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author:("rshankar, B.")
1.  IgG4 related renal disease: A wolf in sheep's clothing 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2014;24(6):382-386.
IgG4 related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition with involvement of renal and extra renal organs, characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with organ dysfunction. We describe three cases of IgG4 related renal disease from a tertiary care hospital in south India.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.133022
PMCID: PMC4244720  PMID: 25484534
IgG4 related renal disease; interstitial nephritis; storiform fibrosis
2.  Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati: An Ayurvedic compound formulation 
Ayu  2014;35(2):187-190.
Background:
Diabetes mellitus is a persistent health problem that requires innovative strategies to improve health and needs a multifactorial approach for the treatment. Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, a formulated Ayurvedic compound consists of herbs with anti-diabetic potential.
Aim:
To evaluate the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of Saptarangydi Ghanavati.
Materials and Methods:
For hypoglycemic activity 18 Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups (6 in each). First group served as normal control, second group is the test drug and third is the standard control group. For antihyperglycemic activity 24 Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (6 in each). First group served as water control, second negative control, third test drug and fourth as standard control group. Test drug Saptarangydi Ghanavati was suspended in water and administered to animals at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide was used as reference standard in both the models at the dose of 0.65 mg/kg.
Results:
Saptarangyadi Ghanavati showed mild reduction in Blood Sugar Level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice; however, the observed decrease of BSL was found to be statistically non significant. In antihyperglycemic activity, even though the drug failed to cease the hyperglycemia in the first hour after the glucose overload, it attenuated the same in later hours in nonsignificant extent.
Conclusion:
The study reveals that Saptarangydi Ghanavati has moderate hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146248
PMCID: PMC4279327  PMID: 25558166
Albino mice; antihyperglycemic; glibenclamide; hypoglycemic; Saptarangydi Ghanavati
3.  The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats 
Ayu  2014;35(2):191-197.
Background:
In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree.
Aim:
To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach.
Results:
Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates.
Conclusion:
Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146251
PMCID: PMC4279328  PMID: 25558167
Curcuma angustifolia; gastric ulcer; Maranta arundinacea; pyloric ligation; starch; Tugaksheeree
4.  Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):108-110.
Background:
Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process.
Aim:
To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana.
Materials and Methods:
Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water.
Results:
Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group.
Conclusion:
These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141958
PMCID: PMC4213960  PMID: 25364210
Anti-inflammatory activity; aqueous extract; carrageenan; Ghana Kalpana; Guduchi; Tinospora cordifolia
5.  Assessment of Lekhana Basti in the management of hyperlipidemia 
Ayu  2013;34(4):339-345.
Hyperlipidemia is highly prevalent and is closely related to coronary heart disease which is the most common cause of death. Raised cholesterol is estimated to be responsible for 18% of cerebrovascular disease and 56% of ischemic heart disease. Overall, these diseases account for about 4.4 million deaths (7.9% of the total). Based upon the etiological factors and symptom complexes, hyperlipidemia can be considered as a part of Medoroga. Being a Tikshna formulation, the treatment modality of Lekhana Basti is aimed basically for Apatarpana (emaciation) of the body, as Basti is the fastest Apatarpana. In the present clinical trial, a total of 22 patients were registered of whom 19 patients completed the course of the therapy. Under randomization, the registered patients were divided into two groups of which group A was treated with Lekhana Basti and group B was administered standard control drug, i.e., Triphala Guggulu, for 21 days. The results of the study revealed that in patients treated with Lekhana Basti, there was a decrease of about 4.99% in S. cholesterol, 9.13% in S. low density lipoprotein (LDL), and 0.36% in S. apolipoprotein B. Lekhana Basti was found to have significant effect in reducing the symptoms of Medodushti and in reduction of objective parameters like weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, body circumferences such as chest, abdomen, hip, pelvis, mid-thigh circumference, etc., and skin fold thickness as biceps, triceps, mid-arm, and abdominal skinfold thickness.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.127683
PMCID: PMC3968693  PMID: 24696569
Hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti; Triphala Guggulu
6.  Effect of Sameera Pannaga Rasa (arsenomercurial formulation) in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) - Randomized double blind clinical study 
Ayu  2013;34(4):346-351.
Asthma represents a profound world-wide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include β2-agonists and glucocorticoids which can controls asthma in about 90-95% of patients. In Ayurveda, this miserable condition is comparable with Tamaka Shwasa type of Shwasa Roga. In the present study, 52 patients were treated with Sameera Pannaga Rasa at a dose of 30 mg twice a day for 4 weeks along with Nagavallidala (leaf of Piper betel Linn.) The results were assessed in terms of clinical recovery, symptomatic relief, pulmonary function improvement and on subjective and objective parameters. A significant improvement in subjective parameters, control on asthma, recurrence of asthma, increase in peak expiratory flow rate, considerable decrease in total and absolute, acute eosinophil count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed. Overall marked improvement was found in 33.33%, moderate improvement in 44.44% and mild improvement in 20.00% was observed. The study reveals that Sameera Pannaga Rasa can be used as an effective drug in bronchial asthma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.127692
PMCID: PMC3968694  PMID: 24696570
Bronchial asthma; pulmonary function; Sameera Pannaga Rasa; Shwasa
7.  Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) 
Ayu  2013;34(4):401-405.
Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.127723
PMCID: PMC3968704  PMID: 24696578
Curcuma angustifolia; Maranta arundinacea; physico-chemical analysis; Tugaksheeree
8.  Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals 
Ayu  2013;34(4):417-420.
Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.127726
PMCID: PMC3968707  PMID: 24695802
Guduchi Satva; anti-hyperglycemic; hypoglycemic
9.  Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study 
Ayu  2013;34(3):302-304.
Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.123132
PMCID: PMC3902599  PMID: 24501528
Anti-Inflammatory; carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw oedema; Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.)
10.  Acute toxicity study of Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha: A compound Ayurvedic formulation 
Ayu  2013;34(3):327-330.
Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha is a compound Ayurvedic formulation, indicated for the treatment of liver diseases, especially for Kamala (jaundice) and Panduroga (anemia). However, till date, no safety profile of this formulation has been reported; hence, in the present study, freshly prepared and market samples of Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha were evaluated for acute toxicity. Acute toxicity test was evaluated as per OECD 425 guidelines with 5 000 mg/kg as limit test in Wistar strain albino rats. Test formulations were administered to overnight fasted animals and parameters like body weight, behavioral changes, and mortality were assessed for 14 days. Hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed on 14th day. Results showed no significant changes in terms of behavioral changes, mortality, and body weight. Both the samples did not affect any of the hematological parameters. However, increase in blood urea level was observed. This study shows that both the samples of Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha are relatively safe up to the dose of 5 g/kg. However, further chronic toxicity evaluation is necessary to establish its safety profile on chronic administration.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.123138
PMCID: PMC3902604  PMID: 24501533
Acute toxicity; hepatoprotective; Kamala; Vasaguduchyadi Kwatha
11.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Tamra Bhasma (Incinerated Copper) prepared from Ashodhita (Unpurified) and Shodhita (Purified) Tamra in Rats 
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.117433
PMCID: PMC3783753  PMID: 24082351
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
12.  Circulating miRNA profile in HCV infected serum: novel insight into pathogenesis 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:1555.
Changes in circulating miRNA profiles have been associated with different diseases. Here we demonstrate the circulating miRNA profile in serum of HCV infected individuals using a microRNA array that profiles the expression of 940 miRNAs. Serum samples from two HCV genotype - 1 and two HCV genotype - 3 infected individuals were compared with healthy controls. Expression levels of miR-134, miR-198, miR-320c and miR-483-5p that were commonly upregulated in case of both genotypes were validated in 36 individual patient serum samples. Serum miR-134, miR-320c and miR-483-5p were significantly upregulated during HCV infection. miR-320c and miR-483-5p were also upregulated in HCV- JFH1 infected cells and cell culture supernatant. Pathway analysis of putative target genes of these miRNAs indicated involvement of PI3K-Akt, NFKB and MAPK signaling pathways. Results revealed novel insights on the role of circulating miRNAs in mediating pathogenesis in HCV-infected cells.
doi:10.1038/srep01555
PMCID: PMC3615409  PMID: 23549102
13.  Evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Lekhana Basti in albino rats 
Ayu  2013;34(2):220-225.
Lekhana Basti (medicated enema) is a Tikshna formulation which is basically aimed for Apatarpana of the body. The present study (medicated enema) was undertaken to evaluate its anti-hyperlipidemic activity in diet-induced hyperlipidemia animals. Parameters like changes in body weight, organ weight, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum HDL cholesterol, and serum (LDL + VLDL) cholesterol were studied to assess the effect of therapy in comparison to the control groups. Lekhana Basti was found to be ineffective in producing anti-hyperlipidemic action potently, but still found to have cytoprotective activity against hyperlipidemia induced organ damage, which was also confirmed by attenuation of cell infiltration and microfatty changes on histopathological examination.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119687
PMCID: PMC3821255  PMID: 24250135
Apatarpana; cholesterol; cytoprotective; hyperlipidemia; Lekhana Basti
14.  Anti depressant activity of Mamsyadi Kwatha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation 
Ayu  2013;34(1):113-117.
Depression is a psychiatric condition in which there is loss of interest in all pleasurable outlets, viz. food, sex, work, friends, hobbies and entertainment. The prevalence rate of the disease is 6-8% in women and 3-5% in men. Ayurveda, the science of life, provides systematic management principles for depression. Mamsyadi Kwatha is one such formulation stated by Yadavji Trikamji Acharya in Siddha Yoga Sangraha and Bheshaja Samhita, which is said to be effective in psychiatric conditions. The ingredients are Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi), Ashwagandh (Withania somnifera) and Parasika Yavani (Hyocymus niger) in an 8:4:1 ratio, respectively. The test drug was subjected for antidepressant activity in experimental models. The models selected for anti depressant activity were behavioral despair test, anti-reserpine test and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) test in albino mice. The test formulation showed significant inhibition of behavioural despair (P < 0.05), weak to moderate anti-reserpine activity - ptosis (P < 0.001), catatonia (P < 0.01), sedation (P < 0.01) and moderate effect in CFS test (P < 0.050). These effects clearly show that Mamsyadi Kwatha has an anti-depressant activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115448
PMCID: PMC3764868  PMID: 24049416
Ashwagandha; catatonia; immobility time; Jatamansi; Mamsyadi Kwatha
15.  PA02.12. Toxicity studies on shankha vati 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S57.
Purpose:
Shankha Vati, a classical Ayurvedic formulation that is widely used by the practitioners of Ayurveda, contains a heavy metal i.e. Parada (mercury) and a poisonous herbal drug i.e. Vatsanabha (Aconitum chasmantum Staff.ex.Holmes) along with other ingredients. There are certain apprehensions on this formulation, mainly due to the presence of its ingredient Vatsanabha. Shankha Vati (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10/186 – 187, also in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part1), is one of the formulations in which Vatsanabha is used without its usual coingredient and antidote Tankana (borax). With an hypothesis that classical combination of Shankha Vati is not completely safe and there could be some adverse effects due to the presence of poisonous ingredient Vatsanabha in it, and any possible adverse effects of Shankha Vati due to the presence of Vatsanabha will be nullified by the addition of Tankana to the formulation, another modified formulation with the addition of purified Tankana equal to the quantity of Vatsanabha in the classical Shankha Vati, was also taken up for the study.
Method:
Acute toxicity study as per OECD Guideline 425, and Chronic toxicity study (90 days with the recovery period of 30 days) as per AYUSH170 guideline (Guidelines for preclinical safety evaluation for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs and other traditional medicines in India) were carried out. Biochemical and haematological investigations were carried out on 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days. Histopathological study of acute chronic toxicity study were carried out.
Result:
Histopathological study of both acute and chronic toxicity study were also carried out. There were no toxicity related changes found in the animals treated classical Shankha Vati as well as modified Shankha Vati in both acute and chronic toxicity study. Similarly biochemical and haematological investigations also did not toxicity related changes.
Conclusion:
Classical formulation of Shankha Vati is completely safe and there is no need to modify the composition to make it safer.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123876
PMCID: PMC4147529
16.  Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka 
Background:
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda.
Aim:
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark.
Material and Methods:
An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally.
Conclusion
Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.104434
PMCID: PMC3545239  PMID: 23326090
Anti-inflammatory; Ayurveda; dashamoola; Oroxylum indicum; shyonaka
17.  Provocative dietary factors in geriatric hypertension: A surveillance study 
Ayu  2012;33(4):530-536.
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110537
PMCID: PMC3665196  PMID: 23723671
Ayurveda; dietary factors; geriatric age group; hypertension
18.  Phyto-chemical evaluation of dried aqueous extract of Jivanti [Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn] 
Ayu  2012;33(4):557-560.
Jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wt. et Arn) is a well known climber used for its innumerable therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, vasodilator, galactogogue, Jivaniya, etc., Its use in veterinary practice is tremendous due to its lactogenic effect. The Ghana (dried aqueous extract) of the whole plant was prepared and evaluated phyto-chemically by subjecting it to various tests like physico-chemical, qualitative analysis; TLC and HPTLC. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of flavonoids and TLC also inferred positive Rf value (0.30), indicating the presence of quercetin in the Ghana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110525
PMCID: PMC3665201  PMID: 23723676
Dried extract; Ghana; Jivanti; Leptadenia reticulata; quercetin
19.  Immunomodulatory activity of Āmalaki Rasāyana: An experimental evaluation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(2):93-98.
Background:
Ayurvedic system of medicine holds a number of drugs that improves the immunity. Āmalaki (Emblica officinalis) is one such drug. Researches with crude extracts of Āmalaki have proven the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. But, works on Āmalaki Rasāyana are not found reported.
Aims:
Considering this, two samples of Āmalaki Rasāyana (AR7 and AR21) were studied to evaluate comparative immunomodulatory activity against the cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Test drugs were prepared by following classical guidelines. Wistar strain albino rats of either sex were used in the study.
Statistical Analysis:
For comparison of data from cyclophosphamide control group with remaining cyclophosphamide plus test drug administered groups one way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple t-test (DMTT) was employed.
Results and Conclusions:
Āmalaki Rasāyana possesses significant immunostimulant activity and moderate cytoprotective activity. AR21 was found to have better activity profile in terms of both immunostimulant as well as cytoprotective activity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.118546
PMCID: PMC3807964  PMID: 24167334
Āmalaki; cyclophosphamide; Ghrita; humoral immunity; Madhu; Rasāyana
20.  Observational study on external social and lifestyle related factors and their role in pathogenesis of premature ageing and stress 
Ayu  2012;33(3):378-386.
In the present era of stress, when lifestyle disorders are high on rise, premature ageing is also one of the most prevalent disorders. It is needed to study the external environmental psychological causative factors in premature ageing and stress. An observational study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of lifestyle, occupational and social factors and mental makeup in individuals diagnosed with premature ageing. A total of 108 patients of premature ageing and stress fulfilling the criteria of inclusion as per ageing scale were selected from outpatient Department of Panchakarma and Manasa Roga, Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The diagnosed patients of premature ageing were subjected to specialized proforma enlisting all the factors as well as ageing scale, Manasa Bhava Pariksha, and Manasa Vibhrama Pariksha. The method of survey was by a questionnaire about the points regarding the lifestyle causative factors. Maximum patients had shown signs of premature ageing with Mana-Buddhi-Smriti-Bhakti Vibhrama (100% each) and involvement of negative Manasa Bhava. The 78.70% patients in this study felt of having excess responsibility on them in family. The 52.77% patients had average good relationship with their family members, while remaining 47.22% narrated history of disturbed relationship. The center of stress was found to be at personal level in all patients; at family level in 73.14%; at professional or work level in 64.81%. Various external, occupational, social and familial factors play significant role in the pathology of premature ageing by disturbing the overall psychological status. This proves the link of Manasa affecting Sharira and vice versa with reference to modern contemporary concept of psycho-neuro endocrinology.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108828
PMCID: PMC3665085  PMID: 23723645
Akalaja Jara; external social factors; Manasa Bhava; premature ageing; stress; Vibhrama
21.  Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats 
Ayu  2012;33(3):429-434.
Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108860
PMCID: PMC3665093  PMID: 23723654
Ammonium oxalate; Ashmari; gentamicin; Pashanabhedadi Ghrita; urolithiasis
22.  Evaluation of Saptarangyadi Ghanavati in the management of Apathyanimittaja Prameha w.s.r. to type-2 diabetes mellitus 
Ayu  2012;33(3):368-373.
Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a persistent health problem that requires innovative strategies to improve health and needs a multifactorial approach for the treatment. Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, a new formulated Ayurvedic compound consists of herbs with anti-diabetic potential, in addition to a folklore herb Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis) has been evaluated. In a total of 67 patients, 36 patients were of newly detected type-2 diabetes mellitus and 31 patients were of chronic type-2 diabetes mellitus and they were divided into group A and group B, respectively. Group A consisted newly detected subjects of type-2 diabetes and were not taking any regular medication and group B consisted of chronic cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus, who were taking modern ant-diabetic medication, but their blood-glucose level was not controlled to desired level. Patients in group A were administered Saptarangyadi Ghanavati each of 200 mg, 5 Vatis, 3-times a day-after breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Patients in group B were administered Saptarangyadi Ghanavati, in the same dose in addition to the concomitant anti-diabetic (Allopathic) medication. Serum insulin investigation, both fasting and post-prandial levels were evaluated in six patients of group B, showed a highly significant increase in first-phase insulin response. Glycosylated hemoglobin (serum HbA1c) evaluated in six patients of group A showed statistically significant reduction. There was also statistically significant reduction in the fasting blood sugar (FBS) and post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) parameters, both in newly detected cases as well as chronic cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108825
PMCID: PMC3665094  PMID: 23723643
Anti-diabetic; insulin response; glycosylated hemoglobin; Saptarangyadi Ghanavati; type-2 diabetes mellitus
23.  A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats 
Ayu  2012;33(3):435-440.
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108862
PMCID: PMC3665096  PMID: 23723655
Ahridya; albino rats; Avika Ghrita; cholesterol; ghee; Go Ghrita
24.  Pharmaceutical study of Triguna and Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja 
Ayu  2012;33(3):412-417.
Makaradhwaja is a herbo-minaral drug prepared by Kupipakwa method. In the present study Makaradhwaja was prepared by Triguna and Shadguna Balijarana using Ashtasamskarita Parada. Total five batches of Triguna Makaradhwaja (TM) were prepared by taking 330 g of Kajjali in each batch, average product obtained was 29.12 g. In the preparation of Shadguna Makaradhwaja (SM) too, five batches were prepared, taking 250 g of Kajjali, average product obtained was 16.8 g. The average time taken for flame in TM was 3.01 h and that in SM was 4.58 h. Kupipaka was carried out for 18 and 36 h in TM and SM, respectively. Inductive Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) revealed the presence of 7.2976 ppm gold in TM, whereas 663.14 ppm in SM.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108856
PMCID: PMC3665097  PMID: 23723651
Ashtasamskarita Parada; Parada; Balijarana; Makaradhwaja; Murcchana
25.  Evaluation of subchronic genotoxic potential of Swarna Makshika Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(3):418-422.
Extremely diminutive published information is available on the mutagenic activity of Ayurvedic Bhasmas. Genotoxicity of few Bhasmas were reported on single maximum dose, but no reference is available on the sub-chronic level. Hence the present study was carried to generate and evaluate genotoxic potentials of Swarna Makshika Bhasma (mineral preparation) administered at therapeutic dose for 14 days. Chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm assay parameters were taken in this study. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was taken as positive group and results were compared. The results revealed a lack of generation of structural deformity in above parameters by tested drugs compared to CP treated group. Observed data indicate that the Bhasmas tested were non-genotoxic under the experimental conditions.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108858
PMCID: PMC3665102  PMID: 23723652
Abnormal sperm assay; chromosomal aberrations; cyclophosphamide; genotoxicity; Swarna Makshika Bhasma

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