Although cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) are both caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, they differ in cofactors such as cigarette smoking. We assessed whether these cofactor differences translate into differences in second cancer risk.
Patients and Methods
We assessed second cancer risk among 85,109 cervical SCC and 10,280 AC survivors reported to population-based cancer registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. Risks compared to the general population were assessed using standardized incidence ratios (SIR).
Overall cancer risk was significantly increased among both cervical SCC survivors (n = 10,559 second cancers; SIR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.34) and AC survivors (n = 920 second cancers; SIR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.38). Risks of HPV-related and radiation-related cancers were increased to a similar extent among cervical SCC and AC survivors. Although significantly increased in both groups when compared with the general population, risk of smoking-related cancers was significantly higher among cervical SCC than AC survivors (P = .015; SIR for cervical SCC = 2.07 v AC = 1.78). This difference was limited to lung cancer (SIR for cervical SCC = 2.69 v AC = 2.18; P = .026). The increased lung cancer risk among cervical AC survivors was observed for both lung SCC and lung AC. SIRs for second cancers of the colon, soft tissue, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were significantly higher among cervical AC than SCC survivors.
The second cancer profiles among cervical SCC and AC survivors mirror the similarities and differences in cofactors for these two histologies. Because smoking is not a cofactor for cervical AC, the increased lung cancer risk suggests a role for additional factors.