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1.  Trividha Snehapaka of Panchagavya Ghrita: A critical comparative evaluation 
Backgorund:
The three stages of Snehapaka formulations namely Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka have been characteristically advocated for different routes of administration—Nasya, Pana/Basti and Abhyanga, respectively. Guidelines or established method for post-formulation characterization for the same is hardly available.
Objective:
The present communication is the comparative study of Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka of Panchagavya ghrita (PGG).
Materials and Methods:
Laboratory prepared samples of PGG following classical method were analyzed for different physicochemical, spectroscopic, chromatographic parameters, and antioxidant activity.
Results:
No significant difference was found among Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka in physicochemical parameters as well as chromatographic profiles. The ratio of absorbance at 240 and 294 nm showed steady increase from Mridu to Madhyama to Khara Paka in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra of unsaponifiable matter. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-2,2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography assay revealed presence of two antioxidant compounds in low concentration in all the samples. This was further supported by estimation of total reducing power and DPPH assay. No significant difference was found among the three samples.
Conclusion:
Comparison of various physicochemical parameters, chromatographic profiles, and in vitro antioxidant activity determination is of little help in establishing any significant difference among the samples. However, spectrophotometric analysis of unsaponifiable matter reveals some encouraging characteristic findings which will be useful in establishing difference among the three stages of processing of PGG as well as Snehapaka in general.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.113887
PMCID: PMC3737442  PMID: 23930043
Antioxidant; High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC); HPTLC-2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography; Panchagavya ghrita; Mridu/Madhyama/Khara Paka
2.  In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn 
Ayu  2013;34(2):209-214.
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119684
PMCID: PMC3821253  PMID: 24250133
Antioxidants; Aragwadha; Cassia fistula; free radical; phenols
3.  In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark 
Ayu  2013;34(1):124-128.
Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115451
PMCID: PMC3764870  PMID: 24049418
Antioxidant; anti–radical; Cordia dichotoma; diphenyl–2; picrylhydrazyl; reducing power; Shleshmataka
4.  Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts 
Ayu  2011;32(4):585-589.
Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96138
PMCID: PMC3361940  PMID: 22661859
Antibacterial; antifungal; Cordia dichotoma; gram positive; gram negative; in vitro

Results 1-4 (4)