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1.  Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: Report of a Case With Review of Literature 
Pleomorphic adenomas are benign salivary gland tumors, which predominantly affect the superficial lobe of the parotid gland. The “pleomorphic” nature of the tumor can be explained on the basis of its epithelial and connective tissue origin. The tumor has a female predilection between 30–50 years of age. Slowly progressing asymptomatic swelling is the usual presentation of the tumor. Surgical excision of the tumor mass forms the mainstay of treatment, with utmost care taken to preserve the facial nerve.
Case Details
This case report aims to throw light on an interesting case of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland in a 50 years old female patient. The patient presented with a slowly progressing asymptomatic swelling on the left side of the face. There is also a special emphasis to a detailed review of literature.
Salivary gland neoplasms can occur at any site where salivary tissue is present. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumor characterized by diverse histomorphological features. Early diagnosis and treatment plan entails thorough history taking, clinical examination, coupled with radiographic and histopathological findings.
PMCID: PMC4478272  PMID: 26124628
Benign salivary gland tumors; Pleomorphic adenomas; Parotidectomy
2.  Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study 
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are major public health problems and knowledge of microbes that cause infections are helpful to determine proper antibiotic therapy.
The aim was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of microbes in DFIs.
Subjects and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 6 months at the Department of General Surgery, KMC hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, India. During this period, 108 patients having DFIs admitted in the general surgery wards were tracked from the hospital data management system. These patients’ pus samples were examined as Gram-stained smear and cultured aerobically on blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Of the 108 specimens of the diabetic foot lesions, culture showed polymicrobial growth in 44.4% (48/108). Prevalence of Gram-negative organisms (56%, 84/150) was found to be more than Gram-positive organisms (44%, 66/150). However, Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen (28%, 42/150). All Gram-positive aerobes were sensitive to doxycycline. All Gram-negative isolates, including extended spectrum beta lactamase producing strains of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella oxytoca except Acinetobacter were highly sensitive to amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and meropenem. Acinetobacter was completely resistant to all the common antibiotics tested.
Prevalence showed Gram-negative bacteria was slightly more than Gram-positive bacteria in diabetic foot ulcers. This study recommends doxycycline should be empirical treatment of choice for Gram-positive isolates and amikacin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and meropenem should be considered for most of the Gram-negatives aerobes.
PMCID: PMC4199167  PMID: 25328786
Antibiotic resistance; Antimicrobial susceptibility; Diabetic foot infection; Diabetic foot ulcer; Multidrug-resistant organism
3.  Defensive Medicine: A Bane to Healthcare 
PMCID: PMC3728884  PMID: 23919211
4.  Efficacy of Trikatrayadi Lauha in Panduroga with reference to Iron Deficiency Anemia 
Ayu  2012;33(1):62-67.
The common nutritional deficiency, iron deficiency, causes Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) throughout the world especially in the developing countries. In Ayurveda, different herbal, mineral or herbomineral drugs have been emphasized to combat anemia (Panduroga). Trikatrayadi Lauha and Fersolate-CM (a modern medicine taken as standard control) were administered to the patients to evaluate their role in Panduroga. A simple random sampling method was followed for the clinical study. The 56 iron deficiency anemic patients of both sexes and age group between 16 to 70 years divided into two groups – Group-A (n=34) and Group-C (n=22) were treated with Trikatrayadi lauha and Fersolate-CM, respectively. Both drugs provided significant effect on the signs and symptoms of Shrama (fatigue), Shwasa (dyspnea on exertion), Daurbalya (weakness), Pandu Varna (pallor/yellowish-whitish), Hridspandana (palpitation), Hatanala (diminished digestive capacity), Bhrama (giddiness), Aruchi (anorexia), Arohana Ayasa (exhaustion during climbing), Shiroruja (headache) and Shotha (edema). Trikatrayadi Lauha provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC where as insignificant changes were found in MCH and MCHC. Fersolate-CM provided significant results on Hb gm%, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation and TIBC whereas insignificant change was found in MCHC. Trikatrayadi Lauha showed significant results on Panduroga and Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA).
PMCID: PMC3456866  PMID: 23049186
Anemia; Fersolate-CM; iron deficiency anemia; Panduroga; Trikatrayadi Lauha
5.  Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity) 
Ayu  2011;32(4):526-531.
Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as ‘Nindita purusha’ including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m2 reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients.
PMCID: PMC3361929  PMID: 22661848
Asphaltum punjabianum; Clerodendrum phlomidis; Obesity; Shilajatu; Sthaulya
6.  A survey on etiopathological correlation of Krimi (intestinal helminths) and Pandu (anemia) 
Ayu  2011;32(2):165-170.
A survey study was aimed to find etiopathological status of intestinal helminths and also to accomplish its association with clinical condition Pandu. The survey samples included population of five schools and two localities in and around Jamnagar. The study was conducted on 337 subjects, of whom 36.20% cooperated to give stool samples to pathology laboratory; more than half of the samples surveyed were suffering with various parasitic infestations and one-third of the total subjects were found at risk to develop Pandu. Ascariasis patients were found in 71.14%, a potent cause of Pandu. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 19.05%, while Hymenolepis nana in 6.35%. 77.77% were in the age group of 10 to 20 years, 58.73% were male, 93.65% patients were Hindu, 80.95% of the patients had secondary level of education, dominancy of rural habitat was in 77.77%, and 39.68% each were from lower and lower middle class.
PMCID: PMC3296334  PMID: 22408296
Intestinal helminths; Pandu; Ascariasis; Udara Krimi
7.  A clinical study on the role of ama in relation to Grahani Roga and its management by Kalingadi Ghanavati and Tryushnadi Ghrita 
Ayu  2010;31(4):451-455.
Grahani and Agni are having Adhara-Adheya-Sambandha. Grahani is described as an Agni Adhishthana by most of the acharyas. Mandagni is a root cause of Ama Dosha and it is the crucial factor for manifestation of most of the diseases. Among them, Grahani is the prime disease of gastro-intestinal tract and seen often in day-to-day practice. A total of 66 patients were randomly divided in three groups and treated with: A) Kalingadi Ghanavati, three vatis of 500 mg twice daily with takra, B) Tryushnadi Ghrita, 10 g twice daily before meal with lukewarm water and C) Combination of both the drugs for 14 days. An assessment was done on the basis of Rogabala, Dehabala, Agnibala, and Chetasabala. The study revealed that combination proved better results than those of individuals.
PMCID: PMC3202250  PMID: 22048538
Ama Dosha; Grahani Roga; Agni; Kalingadi Ghanavati; Tryushnadi Ghrita; Rogabala; Dehabala; Agnibala; Chetasabala
8.  Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn. 
Ayu  2010;31(3):272-279.
Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo.
PMCID: PMC3221058  PMID: 22131726
Erectile dysfunction; Klaibya; Diabetes Mellitus; Madhumeha; Ashvattha; Ficus religiosa Linn
9.  Randomized placebo-controlled trial of Mustadi Ghanavati in hyperlipidemia 
Ayu  2010;31(3):287-293.
Hyperlipidemia is one of the major lifestyle disorders. Its role has been appreciated in the manifestation of serious diseases like ischemic heart disease, diabetes, stroke etc. These lifestyle diseases are a result of lifestyle factors such as overnutrition etc., which have been referred to as the Santarpanjanya Vyadhis in the classical texts. Mustadi Ghanavti is a modified form of the classical formulation Mustadi Kwath that has been advocated by Acharya Charaka for the management of Santarpanjanya Vikaras. This placebo-controlled randomized trial of Mustadi Ghanavati was carried out on 61 patients suffering from hyperlipidemia; of the 61 patients, 50 completed the entire course of treatment. The results of the study revealed that Mustadi Ghanavati decreased serum cholesterol by 22.4%, serum triglycerides by 19.6%, serum LDL by 18.2%, and serum VLDL by 4.2%; serum HDL increased by 5.6%. Thus Mustadi Ghanavati was able to effect a total improvement of 58.8% in the lipid profile. It brought about mild improvement in 42.86% of patients and moderate improvement in 14.28% of patients. Mustadi Ghanavati was also found to have a significant effect on other subjective as well as objective parameters considered for the study.
PMCID: PMC3221060  PMID: 22131728
Hyperlipidemia; Mustadi Ghanavati; placebo-controlled trial

Results 1-9 (9)