S100 proteins, a multigenic family of non-ubiquitous cytoplasmic Ca2+-binding proteins, have been linked to human pathologies in recent years. Dysregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9, has been reported in the epidermis as a response to stress and in association with neoplastic disorders. Recently, we characterized a regulatory element within the S100A9 promotor, referred to as MRE that drives the S100A9 gene expression in a cell type-specific, activation- and differentiation-dependent manner (Kerkhoff et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 41879–41887).
In the present study, we investigated transcription factors that bind to MRE. Using the MRE motif for a pull-down assay, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the heterodimeric complex Ku70/Ku80 were identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, TPA-induced S100A9 gene expression in HaCaT keratinocytes was blocked after the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP-1 with 1,5-isoquinolinediol (DiQ).
The candidates, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the heterodimeric complex Ku70/Ku80, are known to participate in inflammatory disorders as well as tumorgenesis. The latter may indicate a possible link between S100 and inflammation-associated cancer.