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1.  Differential pattern of glycogen accumulation after protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit PPP1R6 overexpression, compared to PPP1R3C and PPP1R3A, in skeletal muscle cells 
BMC Biochemistry  2011;12:57.
PPP1R6 is a protein phosphatase 1 glycogen-targeting subunit (PP1-GTS) abundant in skeletal muscle with an undefined metabolic control role. Here PPP1R6 effects on myotube glycogen metabolism, particle size and subcellular distribution are examined and compared with PPP1R3C/PTG and PPP1R3A/GM.
PPP1R6 overexpression activates glycogen synthase (GS), reduces its phosphorylation at Ser-641/0 and increases the extracted and cytochemically-stained glycogen content, less than PTG but more than GM. PPP1R6 does not change glycogen phosphorylase activity. All tested PP1-GTS-cells have more glycogen particles than controls as found by electron microscopy of myotube sections. Glycogen particle size is distributed for all cell-types in a continuous range, but PPP1R6 forms smaller particles (mean diameter 14.4 nm) than PTG (36.9 nm) and GM (28.3 nm) or those in control cells (29.2 nm). Both PPP1R6- and GM-derived glycogen particles are in cytosol associated with cellular structures; PTG-derived glycogen is found in membrane- and organelle-devoid cytosolic glycogen-rich areas; and glycogen particles are dispersed in the cytosol in control cells. A tagged PPP1R6 protein at the C-terminus with EGFP shows a diffuse cytosol pattern in glucose-replete and -depleted cells and a punctuate pattern surrounding the nucleus in glucose-depleted cells, which colocates with RFP tagged with the Golgi targeting domain of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, according to a computational prediction for PPP1R6 Golgi location.
PPP1R6 exerts a powerful glycogenic effect in cultured muscle cells, more than GM and less than PTG. PPP1R6 protein translocates from a Golgi to cytosolic location in response to glucose. The molecular size and subcellular location of myotube glycogen particles is determined by the PPP1R6, PTG and GM scaffolding.
PMCID: PMC3240831  PMID: 22054094
2.  Comparative gene expression profiling between human cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle tissue 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:125.
A high-sensitivity DNA microarray platform requiring nanograms of RNA input facilitates the application of transcriptome analysis to individual skeletal muscle (SM) tissue samples. Culturing myotubes from SM-biopsies enables investigating transcriptional defects and assaying therapeutic strategies. This study compares the transcriptome of aneurally cultured human SM cells versus that of tissue biopsies.
We used the Illumina expression BeadChips to determine the transcriptomic differences between tissue and cultured SM samples from five individuals. Changes in the expression of several genes were confirmed by QuantiGene Plex assay or reverse transcription real-time PCR. In cultured myotubes compared to the tissue, 1216 genes were regulated: 583 down and 633 up. Gene ontology analysis showed that downregulated genes were mainly associated with cytoplasm, particularly mitochondria, and involved in metabolism and the muscle-system/contraction process. Upregulated genes were predominantly related to cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and extracellular matrix. The most significantly regulated pathway was mitochondrial dysfunction. Apoptosis genes were also modulated. Among the most downregulated genes detected in this study were genes encoding metabolic proteins AMPD1, PYGM, CPT1B and UCP3, muscle-system proteins TMOD4, MYBPC1, MYOZ1 and XIRP2, the proteolytic CAPN3 and the myogenic regulator MYF6. Coordinated reduced expression of five members of the GIMAP gene family, which form a cluster on chromosome 7, was shown, and the GIMAP4-reduction was validated. Within the most upregulated group were genes encoding senescence/apoptosis-related proteins CDKN1A and KIAA1199 and potential regulatory factors HIF1A, TOP2A and CCDC80.
Cultured muscle cells display reductive metabolic and muscle-system transcriptome adaptations as observed in muscle atrophy and they activate tissue-remodeling and senescence/apoptosis processes.
PMCID: PMC2838843  PMID: 20175888

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