Low blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is reported in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU); however, the functional implications in adolescents and adults are unknown. This pilot study investigated the effect of supplemental DHA on cognitive performance in 33 females with PKU ages 12–47 years. Participants were randomly assigned to receive DHA (10 mg/kg/day) or placebo for 4.5 months. Performance on cognitive processing speed and executive functioning tasks was evaluated at baseline and follow up. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses were performed. At follow up, biomarkers of DHA status were significantly higher in the DHA-supplemented group. Performance on the cognitive tasks and reported treatment-related adverse events did not differ. While no evidence of cognitive effect was seen, a larger sample size is needed to be conclusive, which may not be feasible in this population. Supplementation was a safe and effective way to increase biomarkers of DHA status (www.clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00892554).
Docosahexaenoic acid; Phenylketonuria; Phenylalanine; Cognitive tests; Protein-restricted diet; Clinical trial; Randomized controlled trial
Depression is a common diagnosis throughout India. It is one of the major sequelae of modern lifestyle which is full of stress. Several drugs and therapies have been tried but a safe and effective treatment of depressive illness is yet not fully established. The main objective of this experimental study on animal models is to evaluate the antidepressant action of plant drug Vacha (Acorus calamus). The behavioral study was conducted and at the same time 5-HT receptor involvement was evaluated. The experimental study was done in rats to evaluate their Open Field Behavior (OFB), High Plus Maze (HPM) activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor syndrome, before and after feeding Vacha. Concurrent Vacha administration in the depression model prevented the development of behavioral deficit in ambulation and rearing due to stress. Similarly, in High Plus Maze Test (HPMT), exploratory activity of rat was restored with Vacha administration. In adopted model of depression, when the animal was subjected to Vacha administration, the behavioural deficit was prevented very well as compared to stressed group. While eliciting the 5-HT syndrome, only two components out of five were influenced by Vacha, indicating that Vacha does not sensitize postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, which explains the behavioral deficit prevention in stressed rat group. Vacha definitely has antidepressant effects in animal model of depression.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors; depression; Vacha
Present clinical study involved two groups of psychosomatic disorders, bronchial asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. In the study, the levels of plasma cortisol, blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated in 125 clinical subjects, (50 normal controls, and 40 having bronchial asthma and 35 suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The results showed a significant change in the levels of plasma cortisol and blood glucose in both the stressed clinical groups' vis-à-vis normal controls. The levels of atherogenic lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides) were found quite elevated in both the diseased groups. However, in rheumatoid arthritis, the physiological changes were relatively more pronounced. The findings of this study indicate that rheumatoid arthritis is a relatively more chronic and late onset disorder as the functional performance of hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis gradually declines with passage of time and the ability of the adrenocortical response to return to normalcy becomes impaired.
Stress; Glucocorticoid; Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; Homeostasis
The description of metabolic processes, operating at various levels insider the body, has been essentially covered in Ayurveda under thirteen types of Agnis and their functions at different levels, which are often compared with the enzymes and biochemical which take part in biological and / or biophysical transformations and reactions. When these Agnis, at different levels, get disordered they lead to the production of certain undesired elements or byproducts in the system, which are called as ‘Ama’ in ayurveda and are considered as very important morbid factor responsible for causation of a variety of diseases and playing key role in genesis of most of the diseases.
The present article attempts to correlate the most recent concept of today's medicine i.e., Free Radical concept with that of the concept of Agni and Ama, described in Ayurveda and thereby opens newer vistas of search for remedies from Ayurvedic research, which may be helpful in the prevention and care of Free Radical Mediated Diseases.
Asvagandha (Withania somnifera) is an important antistress drug has now been sown to have an antidepressant action in clinically depressive patients, However, the mechanism of its antidepressant action has not been studied. Normal rats fed with asvagandha root extract (100mg/kg orally) for 4 and 8 weeks showed enhanced open field behavior and emotional stability along with a moderate but significant enhancement in the functional sensitivity of 5 HT2 receptors in the brain and a reciprocal subsensitivity of the 5HT1A receptors chronic asvagandha treatment (propylactically) was effective in preventing the behavioral deficit in open field activity in an animal model of depression. This was accompanied by an adaptive supersensitivity of the postsynaptic 5HT2 receptors in the brain. The effect of chronic Asvagandha on 5HT receptor subtypes is similar to the action of chronic ECT treatment and several antidepressant drugs.
Hypoglycaemic activity of shilajeet and Yashada Bhasma was determined in normoglycaemic and alloxanized rats. Significant activity was observed in the treated groups. However, the activity was found to be comparatively milder in shilajatu treated rats compared to Yashada bhasma treated rats.
AmlaPitta and ParinamaSula are two major diseases encountered by present day physicians. This article describes the clinical and demographic aspects of AmlaPitta and ParinamaSula.
With the changing life style and sedentary habits of the modern era, incidence of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world. The present study was launched to investigate the constitutional and socioeconomic features of diabetic patients and their clinical significance.
In clinical medicine no physical sign is more revealing than the Nadi Parkisa. The term “Nadi” has been used in several contexts in Ayurvedic classes but gradually this term has been restricted to the Nadi Parkisa i.e. radial pulse examination. Importance of Nadi Pariksa as a diagnostic measure in systemic diseases including cardio-vascular system, G.I.T. diseases (Udar Roga) and Manas Roga is described in Ayurvedic literature. In modern medical science the pulse examination has been given much stress but it is limited to only C.V.S. Nadi is the foremost among the Astasthana Pariksa described in medieval texts on Ayurveda as the main points of general examination of a patient. In Ayurveda Nadi Pariksa is described in Udar Roga and other Vyadhis also. The present paper describes the variations of Nadi in some importants Udar Roga.
The Ayurvedic literature exhibits a systematic information about psychosomatic constitution and its genetic & environment denominators. According to Ayurveda the psychosomatic constitution, as also known as Deha Prakrti, is represented by a vivid description of the Physique, Physiology & psychological make-up of an individual. The Deha Prakrti is essentially genetically determined and is likely to be influenced by a variety of environmental factors to some extent. Dehaprakrti is the foremost factor which determines the pattern of susceptibility of an individual to different diseases, their prognosis, course and complications.
The various aspects of theory and treatment of Amlapitta and Parinamasula are presented in this paper.
In this era of Antibiotics decline in infectious diseases is seen but degenerative diseases have established themselves all over world, among which Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Diseases are considered as greatest killer. In view of the increasing morbidity and mortality by these diseases and in absence of safety and adequate efficacy of modern drugs, it has become a timely necessity to understand disease process properly and to explore traditional indigenous system of medicine. So that drugs stated useful in ancient literature for these diseases can be used for I.H.D. Vatika Hrcchula described in Ayurveda simulates with Ischemic Heart Diseases.
The present study reveals that the process of aging was elaborately described in Ayurveda. In order to prology the life span and to promote longevity a separate discipline called Rasayana Tantra was also developed. The sailent feature of this discipline are described in this article.
Hridroga is among those diseases mentioned in Ayurveda where in the description is quite brief and the Ayurvedic view point needs clarification. In view of the increasing evidence of cardiac disorders in the present times this aspect assumes added importance. Among the five types of Hridroga described, in Vatika variety Ayurveda seems to have conceived the disease entity that comes under Ischemic Heart Disease. None of the other Cardiac afflictions seem to have been described under Hridroga. It seems that a few of the presenting features based on this Acute/important/predominant nature have been described Vatika Sotha and Swasa. It looks as though pain dominating heart disease is conceived as Hridroga. When oedema is found to be the main presenting feature it is kept under Vatika sotha and when Dysponea is the main symptom it is described as Swasa. The present article undertakes to discuss this point in detail, based on Ayurvedic concepts as well as current knowledge on medicine.
Candanasava gives significant relief to urinary tract infection. Like other Ayurvedic drugs Candanasava might be acting not merely as an urinary antiseptic but also as a host-modifying factor, thus rendering the host-urinary tract resistant to infection and making the bacterial infection pathogenetically less virulent.
Plant medicine becomes more popular thought the world in these days probably of its latest toxicity. Ayurveda that leads in plant medicine preserves the natural form of herbs maximum, in various pharmaceutical preparations. Isolation of active principles has not proved much fruitful. However, the need of hour is cultivation of more medicinal plants along with popularization of their use traditional simpler forms.
Of all the misleading statements Caraka's categorical declaration that all pramehas if not treated ends up as Madhumeha stands formost. Outlining a common samprapti for all Mutratipravrittaja Rogas appears to be the basic misleading efforts. Extremely limited description at certain points only adds to the confusion. Untiring efforts of the enthusiastic scholars to prove that Madhumeha is synonymous with Diabetes Mellitus have failed to help. The present study undertakes to discuss these aspects in detail and endeavours to come out with some solutions without compromising much on the classical concepts.
In chronic diseases, the Kalpa method of therapy prescribed in Ayurveda for revitalization and overall improvement of health is discussed in this paper. Also reports here that clinical trial of Agrogyavardhini Kalpa in chronic GIT disease confirms the efficacy of Kalps therapy in boosting the general health of the patient as reflected by its nutritional status etc. Clinical symptoms also improve and thus moving that the Arogyavardhini exerts multi dimensional influence on the disease.
In this experimental study of 65 ulcer patients and 25 healthy persons of this locality revealed an affinity of rice with ulceration. Experimental study conducted on 32 albino rats also confirmed the ulcerogenic property of rice. Arahara (red gram, Cojanus Ccaja) and to some extent wheat were found protective against peptic ulcer probably because of their high mucin output. Therefore, the study finds that the addition of wheat and pulses like Arahara in the diet of high prevalent area may bring decline in the incidence of peptic ulcer.
Ayurveda conceives in Life (Ayu) as a four dimensional entity i.e. Sarirendriya Satvatma Samyoga. Accordingly it adopts a comprehensive psychosomatic-spiritual approach to preservation of health and cure of diseases. Satvavajaya (psychotherapy) is described as a major non-pharmacological approach to treatment. This paper presents a critical study on the concept of Psychotherapy in Ayurveda with special reference to Satvavajaya.
This paper draws some parallels between Ayurvedic and Western Psychotherapy based on a collateral sutdy.