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1.  Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.) 
Ayu  2013;34(2):200-203.
In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119679
PMCID: PMC3821251  PMID: 24250131
Alkaloid; Eranda; high-performance thin layer chromatography; Ricinus communis
2.  In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn 
Ayu  2013;34(2):209-214.
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119684
PMCID: PMC3821253  PMID: 24250133
Antioxidants; Aragwadha; Cassia fistula; free radical; phenols
3.  Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Lekhana Basti in albino rats 
Ayu  2013;34(2):220-225.
Lekhana Basti (medicated enema) is a Tikshna formulation which is basically aimed for Apatarpana of the body. The present study (medicated enema) was undertaken to evaluate its anti-hyperlipidemic activity in diet-induced hyperlipidemia animals. Parameters like changes in body weight, organ weight, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum HDL cholesterol, and serum (LDL + VLDL) cholesterol were studied to assess the effect of therapy in comparison to the control groups. Lekhana Basti was found to be ineffective in producing anti-hyperlipidemic action potently, but still found to have cytoprotective activity against hyperlipidemia induced organ damage, which was also confirmed by attenuation of cell infiltration and microfatty changes on histopathological examination.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119687
PMCID: PMC3821255  PMID: 24250135
Apatarpana; cholesterol; cytoprotective; hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti
4.  Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.root in albino rats 
Ayu  2013;34(2):226-228.
Present study was undertaken to evaluate analgesic activity of root of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng, a folklore medicinal plant used as the one of the source plant of Rasna. Study was carried out at two dose levels (270 mg/kg and 540 mg/kg) in albino rats. Analgesic activity was evaluated in formalin induced paw licking, and tail flick methods whereas indomethacin and pentazocine were used as standard analgesic drugs, respectively. At both the dose levels, test drug non-significantly decreased paw licking response at both time intervals. In tail flick model, the administration of the test drug increased pain threshold response in a dose dependent manner. In therapeutically equivalent dose level, analgesic activity was observed only after 180 min while in TED ×2 treated group analgesia was observed at 30 min and lasted even up to 240 min. The results suggested that N.canescens root possess moderate analgesic activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119688
PMCID: PMC3821256  PMID: 24250136
Analgesic; folklore; gandhamardana hills; Nelsonia canescens; Rasna
5.  A comparative pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical analysis of stem and leaf of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.BR.) Wettst 
Ayu  2013;34(1):95-102.
Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115441
PMCID: PMC3764889  PMID: 24049413
Brahmi; Bacopa floribunda; Bacopa monnieri; bacoside A; HPTLC; pharmacognosy
6.  Effect of Purificatory Measures Through Cow's Urine and Milk on Strychnine and Brucine Content of Kupeelu (Strychnos Nuxvomica Linn.) Seeds 
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
PMCID: PMC3746529  PMID: 23983327
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
7.  Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem 
Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93939
PMCID: PMC3326798  PMID: 22529673
Ayurveda; Chincha; powder microscopy; tamarind; thin layer chromatography
8.  Effect of Shodhana Treatment on Chronic Toxicity and Recovery of Aconite 
Toxicology International  2012;19(1):35-41.
Aconite is one of the poisonous plants used therapeutically in practice of Ayurveda after proper treatment called as ‘Shodhana’. To determine the effect of Shodhana treatment on chronic toxicity and to assess the effect of recovery period after chronic toxicity of aconite. Raw aconite (RV), urine treated aconite (SM), and milk treated aconite (SD) were administered in 6.25 mg/kg dose in Charles Foster strain albino rats for 90 days for chronic toxicity. Six rats from each were kept for another 30 days without test drugs treatment to observe recovery from chronic toxicity. RV was found to be highly toxic in chronic exposure, SM had no apparent toxicity, but SD had mild toxicity in kidney. The toxicities of RV and SD were reversible, but sudden withdrawal of SM caused adverse effects, suggestive of tapering withdrawal. Shodhana treatments remove toxic effects from raw aconite. Chronic toxicity of aconite is reversible. Confirmed the arrangement of abstract
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.94515
PMCID: PMC3339243  PMID: 22736901
Aconitum chasmanthum; cow's urine; cow's milk; recovery; shodhana
9.  In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts 
Ayu  2012;33(1):123-129.
Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100329
PMCID: PMC3456850  PMID: 23049197
Antibacterial activity; Antifungal activity; Bacteria; Cassia fistula
10.  Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Vara Asanadi Kwatha 
Ayu  2012;33(1):130-135.
Vara Asanadi Kwatha (VAK) is a compound Ayurvedic formulation prescribed in the management of obesity. Pharmacognostical study counting both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug exposed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of VAK. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standard range. Specific gravity of the decoction was 1.0185 and pH was 5.5.Total solid content present in the Kwatha was 4.525% w/v, total ash 0.949% w/v, and acid insoluble ash was 0.052% w/v. Iron assay showed the presence of Fe2O3 as 0.065% w/v. Qualitative scrutiny demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and tannis. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum three spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC and most of the Rf values were identical when done with different sample extractive methods. This shows the presence of certain definite constituents in the decoction and is helpful for the easy separation of these constituents.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100330
PMCID: PMC3456851  PMID: 23049198
HPTLC; Pharmacognosy; TLC; Vara Asanadi Kwatha
11.  Comparison of Gastroprotective Effects of Triphala Formulations on Stress-induced Ulcer in Rats 
Triphala is categorized as rejuvenator and traditionally been used in various gastric disorders including intestinal inflammation. The aim of present study was to examine the comparative gastroprotective effects of Triphala formulations against experimental gastric ulcer in rats to substantiate its traditional claim. Gastric ulcer was induced by water immersion plus stress-induced ulcers in rats. The drug effects were assessed by studying macroscopic gross injury and stomach tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala unequal formulation and Chinnodbhavadi kwath showed significant antiulcer activity and this is evident from reduction of ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical levels and concomitantly raised levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Though similar kind of activity was observed in Triphala equal formulation the magnitude was much less. Further, Chinnodbhavadi kwath significantly increased the glutathione and ATPase level but Triphala equal formulation significantly increased glutathione level only. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that among the three formulations studied, Chinnodbhavadi kwath and Triphala unequal formulations provides significant protection in gastric ulcer as compared to Triphala equal formulation.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.100252
PMCID: PMC3480757  PMID: 23112406
Chinnodbhavadi kwath; gastroprotection; rejuvenator; Triphala
12.  A clinical study on the role of Akshi Tarpana with Jeevantyadi Ghrita in Timira (Myopia) 
Ayu  2011;32(4):540-545.
Myopia is a major public health problem pertaining to eye that entails substantial societal, personal, educational, and economical impact. Various surveys in India have found the prevalence of myopia ranging from 6.9% to 19.7%. Myopia progression is irreversible and methods for the correction of myopia are not without complications. Myopia closely resembles Timira involving first and second Patala in terms of symptoms, anatomical structures involved, and the pathogenesis of the disease. The study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the Akshi-Tarpana procedure with Jeevantyadi Ghrita in fresh and old myopes. A total of 54 patients (108 eyes) having myopia ≥-6 D were registered for the study and divided into two groups (Group A, Akshi-Tarpana with Jeevantyadi Ghrita, and Group B, Akshi-Tarpana with plain Go Ghrita), by stratified sampling. The procedure was done in 5 sittings of 5 days each with an equal interval of 5 days between each sitting. A total of 22 patients in Group A and 18 in Group B completed the treatment. Obtained data were statistically analyzed using a t-test and the study reveals that objectively, 09.30% and 05.55% eyes were cured, 16.28% and 02.78% markedly improved, and 34.88% and 11.11% moderately improved in Group A and B, respectively.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96130
PMCID: PMC3361932  PMID: 22661851
Akshi-Tarpana; Jeevantyadi Ghrita; Patala; Timira
13.  Standardization of Shirishavaleha with reference to physico-chemical characteristics 
Ayu  2011;32(4):560-565.
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96134
PMCID: PMC3361936  PMID: 22661855
Albizzia lebbeck; Avaleha; Bark; Heartwood; Shirisha; Shirishavaleha
14.  Physico-chemical analysis of a Herbo-mineral compound Mehamudgara vati – A pilot study 
Ayu  2011;32(4):572-575.
Efforts have been made to lay down analytical standards for Mehamudgara vati (MMV), which were not found reported till date. Weight variation showed that 90% tablets of MV manufactured in the Gujarat Ayurved University Pharmacy were within acceptable range (323 mg ± 10%), pH 4.58, and disintegration time 17 min, whereas hardness was 1.25 kg/cm2. Loss on drying was found to be 9.3% w/w, acid insoluble ash was 0.9 %w/w, water soluble extract was 24.06% w/w and methanol soluble extract 14.1% w/w. Determination of iron as Fe2O3 was done as Lauha bhasma being the major ingredient of MMV. The result showed that iron content was reduced in the formulation (28.67%) as compared to that in Lauha bhasma (61.19%). In TLC, 5 spots each at 254 nm and 366 nm were found.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96136
PMCID: PMC3361938  PMID: 22661857
Lauha-bhasma; Mehamudgara vati; standardization; thin layer chromatography
15.  Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts 
Ayu  2011;32(4):585-589.
Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96138
PMCID: PMC3361940  PMID: 22661859
Antibacterial; antifungal; Cordia dichotoma; gram positive; gram negative; in vitro
16.  An experimental study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic aspect of Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):38-43.
Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation.
PMCID: PMC3530265  PMID: 23284203
Lekhana Basti; Prakshepa Dravya; pharmacokinetic; Gallic acid; albino rats
17.  Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats 
Ayu  2011;32(3):385-387.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.93920
PMCID: PMC3326888  PMID: 22529656
Albino rats; diuretic activity; Euphorbia fusiformis; urine volume
18.  Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content 
Ayu  2011;32(3):402-407.
Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.93923
PMCID: PMC3326892  PMID: 22529660
Ardraka swarasa; brucine; kanji; kupeelu; shodhana; strychnine
19.  Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant 
This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant) was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive—Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative—Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains—Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.82956
PMCID: PMC3217694  PMID: 22171301
Cassia fistula; in vitro antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; secondary metabolites
20.  Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant 
Ayu  2011;32(2):254-257.
Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.92551
PMCID: PMC3296350  PMID: 22408312
Cordia macleodii; ethnomedicine; pharmacognostical evaluation
21.  Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Amalakayas Rasayana: A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation 
Amalakayas Rasayana (AR) is a polyherbal formulation mentioned in Ayurveda to treat aging and age-associated diseases. Being an antiaging drug, AR may have antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity to minimize free radical-induced damage which is a key cause of aging. The methanolic extract of AR was evaluated in vitro for total phenolic and tannin content, free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The total phenolic content was measured using Folin-ciocalteu reagent against gallic acid [relative standard deviation (R2) = 0.998]. Total tannin was estimated using the Stephen method and was found to be 2.82% w/w. Free radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay and R2 was 1. Superoxide radical scavenging activity was done by ethylene diamine tetra acetate and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride assays against ascorbic acid and R2 was 0.976 (EC50= 77.5 μg/ml). Ferrous reducing power was evaluated by Oyaizu method where R2 was 0.986. All studies showed that AR possesses antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of AR may explain its rasayana effect and justify its use as a medicine for age associated diseases.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.83186
PMCID: PMC3157105  PMID: 21897639
Antioxidant; anti-radical; Amalakayas Rasayana; DPPH; reducing power
22.  A comparative pharmacological evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):504-508.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82036
PMCID: PMC3202249  PMID: 22048548
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
23.  Mahayograj guggulu: Heavy metal estimation and safety studies 
Objective:
This study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal profile and determine the safety of Mahayograj guggulu, an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation.
Design:
Mahayograj guggulu, manufactured by Shree Baidynath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd., Gwalior Road, Jhansi - 284 003 (of batch number-07 and manufacturing date October 2004) was procured from the local market. Heavy metal concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 40 Charles Foster strain albino rats of either sex with an average body weight of 160–250 g were divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III and IV), with 10 animals in each group. Group I served as the control, while Group II, III and IV rats received Mahayograj guggulu at a dose of 54 (dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose), 270 (five-times the dose equivalent to the human therapeutic dose) and 540 (10-times the dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose) mg/kg, p.o. for 120 days. The effect of drug administration was noted on the ponderal, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. In addition, urine examination was also carried out. At the end of the study, only six rats per group were sacrificed as per the IAEC advice.
Results:
Mahayograj guggulu was found to be safe at all dose levels tested. No significant behavioral changes were noted in any of the groups studied. The effect on food and water consumption and fecal and urine output remained unaffected in all groups during the study period. No major alterations were observed in hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy and histopathology at the therapeutically advocated dose level. Heavy metal content measurement indicated levels of 25.8 µg/g for lead, 0.07 µg/g for mercury and 5.19 µg/g for arsenic.
Conclusions:
The test drug is well tolerated as no changes of a serious nature could be observed in any of the parameters assessed.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.72486
PMCID: PMC2996572  PMID: 21170206
Heavy metal content; Mahayograj guggulu; safety; toxicity
24.  Impact of Bhavana Samskara on physico-chemical parameters with special reference to Gandhaka Rasayana prepared by different media and methods 
Ayu  2010;31(3):382-386.
Gandhaka Rasayana is frequently used in the management of different skin disorders (Kushtha). It is a herbo-mineral preparation prepared by Shuddha Gandhaka Bhavit with 11 herbal drugs in a serial manner for eight times each. Therefore, it was used as a model drug and four samples were prepared by adopting different methods and media. The physicochemical parameters were evaluated. The effect of increasing the number of Bhavana (lavigation) on particle size of the drug was examined. Similarly, an attempt was also made to differntiate the structure (surface anatomy) of the drug with Bhavana and without Bhavana by using a very sophisticated x-ray photo electron spectrometer (XPS) study. Overall, a remarkable difference was observed in the samples with Bhavana and without Bhavana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.77155
PMCID: PMC3221076  PMID: 22131744
Bhavana; Gandhaka Rasayana; ICP; particle size; XPS

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