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BMC Biochemistry (1)
Journal of Lipid Research (1)
Guitart, Maria (2)
Asins, Guillermina (1)
García-Martínez, Celia (1)
García-Martínez, Cèlia (1)
Gómez-Foix, Anna M. (1)
Gómez-Foix, Anna Maria (1)
Hegardt, Fausto G. (1)
Mauvezin, Caroline (1)
Montori-Grau, Marta (1)
Orellana-Gavaldà, Josep M. (1)
Orozco, Anna (1)
Sebastián, David (1)
Serra, Dolors (1)
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Differential pattern of glycogen accumulation after protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit PPP1R6 overexpression, compared to PPP1R3C and PPP1R3A, in skeletal muscle cells
Gómez-Foix, Anna Maria
PPP1R6 is a protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit (PP1-GTS) abundant in skeletal muscle with an undefined metabolic control role. Here PPP1R6 effects on myotube glycogen metabolism, particle size and subcellular distribution are examined and compared with PPP1R3C/PTG and PPP1R3A/GM.
PPP1R6 overexpression activates glycogen synthase (GS), reduces its phosphorylation at Ser-641/0 and increases the extracted and cytochemically-stained glycogen content, less than PTG but more than GM. PPP1R6 does not change glycogen phosphorylase activity. All tested PP1-GTS-cells have more glycogen particles than controls as found by electron microscopy of myotube sections. Glycogen particle size is distributed for all cell-types in a continuous range, but PPP1R6 forms smaller particles (mean diameter 14.4 nm) than PTG (36.9 nm) and GM (28.3 nm) or those in control cells (29.2 nm). Both PPP1R6- and GM-derived glycogen particles are in cytosol associated with cellular structures; PTG-derived glycogen is found in membrane- and organelle-devoid cytosolic glycogen-rich areas; and glycogen particles are dispersed in the cytosol in control cells. A tagged PPP1R6 protein at the C-terminus with EGFP shows a diffuse cytosol pattern in glucose-replete and -depleted cells and a punctuate pattern surrounding the nucleus in glucose-depleted cells, which colocates with RFP tagged with the Golgi targeting domain of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, according to a computational prediction for PPP1R6 Golgi location.
PPP1R6 exerts a powerful glycogenic effect in cultured muscle cells, more than GM and less than PTG. PPP1R6 protein translocates from a Golgi to cytosolic location in response to glucose. The molecular size and subcellular location of myotube glycogen particles is determined by the PPP1R6, PTG and GM scaffolding.
Novel role of FATP1 in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells
Orellana-Gavaldà, Josep M.
Gómez-Foix, Anna M.
Hegardt, Fausto G.
Journal of Lipid Research
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) catalyzes the first step in long-chain fatty acid import into mitochondria, and it is believed to be rate limiting for β-oxidation of fatty acids. However, in muscle, other proteins may collaborate with CPT1. Fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) may interact with CPT1 and contribute to fatty acid import into mitochondria in muscle. Here, we demonstrate that another membrane-bound fatty acid binding protein, fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), collaborates with CPT1 for fatty acid import into mitochondria. Overexpression of FATP1 using adenovirus in L6E9 myotubes increased both fatty acid oxidation and palmitate esterification into triacylglycerides. Moreover, immunocytochemistry assays in transfected L6E9 myotubes showed that FATP1 was present in mitochondria and coimmunoprecipitated with CPT1 in L6E9 myotubes and rat skeletal muscle in vivo. The cooverexpression of FATP1 and CPT1 also enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, similar to the cooverexpression of FAT/CD36 and CPT1. However, etomoxir, an irreversible inhibitor of CPT1, blocked all these effects. These data reveal that FATP1, like FAT/CD36, is associated with mitochondria and has a role in mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids.
carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; malonyl-CoA; mitochondria; FAT/CD36
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