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1.  Study of Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam in amnesia 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):11-15.
To compare the effect of Brāhmī Ghṛta with piracetam (a reference standard chemical) in amnesia.
Materials and Methods:
Brāhmī Ghṛta contained Brāhmī (Bacopa monneri), Vacā (Acorus calamus), Kuṣṭha (Sassurea lappa), Śaṅkhapuṣpī (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purāṇa Ghṛta, prepared as per snehapāka process. Antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta (400 and 800 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) induced amnesia in Charles Foster rats using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. Piracetam (500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard drug. This effect was compared with standard chemical used in experimental study.
Brāhmī Ghṛta - (in both doses) and piracetam-treated rats significantly reversed the effect of scopolamine in modified elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. But there were no significant differences observed in antiamnesic activity of Brāhmī Ghṛta and standard drug.
Brāhmī Ghṛta and piracetam produced significant beneficial effect on scopolamine-induced amnesic effect, but no significant difference was observed in between them.
PMCID: PMC3733199  PMID: 23929987
Brāhmī Ghṛta; modified elevated plus maze test; scopolamine
2.  Identifications studies of Lauha Bhasma by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence 
Ayu  2012;33(1):143-145.
Procedures for preparation of Lauha Bhasma are described in ancient texts of Ayurveda. These procedures also begin with different source material for iron such as Teekshna Lauha and Kanta Lauha etc. In the present study, we have selected different source materials viz. magnetite iron ore for Kanta Lauha and pure (Armco grade) iron turnings for Teekshna Lauha. The standard procedures of preparation of Lauha Bhasma are carried out in identical conditions for these two raw materials. The final product from the Puta are characterized by using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to understanding the crystallographic form or forms of iron oxides and their composition at the end of each Puta. The iron content at the end of repeated Putas (18 for Kanta Lauha and 20 for Teekshna Lauha) have shown a decrease in case of Teekshna Lauha since the starting material is pure iron while it showed only marginal decreases in the case of Kanta Lauha because the Fe3O4 of magnetite is undergoing oxidation to Fe2O3. The trace elements remain within the Bhasma in the form of various oxides of Si, Al, Ca, etc.
PMCID: PMC3456853  PMID: 23049200
Lauha Bhasma; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence
3.  Beneficial effect of Brahmi Ghrita on learning and memory in normal rat 
Ayu  2014;35(3):325-329.
Learning, the process of acquiring memory such as behavioral change due to previous experiences and most intensively studied subjects in the field of neuroscience through various approaches to understand the mechanisms. Brahmi Ghrita (BG) was claimed for the treatment of learning and memory disorders in human being.
To assess learning and memory activity of BG in normal rats.
Materials and Methods:
For this study, 24 rats were taken and divided into four groups (six in each). First group served as the control group, second and the third group as BG treated groups (400 and 800 mg/kg, p. o.) and the fourth group as standard drug (piracetam) 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group. Learning and memory, activity of BG was evaluated in normal rats, using elevated maze plus and passive avoidance test.
BG and piracetam treated rats demonstrated a significant decrease in transfer latency in modified elevated plus maze test and increase in step through latency in passive avoidance test compared with control rats in a dose dependent manner. It may be due to increase in learning and memory. It was also reported that prolonged use of Bacopa monneri (L.) Pennell causes elevation of cerebral glutamic acid and transient increase in gamma aminobutaric acid, which may be helpful in the process of learning.
Brahmi Ghrita enhances learning and memory as analogous to standard drug (piracetam) in normal rats.
PMCID: PMC4649568  PMID: 26664242
Brahmi Ghrita; modified elevated plus maze; passive avoidance
4.  Effect of Drakshavaleha in cyclophosphamide induced weight loss and reduction in crown-rump length in developing mice embryo 
Ayu  2013;34(2):215-219.
Being an anti-mitotic and apoptosis inducing agent, Cyclophosphamide (CP) causes stunting in size and loss of body weight of the pups on intra-peritoneal injection (10 mg/kg) to pregnant mice on day 11 of gestation. Loss of body weight due to CP administration could be minimized by feeding Drakshavaleha (16 g/kg) orally to pregnant mice from day “0” to day “18” of their gestation. Recovery observed in terms of body weight of the pups was statistically significant (P < 0.001) in Drakshavaleha treated pups. Drakshavaleha also recovered the crown-rump length of the pups occurred due to CP administration. Growth retardation with decreased fetal weight was observed in all CP treated pups when compared with the controls.
PMCID: PMC3821254  PMID: 24250134
Cyclophosphamide; Drakshavaleha; mice; Rasayana; vitamins; weight-loss
5.  A critical study of Rasamritam and it’s applied aspects 
Ayu  2012;33(2):183-187.
Historical studies of Rasa shastra reveal the use of metals and minerals, both for alchemical and therapeutical purposes in ancient past. But, gradually the alchemical use of the subject, declines and the therapeutical use takes over. Rasamritam is the latest doctrine in the field of Rasa shastra which compiles the extract of the older books and adopted some new and contemporary concepts. The practical aspects of this text influence both the academicians as well as physicians in large extent. Keeping the wealthier, timely concept of this text in mind, we are trying to review and analyze it critically for the benefit of researchers and practitioners and hope the idea will be fruitful.
PMCID: PMC3611651  PMID: 23559787
Amritikarana; Dhatu; Dwigandhaayasa; Marana; Shodhana
6.  Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(3):387-390.
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
PMCID: PMC3221077  PMID: 22131745
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana
7.  A Comparative clinical trial on the role of Panchakarma therapy and Unmada Gajankusha Rasa in the cases of major depressive disorder vis-à-vis kaphaja Unmada 
Ayu  2010;31(2):205-209.
Depression is a common but serious mood disorder which exerts wide range of physical, physiological and psychological impact. On the basis of the severity of disease, depression is classified under various categories. Of all the types of depression, major depressive disorder resembles the features of kaphaja Unmada. The patients of Kaphaja Unmada are dirty in appearance, their speech and activities are retarded and they prefer to remain in solitude and lonely places. The presentstudy has been conducted in eighty patients of major depressive disorder dividing them into four groups, A, B, C and D using Vamana therapy and Unmada Gajankusha Rasa in the dose of 250 mg twice daily with water. The results were assessed on scoring of clinical symptoms and signs and by using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS).The results reveal the mild to moderate degree of response over various parameters which has been presented in detail in the article.
PMCID: PMC3215365  PMID: 22131711
Kaphaja Unmada; major depressive disorder ; Panchakarma; Unmada Gajankusha Rasa Vamana karma

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