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author:("Jia, jianli")
1.  Novel In Vitro Model for Studying Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Using Liver Cubes 
Surgery  2012;152(2):247-253.
While inflow occlusion techniques have given surgeons the ability to carry out increasingly complex liver resections, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury continues to be a source of morbidity. Efforts to ameliorate IR injury have been hindered in absence of adequate pre-clinical models. The goal of the present study was to develop a simple, efficient, and cost-effective means of studying hepatic IR injury.
Liver cubes were procured from normal (C57BL/6) mice. Following hepatectomy, 4 mm punch biopsies were taken for individual placement in culture wells containing hepatocyte media. Experimental cubes underwent hypoxia for 60 minutes, while controls remained normoxic. Supernatants were collected from individual wells following 0, 6 and 12 hours of rediffusion for transaminase and cytokine measurement. Histologic examination was performed on individual cubes.
Extensive histologic injury was seen in the experimental cubes compared to controls with greater staining for activated caspase-3 and TUNEL at 6 and 24 hours, respectively. Changes consistent with ischemic injury occurred more centrally in liver cubes whereas markers for rediffusion injury were appreciated along the periphery. Transaminases were significantly higher at 6 hours following rediffusion in experimental cubes compared to controls, p = 0.02. TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in the media of experimental cubes compared to controls at 12 hours rediffusion, p = 0.05 and 0.03 respectively.
In vitro IR of cubes produces a significant injury whose pattern is reflective of hepatic lobular architecture. This novel technique may open new avenues for uncoupling the mechanisms of IR while facilitating rapid screening of potential therapies.
PMCID: PMC4258692  PMID: 22698934
Transplant immunology  2012;26(4):201-206.
Steatotic liver grafts tolerate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury poorly, contributing to increased primary graft nonfunction following transplantation. Activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) following I/R injury plays a crucial role in activation of pro-inflammatory responses leading to injury.
We evaluated the role of NFκB in steatotic liver injury by using an orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) model in Zucker rats (lean to lean or obese to lean) to define the mechanisms of steatotic liver injury. Obese donors were treated with bortezomib to assess the role of NF-κB in steatotic liver I/R injury. Hepatic levels of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. Serum transaminase levels and histopathological analysis were performed to assess associated graft injury.
I/R injury in steatotic liver results in significant increases in activation of NF-κB (40%, p<0.003), specifically the p65 subunit following transplantation. Steatotic donor pretreatment with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (0.1 mg/kg) resulted in significant reduction in levels of activated NF-κB (0.58±0.18 vs. 1.37±0.06 O.D./min/10μg protein, p<0.003). Bortezomib treatment also reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines MIP-2 compared with control treated steatotic and lean liver transplants respectively (106±17.5 vs. 443.3±49.9 vs. 176±10.6 pg/mL, p=0.02), TNF-α (223.8±29.9 vs. 518.5±66.5 vs 264.5±30.1 pg/2μg protein, p=0.003) and IL-1β (6.0±0.91 vs. 19.8±5.2 vs 5±1.7 pg/10μg protein, p= 0.02) along with a significant reduction in ALT levels (715±71 vs 3712.5±437.5 vs 606±286 U/L, p=0.01).
These results suggest that I/R injury in steatotic liver transplantation are associated with exaggerated activation of NFκB subunit p65, leading to an inflammatory mechanism of reperfusion injury and necrosis. Proteasome inhibition in steatotic liver donor reduces NFκB p65 activation and inflammatory I/R injury, improving transplant outcomes of steatotic grafts in a rat model.
PMCID: PMC3675789  PMID: 22286145
hepatic steatosis; I/R injury; liver transplantation; NFκB; PS-341; bortezomib; obese; marginal graft
3.  The role of molecular chaperonins in warm ischemia and reperfusion injury in the steatotic liver: A proteomic study 
BMC Biochemistry  2012;13:17.
The molecular basis of the increased susceptibility of steatotic livers to warm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during transplantation remains undefined. Animal model for warm I/R injury was induced in obese Zucker rats. Lean Zucker rats provided controls. Two dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was performed with liver protein extracts. Protein features with significant abundance ratios (p < 0.01) between the two cohorts were selected and analyzed with HPLC/MS. Proteins were identified by Uniprot database. Interactive protein networks were generated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GRANITE software.
The relative abundance of 105 proteins was observed in warm I/R injury. Functional grouping revealed four categories of importance: molecular chaperones/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, metabolism, and cell structure. Hypoxia up-regulated 1, calcium binding protein 1, calreticulin, heat shock protein (HSP) 60, HSP-90, and protein disulfide isomerase 3 were chaperonins significantly (p < 0.01) down-regulated and only one chaperonin, HSP-1was significantly upregulated in steatotic liver following I/R.
Down-regulation of the chaperones identified in this analysis may contribute to the increased ER stress and, consequently, apoptosis and necrosis. This study provides an initial platform for future investigation of the role of chaperones and therapeutic targets for increasing the viability of steatotic liver allografts.
PMCID: PMC3445822  PMID: 22962947
Ischemia repurfusion injury; Two dimensional gel electrophoresis; Mass spectrometry; Liver transplantation; Chaperonins; Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress

Results 1-3 (3)