NanoDisk–amphotericin B (ND-AMB) is a protein-phospholipid bioparticle containing a “super aggregate” form of antifungal AMB. While lipid-based formulations of AMB, including liposomal AMB (L-AMB), are safer than the deoxycholate (DOC) solubilized form (DOC-AMB), the potency of lipid-based formulations is attenuated. We have developed an AMB-based therapy that is both well tolerated and fully efficacious.
Potency was determined using broth culture growth-inhibition assays and candidacidal kinetics by quantitative culture plating. Toxicology studies were performed in healthy mice. Efficacy was assessed using both immune-competent and leukopenic murine models of systemic Candida albicans infection.
ND-AMB C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus minimum inhibitory concentrations were fourfold and sixfold lower, respectively, than that observed for L-AMB. ND-AMB exhibited candidacidal activity at 0.125 mg/L, 16-fold lower than L-AMB. In mice, ND-AMB produced no statistically significant kidney or liver toxicity at 15 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. When evaluated in immune-competent mice infected with C. albicans, ND-AMB was at least as effective as DOC-AMB or L-AMB. In a leukopenic model of candidiasis, the 50% effective dose of ND-AMB was around threefold lower than L-AMB.
These results indicate that ND-AMB exhibits a more favorable safety profile while maintaining uncompromised antifungal properties compared to both DOC-AMB and L-AMB. ND-AMB is a promising therapy for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.
nanoparticles; infectious diseases; drug delivery; candidiasis; apolipoprotein A-I
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism. The lipid-free / lipid-poor form of apoA-I is the preferred substrate for the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 leads to the formation of cholesterol laden high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, a key step in reverse cholesterol transport and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. Knowledge of the structure of lipid-free apoA-I is essential to understanding its critical interaction with ABCA1 and the molecular mechanisms underlying HDL biogenesis. We therefore examined the structure of lipid-free apoA-I by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Through site directed spin label EPR, we mapped the secondary structure of apoA-I and identified sites of spin coupling as residues 26, 44, 64, 167, 217 and 226. We capitalize on the fact that lipid-free apoA-I self-associates in an anti-parallel manner in solution. We employed these sites of spin coupling to define the central plane in the dimeric apoA-I complex. Applying both the constraints of dipolar coupling with the EPR-derived pattern of solvent accessibility, we assembled the secondary structure into a tertiary context, providing a solution structure for lipid-free apoA-I.
Coronary disease risk increases inversely with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. The measurement of the biodistribution and clearance of HDL in vivo, however, has posed a technical challenge. This study presents an approach to the development of a lipoprotein MRI agent by linking gadolinium methanethiosulfonate (Gd[MTS-ADO3A]) to a selective cysteine mutation in position 55 of apo AI, the major protein of HDL. The contrast agent targets both liver and kidney, the sites of HDL catabolism, whereas the standard MRI contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bismethylamide (GdDTPA-BMA, gadodiamide), enhances only the kidney image. Using a modified apolipoprotein AI to create an HDL contrast agent provides a new approach to investigate HDL biodistribution, metabolism and regulation in vivo.
NMR; apolipoprotein; HDL; contrast agent; MRI; gadolinium; cardiovascular risk
Mass spectrometric assays have the potential to replace protein immunoassays in basic science, clinical research, and clinical care. Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of assays using multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) for the quantification of proteins in biological samples and many examples of the accuracy of these approaches to quantify spiked analytes have been reported. However, a direct comparison of multiplexed assays using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with established immunoassays to measure endogenous proteins has not been reported.
We purified the HDL from the plasma of 30 human subjects enrolled in a clinical nutrition research study and used label-free shotgun proteomics approaches to analyze each sample. We then developed two different 6-plex assays that used isotope dilution MRM-MS: one assay used stable isotope labeled peptides and the other used stable isotope labeled apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the most abundant protein in HDL, as internal standards to control for matrix effects and mass spectrometer performance. The shotgun and MRM-MS assays were then compared with commercially available immunoassays for each of the six analytes.
Quantification by shotgun proteomics approaches correlated poorly with the six protein immunoassays. However, the MRM-MS approaches that used internal standard peptide or a single internal standard protein correlated well. In addition, MRM-MS approaches had good repeatability (<10% CV) and linearity.
Multiplexed MRM-MS assays correlate well with immunochemical measurements and have acceptable operating characteristics in complex samples. Our results support the proposal that MRM-MS could be used to replace immunoassays in a variety of settings.
Mass spectrometry; multiple reaction monitoring; endogenous; proteins; high density lipoprotein; targeted proteomics
The single amino acid mutation G26R in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-IIOWA) leads to the formation of β-secondary structure rich amyloid fibrils in vivo. Here we show that full-length apoA-IIOWA has a decreased lipid binding capability, an increased amino terminal sensitivity to protease, and a propensity to form annular protofibrils visible by electron microscopy. The molecular basis for the conversion of apolipoprotein A-I to a pro-amyloidogenic form was examined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our recent findings [Lagerstedt, J. O., Budamagunta, M. S., Oda, M. N., and Voss, J. C. (2007) J Biol Chem, 282, 9143–9149] indicate that Gly26 in native apo-protein separates a preceding β-strand structure (residues 20–25) from a downstream largely α-helical region. The current study demonstrates that the G26R variant promotes a structural transition of positions 27–56 to a mixture of coil and β-strand secondary structure. Microscopy and staining by amyloidophilic dyes suggest that this alteration extends throughout the protein within one week of incubation in vitro, leading to insoluble aggregates of distinct morphology. The severe consequences of the Iowa mutation likely arise from the combination of losing the contribution of the native Gly residue in terminating β-strand propagation and the promotion of β structure when an Arg is introduced adjacent to succeeding residue of identical charge and size, Arg27.
Amphotericin B (AMB), a potent antifungal agent, has been employed as an inhalable therapy for pulmonary fungal infections. We recently described a novel nano-sized delivery vehicle composed of phospholipid (PL) and apolipoprotein A-I, NanoDisk (ND), to which we added AMB as a payload (ND-AMB). The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether ND-AMB, compared to other formulations, preserves lung cell integrity in vitro, as AMB can be toxic to mammalian cells and reduce lung function when inhaled. Epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring K+ ion flux across a model airway epithelium, Calu-3 cells. In this assay ND-AMB was at least 8-fold less disruptive than AMB/deoxycholate (DOC). Cell viability studies confirmed this observation. Unexpectedly, the ND vehicle restored the integrity of a membrane compromised by prior exposure to AMB. An alternative formulation of ND-AMB containing a high load of AMB per ND was not protective, suggesting that ND with a low ratio of AMB to PL can sequester additional AMB from membranes. ND-AMB also protected HepG2 cells from the cytotoxicity of AMB, as determined by cellular viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. This study suggests that ND-AMB may be safe for administration via inhalation and reveals a unique activity whereby ND-AMB protects lung epithelial membranes from AMB toxicity.
nanodisk; amphotericin B; Calu-3 cells; HepG2 cells; high density lipoprotein; lung epithelium; trans-epithelial K+ current; membrane protection; apolipoprotein A-I
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the lipidation of exchangeable apolipoproteins, the rate-limiting step in the formation of high density lipoproteins (HDL). We previously demonstrated that HDL oxidized ex vivo by peroxidase-generated tyrosyl radical (tyrosylated HDL, tyrHDL) increases the availability of cellular cholesterol for efflux and reduces the development of atherosclerosis when administered to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice as compared to treatment with control HDL.
In the current study we determined that tyrHDL requires functional ABCA1 for this enhanced activity. Like lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), tyrHDL increases total and cell surface ABCA1, inhibits calpain-dependent and -independent proteolysis of ABCA1, and can be bound by cell surface ABCA1 in human skin fibroblasts. Additionally, tyrHDL apoproteins are susceptible to digestion by enteropeptidase like lipid-free apoA-I, but unlike lipid-bound apoA-I on HDL, which is resistant to proteolysis.
These results provide the first evidence that lipid-bound apolipoproteins on the surface of spherical HDL particles can behave like lipid-free apoA-I to increase ABCA1 protein levels and activity.
Crosstalk exists in mammalian cells between cholesterol trafficking and innate immunity signaling. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a serum apolipoprotein that induces anti-atherogenic efflux of macrophage cholesterol, is widely described as anti-inflammatory because it neutralizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation is pro-atherogenic. However, whether innate immunity plays an endogenous, physiological role in host cholesterol homeostasis in the absence of infection is undetermined. We report that apoA-I signals in the macrophage through Toll like Receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and CD14, utilizing Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Protein 88 (MyD88)-dependent and –independent pathways, to activate nuclear factor-κB and induce cytokines. MyD88 plays a critical role in reverse cholesterol transport in vitro and in vivo, in part through promoting ATP-Binding Cassette A1 transporter upregulation. Taken together, this work identifies apoA-I as an endogenous stimulus of innate immunity that couples cholesterol trafficking to inflammation through MyD88, and identifies innate immunity as a physiologic signal in cholesterol homeostasis.
Accumulation of LDL-derived cholesterol by artery wall macrophages triggers atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, HDL retards atherosclerosis by promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages by the membrane-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway. HDL has been proposed to lose its cardioprotective effects in subjects with atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. One potential pathway involves oxidative damage by myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme secreted by human artery wall macrophages. We used mass spectrometry to demonstrate that HDL isolated from patients with established cardiovascular disease contains elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine, two characteristic products of MPO. When apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein, was oxidized by MPO, its ability to promote cellular cholesterol efflux by ABCA1 was impaired. Moreover, oxidized apoA-I was unable to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which rapidly converts free cholesterol to cholesteryl ester, a critical step in HDL maturation. Biochemical studies implicated tyrosine chlorination and methionine oxygenation in the loss of ABCA1 and LCAT activity by oxidized apoA-I. Oxidation of specific residues in apoA-I inhibited two key steps in cholesterol efflux from macrophages, raising the possibility that MPO initiates a pathway for generating dysfunctional HDL in humans.
reverse cholesterol transport; inflammation; hypochlorous acid; peroxynitrite; reactive nitrogen species; foam cell
Plasma lipoprotein levels are predictors of risk for coronary artery disease. Lipoprotein structure-function relationships provide important clues that help identify the role of lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease. The compositional and conformational heterogeneity of lipoproteins are major barriers to the identification of their structures, as discovered using traditional approaches. Although electron microscopy (EM) is an alternative approach, conventional negative staining (NS) produces rouleau artifacts. In a previous study of apolipoprotein (apo)E4-containing reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles, we optimized the NS method in a way that eliminated rouleaux. Here we report that phosphotungstic acid at high buffer salt concentrations plays a key role in rouleau formation. We also validate our protocol for analyzing the major plasma lipoprotein classes HDL, LDL, IDL, and VLDL, as well as homogeneously prepared apoA-I-containing rHDL. High-contrast EM images revealed morphology and detailed structures of lipoproteins, especially apoA-I-containing rHDL, that are amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction by single-particle analysis and electron tomography.
lipoprotein structure; lipoprotein morphology; protocol
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), wherein excess cholesterol is conveyed from peripheral tissues to the liver and steroidogenic organs. During this process HDL continually transitions between subclass sizes, each with unique biological activities. For instance, RCT is initiated by the interaction of lipid-free/lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with ABCA1, a membrane-associated lipid transporter, to form nascent HDL. Because nearly all circulating apoA-I is lipid-bound, the source of lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I is unclear. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) then drives the conversion of nascent HDL to spherical HDL by catalyzing cholesterol esterification, an essential step in RCT. To investigate the relationship between HDL particle size and events critical to RCT such as LCAT activation and lipid-free apoA-I production for ABCA1 interaction, we reconstituted five subclasses of HDL particles (rHDL of 7.8, 8.4, 9.6, 12.2, and 17.0 nm in diameter, respectively) using various molar ratios of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, free cholesterol, and apoA-I. Kinetic analyses of this comprehensive array of rHDL particles suggest that apoA-I stoichiometry in rHDL is a critical factor governing LCAT activation. Electron microscopy revealed specific morphological differences in the HDL subclasses that may affect functionality. Furthermore, stability measurements demonstrated that the previously uncharacterized 8.4 nm rHDL particles rapidly convert to 7.8 nm particles, concomitant with the dissociation of lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I. Thus, lipid-free/lipid-poor apoA-I generated by the remodeling of HDL may be an essential intermediate in RCT and HDL’s in vivo maturation.
High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, but not all HDL are functionally equivalent. A primary determinant of HDL functional status is the conformational adaptability of its main protein component, apoA-I, an exchangeable apolipoprotein. Chemical modification of apoA-I, as may occur under conditions of inflammation or diabetes, can severely impair HDL function and is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Chemical modification of apoA-I also impairs its ability to exchange on and off HDL, a critical process in reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we developed a method using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to quantify HDL-apoA-I exchange. Using this approach, we measured the degree of HDL-apoA-I exchange for HDL isolated from rabbits fed a high fat, high cholesterol diet, as well as human subjects with acute coronary syndrome and metabolic syndrome. We observed that HDL-apoA-I exchange was markedly reduced when atherosclerosis was present, or when the subject carries at least one risk factor of cardiovascular disease. These results show that HDL-apoA-I exchange is a clinically relevant measure of HDL function pertinent to cardiovascular disease.
Aminopeptidase I (API) is transported into the yeast vacuole by the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway. Genetic evidence suggests that autophagy, a major degradative pathway in eukaryotes, and the Cvt pathway share largely the same cellular machinery. To understand the mechanism of the Cvt import process, we examined the native state of API. Dodecameric assembly of precursor API in the cytoplasm and membrane binding were rapid events, whereas subsequent vacuolar import appeared to be rate limiting. A unique temperature-sensitive API-targeting mutant allowed us to kinetically monitor its oligomeric state during translocation. Our findings indicate that API is maintained as a dodecamer throughout its import and will be useful to study the posttranslational movement of folded proteins across biological membranes.
Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and is critical for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. During reverse cholesterol transport, HDL transitions between an array of subclasses, differing in size and composition. This process requires ApoA-I to adapt to changes in the shape of the HDL particle, transiting from an apolipoprotein to a myriad of HDL subclass-specific conformations. Changes in ApoA-I structure cause alterations in HDL-specific enzyme and receptor-binding properties, and thereby direct the HDL particle through the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. In this study, we used site-directed spin label spectroscopy to examine the conformational details of the ApoA-I central domain on HDL. The motional dynamics and accessibility to hydrophobic/hydrophilic relaxation agents of ApoA-I residues 99–163 on 9.6-nm reconstituted HDL was analyzed by EPR. In previous analyses, we examined residues 6–98 and 164–238 (of ApoA-I's 243 residues), and combining these findings with the current results, we have generated a full-length map of the backbone structure of reconstituted HDL-associated ApoA-I. Remarkably, given that the majority of ApoA-I's length is composed of amphipathic helices, we have identified nonhelical residues, specifically the presence of a β-strand (residues 149–157). The significance of these nonhelical residues is discussed, along with the other features, in the context of ApoA-I function in contrast to recent models derived by other methods.
apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I); cardiovascular; cholesterol; EPR spectroscopy; high-density lipoprotein (HDL)