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1.  Effect of Shodhana Treatment on Chronic Toxicity and Recovery of Aconite 
Toxicology International  2012;19(1):35-41.
Aconite is one of the poisonous plants used therapeutically in practice of Ayurveda after proper treatment called as ‘Shodhana’. To determine the effect of Shodhana treatment on chronic toxicity and to assess the effect of recovery period after chronic toxicity of aconite. Raw aconite (RV), urine treated aconite (SM), and milk treated aconite (SD) were administered in 6.25 mg/kg dose in Charles Foster strain albino rats for 90 days for chronic toxicity. Six rats from each were kept for another 30 days without test drugs treatment to observe recovery from chronic toxicity. RV was found to be highly toxic in chronic exposure, SM had no apparent toxicity, but SD had mild toxicity in kidney. The toxicities of RV and SD were reversible, but sudden withdrawal of SM caused adverse effects, suggestive of tapering withdrawal. Shodhana treatments remove toxic effects from raw aconite. Chronic toxicity of aconite is reversible. Confirmed the arrangement of abstract
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.94515
PMCID: PMC3339243  PMID: 22736901
Aconitum chasmanthum; cow's urine; cow's milk; recovery; shodhana
2.  Remarks on “Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles” 
Ancient Science of Life  2014;33(3):194.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.144627
PMCID: PMC4264311  PMID: 25538358
3.  Seasonal variations in physicochemical profiles of Guduchi Satva (starchy substance from Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) 
Guduchi Satva (GS), the starchy material extracted from the Guduchi stem is well-known Ayurvedic single drug formulation having a wide range of therapeutic utility. Species of the plant, stem size, collection time, season and maturity of the plant may affect the yield and physico-chemical profile of GS. However, published data on such variations is lacking. Considering this, present study is planned to screen seasonal variations in physico-chemical profile of GS. 18 batches of GS were prepared in six different seasons (3 batches in each season) and findings were systematically recorded. The obtained Satva was further subjected to relevant physico-chemical parameters. Principal component analysis method was adopted to analyze variations. Maximum yield of Satva was obtained in Shishira Ritu(January-February) while the minimum in Grishma (May-June). Variation in taste and color was found in Satva prepared in Varsha Ritu. All functional groups were found to be same in each season. Total alkaloidal contents found bit higher in Varsha and Vasanta. More residual x-variance in alcohol soluble extract and more leverage were observed in water soluble extract due to impact of seasonal spells.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.123685
PMCID: PMC3891173  PMID: 24459384
Guduchi; Ritu; Satva; season; Tinospora cordifolia
4.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Svarṇa vaṅga 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(2):97-102.
Background:
Kūpīpakva Rasāyana is a category of Rasauṣadhis (herbomineral medicines) prepared by unique pharmaceutical process explained in Rasaśāstra. Svarṇa Vanga (SV) is one such medicament indicated mainly in diseases such as Madhumeha (diabetes mellitus), Śvāsa (respiratory disorders), Pradara (menorrhagia), and as a Vrṣya (aphrodisiac).
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to establish the standard manufacturing process for SV and analyze its organoleptic and physicochemical properties.
Design:
Pharmaceutical standardization.
Materials and Methods:
Śodhita Vaṅga was melted and triturated with purified Pārada (mercury) to form an amalgam. The amalgam so formed was mixed with Saindhava Lavaṇa and levigated with Nimbu Svarasa (Citrus medica Var.) and washed until blackness of the mixture disappeared. On drying, śuddha Gandhaka (Sulfur) and Navasadara (Ammonium chloride) were added and ground into a fine powder. The powder thus formed was filled in the Kupī and processed in an electrical muffle furnace for 18 h. On cooling, the product formed at the bottom of the Kūpī was collected. Organoleptic and physicochemical parameters of SV were analyzed and tabulated.
Results and Conclusion:
SV is a Talastha Kūpīpakva Rasāyana. It requires Mṛdu (<250 C) and Madhyama Agni (250-500 C) for a period of 9 h each to prepare SV with 42.9% yield and having 63.2 and 34.4% tin and sulfur, respectively.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.139046
PMCID: PMC4171861  PMID: 25284942
Ayurveda; Kupipakva Rasayana; standardization; Swarna Vanga
5.  Validation of standard manufacturing procedure of Guḍūcī sattva (aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers) and its tablets 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):27-34.
Introduction:
Guḍūci Sattva is a highly valued formulation among ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions such as Jvara (fever), Dāha (burning sensation) and other conditions of Pitta predominance. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available until date on manufacturing guidelines along with its quality control parameters.
Aims and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to develop the standard manufacturing procedure for preparation of Guḍūci Sattva and its tablets.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 15 batches of Guḍūci Sattva were prepared in the laboratory. During its preparation, pharmaceutical findings and observations were systematically recorded. To maintain quality control, Guḍūci Sattva tablets were further subjected to analysis such as shape, diameter, width, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time (DT) and friability. Qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) profile were also carried out.
Results and Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
Conclusion:
The average percentage of dried Sattva obtained was 3.8%. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method as per pharmacopoeal specifications. Optimum hardness, weight of tablets, DT and friability of Guḍūci Sattva tablets were found complying with official standards. Alkaloids, carbohydrates and starch were found present in Sattva tablets. Number of peaks obtained in HPTLC also corresponds to this finding. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future studies.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134564
PMCID: PMC4140018  PMID: 25161327
Guḍūci; Sattva; standard manufacturing procedure; tablets
6.  Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx): A brief review 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):52-59.
Introduction:
Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx) is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes). Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha.
Aim:
The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic) drug.
Materials and Methods
Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data.
Result and Conclusion:
Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn), Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis), Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia) and Madhu (honey) enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134609
PMCID: PMC4140024  PMID: 25161332
Antidiabetic formulations; efficacy; Nāga bhasma; safety
7.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Tamra Bhasma (Incinerated Copper) prepared from Ashodhita (Unpurified) and Shodhita (Purified) Tamra in Rats 
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.117433
PMCID: PMC3783753  PMID: 24082351
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
8.  Ayurvedic management of adverse drug reactions with Shvitrahara Varti 
Ayu  2013;34(2):189-192.
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are an expression that describes harm associated with the use of medications at therapeutic dose. Traditional medicines also can develop ADRs due to their improper use. Shvitrahara Varti, one of such medicines holds Bakuchi as a component and is to be used judiciously. Furanocoumarins like psoralen present in Bakuchi makes skin hypersensitive and causes phytophotodermatitis in few cases. Hence, one should be careful while using medicines that contain Bakuchi. One such case is observed, where extensive reactions with application of Shvitrahara Varti were noticed and managed with Ayurvedic treatment.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119676
PMCID: PMC3821249  PMID: 24250129
Adverse drug reactions; Bakuchi; blisters; Shvitra; Shvitrahara Varti; vitiligo
9.  Clinical evaluation of Vṛṣya effect of Pūga Khaṇḍa on sexual health and seminal parameters 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):134-138.
Background:
Due to changes in life-style, the human beings are losing their Vṛṣyatā (virility). Bio-medicine hasn’t been able to address this challenge. Hence, we see that many people seek the help of herbal medicines to get relief. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to provide potent formulations to address this ailment.
Objectives:
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Pūga Khaṇḍa on seminal parameters and sexual health.
Materials and Methods:
Pūga Khaṇḍa has been mentioned as Vṛṣya (aphrodisiac) in the 30th chapter of Bhaiśajyaratnāvalī. A simple-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing this Pūga Khaṇḍa preparation with a placebo was conducted in 52 patients attending O.P.D. of Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana of Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. An elaborative case taking Proforma was specially designed for this purpose incorporating all aspects of the disease in the Ayurvedic parlance. Both groups received either Pūga Khaṇḍa or placebo, in empty stomach in the early morning with water, as per the randomisation plan for a period of 45 days. Patients were followed-upto 4 weeks, 43 patients (84%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in seminal parameters and sexual health parameters.
Results:
A varying degree of improvement was observed in sexual parameters viz. duration of coitus (P<0.001), frequency of coitus (P<0.01), Sexual desire (P<0.05), penile erection (P<0.01), A significant improvement was seen in duration of coitus (P< 0.001) in the group treated by Pūga Khaṇḍa.
Conclusion:
The trial drug Pūga Khaṇḍa was superior to placebo in reducing the mean sign and symptom score of seminal parameters and sexual health.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122995
PMCID: PMC3902532  PMID: 24501440
Klaibya; Puga Khanda; seminal parameters; sexual parameters; Vrushya
10.  PA01.58. Role of laghu malini vasanta rasa in management of madhumeha, type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S108.
Purpose:
Laghu Malini Vasanta Rasa is a Vasanta Malati Kalpa with Rasaka and Maricha as main ingredients, chiefly acting on Dhatvagni with Brimhana effect. It had been quoted by 30 texts and mentioned under Jeerna Jwaradhikara. None of text had mentioned it for Madhumeha. Madhumeha is chronic disorder where Dhatvagnimandya leads to diminution of Prasada Dhatu resulting in Vataprakopa. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is more prevalent among other types 62.4 million in 2011. Long termed hyperglycemia in Type 2 DM results in decreased quality of life 2.263 million disability adjusted life years in India during 2004. Through present study attempt was made to evaluate efficacy of formulation (AFI part I 20:36) in Madhumeha as anti-hyperglycaemic activity of ingredients of Laghu Malini Vasanta Rasa has been recognized.
Method:
Open trial (CTRI registration no. CTRI/2011/11/00211) Inclusion criteria-Age group 30 60 yrs, Patients with cardinal symptoms of Madhumeha Exclusion criteria-Age group <30 >60yrs, Accelerated HTN, Pregnant, Lactating mother, CNS complication Diagnostic criteria-Subjective criteria: Classical signs & symptoms of Madhumeha, Objective criteria: FBS (fasting blood sugar) >126 mg/dl OR PPBSL (postprandial blood sugar level) >200 mg/dl, Total Reg.patient-33; completed-30; Dropped out-3, Posology with duration of treatment: 250mg tablet BD 30 min. before meal with lukewarm water for 8 weeks. Criteria for assessment: Relief in symptoms by Wilcoxson signed rank method. Unpaired t test for statistical analysis of objective parameters.
Result:
Highly significant relief p < 0.001in symptoms Klama, Daurbalya and significant relief P < 0.05 in reducing urine sugar and PPBSL (postprandial blood sugar level).
Conclusion:
Laghu Malini Vasanta helped to improve quality of life in-patient of Madhumeha.
PMCID: PMC3800861
11.  Immunomodulatory activity of Āmalaki Rasāyana: An experimental evaluation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(2):93-98.
Background:
Ayurvedic system of medicine holds a number of drugs that improves the immunity. Āmalaki (Emblica officinalis) is one such drug. Researches with crude extracts of Āmalaki have proven the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. But, works on Āmalaki Rasāyana are not found reported.
Aims:
Considering this, two samples of Āmalaki Rasāyana (AR7 and AR21) were studied to evaluate comparative immunomodulatory activity against the cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Test drugs were prepared by following classical guidelines. Wistar strain albino rats of either sex were used in the study.
Statistical Analysis:
For comparison of data from cyclophosphamide control group with remaining cyclophosphamide plus test drug administered groups one way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple t-test (DMTT) was employed.
Results and Conclusions:
Āmalaki Rasāyana possesses significant immunostimulant activity and moderate cytoprotective activity. AR21 was found to have better activity profile in terms of both immunostimulant as well as cytoprotective activity.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.118546
PMCID: PMC3807964  PMID: 24167334
Āmalaki; cyclophosphamide; Ghrita; humoral immunity; Madhu; Rasāyana
12.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93944
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
13.  Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats 
The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90775
PMCID: PMC3255450  PMID: 22253509
Albizia lebbeck; avaleha; hemagglutination titer; immunomodulatory activity
14.  Standardization of Shirishavaleha with reference to physico-chemical characteristics 
Ayu  2011;32(4):560-565.
Ten batches of Shirishavaleha were prepared by using Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) of Shirisha [Albizzia lebbeck Benth]. The adopted formulation was based on Shirisharishta of Bhaishajya Ratnavali. Though Shirisharishta has significant therapeutic effect in cases of Tamaka swasa, etc.; it has few difficulties during the pharmaceutical procedure like consuming long time, climatic influences etc. Considering these inconveniencies, the formulation composition has been converted in to Shirishavaleha. Avaleha has been prepared by using Twak and Sara of Shirisha. No significant differences were found in pharmaceutical aspects of both the samples of Shirishavaleha and the current method of preparation can be considered as standard. Attempts were also made to develop analytical profile of avaleha, which were almost similar in both the samples, except showing more Rf values in High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of Sara group.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96134
PMCID: PMC3361936  PMID: 22661855
Albizzia lebbeck; Avaleha; Bark; Heartwood; Shirisha; Shirishavaleha
15.  Effect of different Avaleha in the management of Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) 
Ayu  2011;32(3):427-431.
Avaleha, which are generally elegant preparations, can be used for both preventive and curative purposes. Many research works have been carried out on different Avalehas. A number of studies with different Avalehas and their respective clinical efficacy in Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) have been carried-out at Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT & RA, Jamnagar. A review has been carried out of such works to know the better one. In the work, it has been found that highly significant (P<0.001) results on Shwasakastata were found in all the groups, except in the Kamsa Haritaki Avaleha (B) group which was insignificant (P<0.02).
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.93928
PMCID: PMC3326896  PMID: 22529664
Avaleha; Brimhana; Shwasa
16.  Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India: A review through Charaka Samhita 
The Ayurvedic system of medicine has stood the test of time for four millennia or more. The ancient seers found that drugs of different origin (herbal, metal or animal) in addition to codes of conduct and dietary regulations are suitable tools to maintain health in healthy and eradicating diseases in diseased. Use of metallic preparations in healthcare is a unique feature in this system. Processed metals including Mercury, Gold, Silver, Lead, Zinc, Copper etc. were used very frequently by seers of the Indian tradition in different disease conditions with great authority. It is generally claimed, that these metals are detoxified during the highly complex manufacturing processes described in Ayurvedic, especially Rasashastra texts. Charaka Samhita, one of the scheduled books of Ayurveda also holds ample of references regarding the use of metals for different purposes, which are summarized in the current paper.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.82523
PMCID: PMC3131772  PMID: 21760689
Ayurveda; Charaka Samhita; lead; mercury; metals
17.  Preparation of Dhatryarishta by Dhatri Swarasa and Dhatri Kwatha 
Ayu  2011;32(2):265-270.
Dhatryarishta has been described for the first time in Charaka Samhita, in the context of Panduroga. The same reference is available in Chakradatta, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, and Sahastrayogam too. Generally Dhatri Swarasa [Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)] is used in the preparation of Dhatryarishta as per classical reference, but fresh Amalaki is not available in every season, so in the present study, Amalaki Kwatha (decoction) is used instead of Swarasa. A total of 13 batches of Dhatryarishta were prepared, out of which nine batches were prepared with Dhatri Swarasa and four batches with Dhatri Kwatha. For Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Swarasa, three methods were applied and in Dhatryarishta prepared by using Dhatri Kwatha two methods were applied. The study revealed that Dhatryarishta could only be prepared by using Amalaki Swarasa as quoted in the classics and not by using Amalaki Kwatha.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.92548
PMCID: PMC3296352  PMID: 22408314
Dhatri; Dhatryarishta; Kwatha; Panduroga; Swarasa
18.  Standard manufacturing process of Makaradhwaja prepared by Swarna Patra – Varkha and Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(1):109-115.
Makaradhwaja is an important Kupipakwa Rasayana. It is prepared by using Swarna (gold), Parada (mercury) and Gandhaka (sulfur) in different ratios, i.e. 1:8:16, 1:8:24 and 1:2:4, respectively. The amount of Gandhaka in the Jarana process is directly proportional to the increase in therapeutic efficacy and reduces the toxicity of the product. Specific temperature pattern for the preparation of Makaradhwaja has been followed. In the present study Swarna, Parada and Gandhaka were taken in the ratio 1:8:24, respectively, and 12 h of heating for a specified amount of Kajjali (i.e., 400 g) in a Kacha Kupi 1/3rd of its capacity. There are some controversies regarding the form of Swarna (i.e., Swarna Patra Swarna Varkha or Swarna Bhasma) used in the preparation of Makaradhwaja. Therefore, in the present study, the samples of Makaradhwaja were prepared by Swarna Patra, Varkha and Bhasma in different batches. It was found that the use of Varkha produced a good-quality product along with the maximum amount of gold, i.e. 268 ppm, in comparison with Patra, i.e. 131 ppm, and Bhasma, i.e. 19 ppm, respectively.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85741
PMCID: PMC3215406  PMID: 22131768
Bhavana; Hingulottha Parada; Kupipaka; Standard manufacturing process; Shodhana
19.  Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation 
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.76781
PMCID: PMC3059440  PMID: 21455445
Albizia lebbeck; anti-inflammatory activity; Avaleha
20.  Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf 
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic characters of this plant include stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hair and mucilage cells. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (0.6%), total ash (10.75%), acid insoluble ash (0.045%), alcohol-soluble extractive (21.7%), and water-soluble extractive (30.72%). Preliminary analysis for the presence of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and proteins. Thin layer chromatographic study of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of five, six and seven spots in short UV, long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.76787
PMCID: PMC3059446  PMID: 21455451
Pharmacognostical study; physicochemical study; thin layer chromatography
21.  A comparative pharmacological evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):504-508.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82036
PMCID: PMC3202249  PMID: 22048548
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
22.  A clinical review of different formulations of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) on Tamaka Shwasa (asthma) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):520-524.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Linn.) is a well known and easily available drug in almost all the seasons. Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every Kalpana of Vasa is found described in the Ayurvedika text. The different dosage forms of Vasa like Kvatha, Avaleha, Sneha, and Sandhana have been used for the treatment of Shwasa Roga. A number of research studies have been performed on different formulations of Vasa and its effect on Shwasa Roga. Therefore, a review study has been carried out on the Vasa extract, Vasa Avaleha (prepared from Svarasa and Kvatha), Vasa Ghrita, Vasarishta, and Vasakasava on Shwasa Roga, to know which formulation is better. It was found in the review that Vasa Ghana, Vasa Ghrita (1), and Vasa Avaleha have shown good results on Tamaka Shwasa.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82032
PMCID: PMC3202261  PMID: 22048552
Ghana (extract); Avaleha; Shwasa; Asava; Arishta; Tamaka Shwasa; Adhatoda vasica
23.  Standardization of Gaja Puta and Ardha Gaja Puta in the preparation of Vanga Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(4):511-515.
The Vanga Bhasma is an important one amongst the metallic Bhasmas. Mainly Gaja Puta, Ardhagaja Puta and Laghu Puta have been described for Marana of Vanga. The medicines, which are prepared from Gaja Puta, are said to be the best ones (Mahagunavidhayaka). Gaja Puta is commonly used in the preparation of almost all the Bhasmas. There are a few references found in classics regarding Ardhagaja Puta, but not any reference regarding its detail description, therefore, the effort was made to standardize both the Putas with regard to Vanga Bhasma. In the present study, Vanga Bhasma was prepared by Gaja Puta and Ardhagaja Puta. For Marana of Vanga, it was found that the Ardhagaja Puta is more convenient than Gaja Puta with respect to color and particle size analysis of Bhasma after Jarana procedure of Vanga.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82028
PMCID: PMC3202267  PMID: 22048550
Gaja Puta; Ardhagaja Puta; Shodhana; Jarana; Marana
24.  Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats 
Ayu  2010;31(3):367-370.
The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.77162
PMCID: PMC3221073  PMID: 22131741
Guduchi Ghrita; pyrexia; Brewer's yeast; paracetamol; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. medicated ghee
25.  Impact of Bhavana Samskara on physico-chemical parameters with special reference to Gandhaka Rasayana prepared by different media and methods 
Ayu  2010;31(3):382-386.
Gandhaka Rasayana is frequently used in the management of different skin disorders (Kushtha). It is a herbo-mineral preparation prepared by Shuddha Gandhaka Bhavit with 11 herbal drugs in a serial manner for eight times each. Therefore, it was used as a model drug and four samples were prepared by adopting different methods and media. The physicochemical parameters were evaluated. The effect of increasing the number of Bhavana (lavigation) on particle size of the drug was examined. Similarly, an attempt was also made to differntiate the structure (surface anatomy) of the drug with Bhavana and without Bhavana by using a very sophisticated x-ray photo electron spectrometer (XPS) study. Overall, a remarkable difference was observed in the samples with Bhavana and without Bhavana.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.77155
PMCID: PMC3221076  PMID: 22131744
Bhavana; Gandhaka Rasayana; ICP; particle size; XPS

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