB800. Total mutation rates did not differ among the four sets of MA lines. A mutational bias toward G:C→A:T transitions and G:C→T:A transversions was observed in all four sets of MA lines. Chromosome-specific rates were mostly stable, though there was some evidence for a slightly elevated X chromosome mutation rate in PB306. Rates were homogeneous among functional coding sequence types and across autosomal cores, arms, and tips. Mutation spectra were similar among the four MA line sets but differed significantly when compared with patterns of natural base-substitution polymorphism for 13/14 comparisons performed. Our findings show that base-substitution mutation processes in these closely related animal lineages are mostly stable but differ from natural polymorphism patterns in these two species.
base substitution; mutation rate; mutation spectrum; nematode
Although most metazoan mitochondrial genomes are highly streamlined and encode little noncoding DNA outside of the “AT” region, the accumulation of mitochondrial pseudogenes and other types of noncoding DNA has been observed in a growing number of animal groups. The nematode species Caenorhabditis briggsae harbors two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) pseudogenes, named Ψnad5-1 and Ψnad5-2, presumably derived from the nad5 protein-coding gene. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of mtDNA pseudogene evolution in C. briggsae natural isolates and related Caenorhabditis species. Mapping the observed presence and absence of the pseudogenes onto phylogenies suggests that Ψnad5-1 originated in the ancestor to C. briggsae and its recently discovered outcrossing relative species Caenorhabditis sp. 5 and Caenorhabditis sp. 9. However, Ψnad5-1 was not detected in Caenorhabditis sp. 9 natural isolates, suggesting a lineage-specific loss of this pseudogene in this species. Our results corroborated the previous finding that Ψnad5-2 originated within C. briggsae. The observed pattern of mitochondrial pseudogene gain and loss in Caenorhabditis was inconsistent with predictions of the tandem duplication–random loss model of mitochondrial genome evolution and suggests that intralineage recombination–like mechanisms might play a major role in Caenorhabditis mtDNA evolution. Natural variation was analyzed at the pseudogenes and flanking mtDNA sequences in 141 geographically diverse C. briggsae natural isolates. Although phylogenetic analysis placed the majority of isolates into the three previously established major intraspecific clades of C. briggsae, two new and unexpected haplotypes fell outside of these conventional groupings. Ψnad5-2 copy number variation was observed among C. briggsae isolates collected from the same geographic site. Patterns of nucleotide diversity were analyzed in Ψnad5-1 and Ψnad5-2, and confidence intervals were found to overlap values from synonymous sites in protein-coding genes, consistent with neutral expectations. Our findings provide new insights into the mode and tempo of mitochondrial genome and pseudogene evolution both within and between Caenorhabditis nematode species.
Caenorhabditis; mitochondrial genome; nucleotide diversity; phylogenetics; pseudogene
Biological phenotypes are described as “canalized” if they are robust to minor variation of environment and/or genetic background. The existence of a robust phenotype logically implies that some underlying mechanism must be variable, in the sense of “able to vary”, in order to compensate for variation in the environment and/or genetic effects. Several lines of evidence lead to the conclusion that deleterious mutations predictably render morphological, developmental, and life-history traits more sensitive to small random environmental perturbations - that is, mutations de-canalize the phenotype.
Using conventional dye-swap microarray methodology, we compared transcript abundance in a sample of >7,000 genes between four mutation accumulation (MA) lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the common (unmutated) ancestor. There was significantly less environmental variance in the MA lines than in the ancestor, both among replicates of the same gene and among genes.
Deleterious mutations consistently decrease the within-line component of variance in transcript abundance, which is straightforwardly interpreted as reducing the sensitivity of gene expression to small random variation in the environment. This finding is consistent with the idea that underlying variability in gene expression might be mechanistically responsible for phenotypic robustness.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations underlie a variety of human genetic disorders and are associated with the aging process. mtDNA polymorphisms are widely used in a variety of evolutionary applications. Although mtDNA mutation spectra are known to differ between distantly related model organisms, the extent to which mtDNA mutation processes vary between more closely related species and within species remains enigmatic. We analyzed mtDNA divergence in two sets of 250-generation Caenorhabditis briggsae mutation-accumulation (MA) lines, each derived from a different natural isolate progenitor: strain HK104 from Okayama, Japan, and strain PB800 from Ohio, United States. Both sets of C. briggsae MA lines accumulated numerous large heteroplasmic mtDNA deletions, whereas only one similar event was observed in a previous analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans MA line mtDNA. Homopolymer length change mutations were frequent in both sets of C. briggsae MA lines and occurred in both intergenic and protein-coding gene regions. The spectrum of C. briggsae mtDNA base substitution mutations differed from the spectrum previously observed in C. elegans. In C. briggsae, the HK104 MA lines experienced many different base substitution types, whereas the PB800 lines displayed only C:G → T:A transitions, although the difference was not significant. Over half of the mtDNA base substitutions detected in the C. briggsae MA lines were in a heteroplasmic state, whereas all those previously characterized in C. elegans MA line mtDNA were fixed changes, indicating a narrower mtDNA bottleneck in C. elegans as compared with C. briggsae. Our results show that C. briggsae mtDNA is highly susceptible to large deletions and that the mitochondrial mutation process varies between Caenorhabditis nematode species.
bottleneck; heteroplasmy; mutation-accumulation line; nematode
As exemplified by the famously successful model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, nematodes offer outstanding animal systems for investigating diverse biological phenomena due to their small genome sizes, short generation times and ease of laboratory maintenance. Nematodes in the genus Panagrolaimus have served in comparative development and anhydrobiosis studies, and the Antarctic species P. davidi offers a powerful paradigm for understanding the biological mechanisms of extreme cold tolerance. Panagrolaimus nematodes are also unique in that examples of gonochoristic, hermaphroditic and parthenogenetic reproductive modes have been reported for members of this genus. The evolutionary origins of these varying reproductive modes and the Antarctic species P. davidi, however, remain enigmatic.
We collected nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences from diverse Panagrolaimus species and strains, including newly discovered isolates from Oregon, to investigate phylogenetic relationships in this nematode genus. Nuclear phylogenies showed that the species and strains historically identified as members of Panagrolaimus constitute a paraphyletic group, suggesting that taxonomic revision is required for Panagrolaimus and related nematode lineages. Strain-specific reproductive modes were mapped onto the molecular phylogeny to show a single origin of parthenogenesis from a presumably gonochoristic ancestor. The hermaphroditic strains were all placed outside a major monophyletic clade that contained the majority of other Panagrolaimus nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that substantial molecular and geographic diversity exists within the clade of parthenogenetic strains. The Antarctic species P. davidi was found to be very closely related to two Panagrolaimus strains from southern California. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses suggested that P. davidi and the California strain PS1579 shared a common ancestor in the very recent evolutionary past.
Our study provides a phylogenetic framework for understanding the evolutionary origins and diversification patterns of varying reproductive modes within Panagrolaimus and important insights into the origin of the Antarctic species P. davidi. Panagrolaimus offers a powerful nematode model for understanding diverse evolutionary phenomena including the evolution of asexuality and the adaptive evolution of extreme cold tolerance.
Large-scale evaluation of gene expression variation among Caenorhabditis elegans lines that have diverged from a common ancestor allows for the analysis of a novel class of biological networks – evolutionary gene coexpression networks. Comparative analysis of these evolutionary networks has the potential to uncover the effects of natural selection in shaping coexpression network topologies since C. elegans mutation accumulation (MA) lines evolve essentially free from the effects of natural selection, whereas natural isolate (NI) populations are subject to selective constraints.
We compared evolutionary gene coexpression networks for C. elegans MA lines versus NI populations to evaluate the role that natural selection plays in shaping the evolution of network topologies. MA and NI evolutionary gene coexpression networks were found to have very similar global topological properties as measured by a number of network topological parameters. Observed MA and NI networks show node degree distributions and average values for node degree, clustering coefficient, path length, eccentricity and betweeness that are statistically indistinguishable from one another yet highly distinct from randomly simulated networks. On the other hand, at the local level the MA and NI coexpression networks are highly divergent; pairs of genes coexpressed in the MA versus NI lines are almost entirely different as are the connectivity and clustering properties of individual genes.
It appears that selective forces shape how local patterns of coexpression change over time but do not control the global topology of C. elegans evolutionary gene coexpression networks. These results have implications for the evolutionary significance of global network topologies, which are known to be conserved across disparate complex systems.
Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies such as Illumina's Solexa platform and Roche's 454 approach provide new avenues for investigating genome-scale questions. However, they also present novel analytical challenges that must be met for their effective application to biological questions.
Here we report the availability of tileQC, a tile-based quality control system for Solexa data written in the R language. TileQC provides a means of recognizing bias and error in Solexa output by graphically representing data generated by flow cell tiles. The data represented in the images is then made available in the R environment for further analysis and automation of error detection.
TileQC offers a highly adaptable and powerful tool for the quality control of Solexa-based DNA sequence data.
The theory of Muller' Ratchet predicts that small asexual populations are doomed to accumulate ever-increasing deleterious mutation loads as a consequence of the magnified power of genetic drift and mutation that accompanies small population size. Evidence for Muller's Ratchet and knowledge on its underlying molecular mechanisms, however, are lacking for natural populations.
We characterized mitochondrial genome evolutionary processes in Caenorhabditis briggsae natural isolates to show that numerous lineages experience a high incidence of nonsynonymous substitutions in protein-coding genes and accumulate unusual deleterious noncoding DNA stretches with associated heteroplasmic function-disrupting genome deletions. Isolate-specific deletion proportions correlated negatively with nematode fecundity, suggesting that these deletions might negatively affect C. briggsae fitness. However, putative compensatory mutations were also observed that are predicted to reduce heteroplasmy levels of deleterious deletions. Paradoxically, compensatory mutations were observed in one major intraspecific C. briggsae clade where population sizes are estimated to be very small (and selection is predicted to be relatively weak), but not in a second major clade where population size estimates are much larger and selection is expected to be more efficient.
This study provides evidence that the mitochondrial genomes of animals evolving in nature are susceptible to Muller's Ratchet, suggests that context-dependent compensatory mutations can accumulate in small populations, and predicts that Muller's Ratchet can affect fundamental evolutionary forces such as the rate of mutation.
Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism.
We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms.
Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.