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author:("Kumar, adars")
1.  HIV-1 clade C infection and Progressive Disruption in the Relationship Between Cortisol, DHEAS and CD4 cell numbers: A two-year follow-up study 
Background
It is well established that there is mutual interaction between the neuroendocrines and immune systems and that the disturbance in any one system could affect the function of the other. While there is a large body of evidence suggesting negative impact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 B (HIV-1B) infection on both immune and neuroendocrine systems, the consequence of HIV-1 clade C infection (with structural differences from HIV-1B virus) on these systems is not clearly understood.
Methods
We carried out a 2-y longitudinal study on plasma profile of adrenocorticosteroids, including cortisol and DHEAS and their relationship with declining CD4+ cell counts in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-C infected individuals (N=84) in order to understand the impact of HIV-1 clade C infection on adrenocortical dysfunction and its relationship with the progressive decline in the cell mediated immunity.
Results
We found that while plasma cortisol levels increased significantly at baseline in HIV-1C infected individuals compared to those in HIV-negative controls (HIV-1C+, 9.83±0.39 vs. controls, 8.04±0.45; p< 0.01), there was a significant decrease in DHEAS in HIV-1C+ individuals, compared to that in HIV-negative controls (81.02 ± 4.9 vs. 185.1±12.03, p< 0.001), and consequently a significant increase in cortisol:DHEAS (Cortisol:DHEAS) ratio in HIV-1 clade C infected persons (0.19±0.002 vs. control 0.058±0.006; p<.0.001). Moreover, in HIV-1 C infected individuals, there was a strong positive correlation between DHEAS and CD4 cells (r=0.2; p<0.05), and a strong negative correlation between cortisol, as well as Cortisol:DHEAS ratio and CD4 cells (r= −0.25; p<0.01; and r= −0.31; p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusions
These findings suggest the persistent and progressive adrenocorical dysfunction during the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection, and that the evaluation of increase in plasma cortisol, a decrease in DHEAS, and an increase in Cortisol:DHEAS ratio may serve as important biomarkers preceding the impending down regulation of CD4 cell counts and progressive decline in the immune system function in HIV-1C infection. Furthermore, these findings may indicate the dysregulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) activity, the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cortisol and DHEA through the pregnenolone-progesterone pathway, and that it may offer an opportunity for drug discovery targeting re-regulation of 3β-HSD activity for potential therapeutic application in HIV-1 C infection.
doi:10.1016/j.cca.2009.06.032
PMCID: PMC3980952  PMID: 19576195
HIV-1; Clade C; Cortisol; Cortisol:DHEAS (C/D) ratio; DHEAS; CD4 cell count; CD4:CD8 ratio; Body mass index (BMI); HAART
2.  Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Levels in HIV-1 Seropositive Injecting Drug Users 
TNF-α is a highly pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in regulating HIV-1 replication. It may compromise the integrity of the blood-brain-barrier and, thus, may contribute to the neurotoxicity of HIV-1-infection. Both intravenous drug abuse (IDU) and HIV infection can increase TNF-α activity, but little information is available on the effects of a combination of these factors on TNF-α. We investigated plasma TNF-α levels and mRNA in the peripheral monocytes of 166 men and women in three groups: HIV-1-positive IDUs, HIV-1-negative IDUs, and HIV-negative non-IDU control participants. HIV-1-positive IDUs had higher TNF-α levels than HIV-1-negative IDUs who, in turn, had higher levels than controls. TNF-α mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes was significantly increased in both HIV-1-positive and negative IDUs compared to controls. These findings show that the effects of HIV infection and intravenous drug use may be additive in increasing TNF-α levels. Given the multiple effects of TNF-α in HIV infection, additional investigation of its role is needed.
doi:10.1007/s11481-009-9150-x
PMCID: PMC3608274  PMID: 19347588
HIV-1; TNF-α; cognition; drug abuse; immune function; dementia
3.  Physiological and biochemical changes with Vamana procedure 
Ayu  2012;33(3):348-355.
Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) primarily a Samshodhana Karma (purification procedure) is one of the five Pradhana Karmas (chief procedures) of Panchakarma. It is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts that a person after Samyak Vamana (proper Vamana) experiences lightness of the body, Hrit (precordium), Kantha (throat/voice), and Shirah (head) and weakness. This procedure is effectively used in healthy and ailing persons for purification of body and extraction of Doshas (especially Kapha) in Ayurvedic system. It has been found worth to observe the physiological and biochemical changes during Vamana and after the procedure to understand the effect/safety margins of the procedure in healthy volunteers.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108821
PMCID: PMC3665106  PMID: 23723640
Biochemical changes; Doshas; Hrit; Kantha; Panchakarma; physiological changes; Samshodhana Karma; Shira; Vamana; Virechana
4.  Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review 
Hepatic disease is often treatable and has a predictable prognosis when a definitive diagnosis is made. The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of icterus, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. This paper describes the different diagnostic methods and imaging techniques employed in diagnosis of hepatobiliary affections in dogs. Besides reviewing the significant clinical manifestations and imaging structural abnormalities in diagnostic approach to different hepatic affections, it also depicts radiographic, ultrasonographic, and wherever applicable, the laparoscopic characterization of different hepatic affections and target lesions encountered in clinical cases presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, COVAS, Palampur in the year 2007-2008.
doi:10.1155/2012/672107
PMCID: PMC3329710  PMID: 22577609
5.  Comparative Ultrasonographic Imaging of Spleen and Liver in Healthy Crossbred Cows 
ISRN Veterinary Science  2012;2011:419591.
The present study was undertaken to conduct a comparative ultrasonographic study of the normal bovine spleen and liver. This study was carried out in two phases using 3.5 MHz curvilinear transducer. In first phase of water bath study, bovine spleens and livers were obtained from 3 healthy cadavers and subjected to repeated ultrasonography to study the echotexture. The splenic parenchyma was isoechogenic with greater echogenicity as compared to the liver. Water bath study provided a good learning experience for the comparative analysis of echotexture of the spleen and liver. In second phase, 10 healthy Jersey/Red Sindhi adult nonpregnant cows were subjected to detailed abdominal ultrasonography a number of times to develop the baseline topographical data of the spleen and liver. The dorsal end of the spleen in the cranial intercostal spaces could be clearly seen at the peak of inspiration when the lungs retracted to uncover the parietal surface of the spleen. The ventral end of the spleen, portion of the left lung, and the reticular wall could be scanned in the left 7th to 6th ICS in all the cows, and in the left 5th ICS in 5 cows. The liver was imaged from just behind the 12th to 6th ICS in all the cows easily. The gallbladder was imaged as a tear drop or pear shaped anechogenic structure with a hyperechogenic wall. The location of the gallbladder varied from the 12th to 9th ICS. It was most consistently observed in the 11th ICS (in 7 cows) at a mean distance of 46.3 cm from the dorsal midline. In 3 cows, the gallbladder was also seen ventral to the costal arch. The caudal vena cava was imaged as a triangular anechogenic structure on the dorsal border of the liver in the last 2 intercostal spaces in all the cows. The portal vein was imaged characteristically as a star shaped anechogenic structure with a hyperechogenic wall, ventral to the caudal vena cava, in the last 2 intercostal spaces in all the cows and in the 10th ICS in only 8 cows. It was concluded that a systematic ultrasonography formed a basis for a reliable noninvasive determination of positions and sizes of the normal spleen and liver and their vessels in the bovines.
doi:10.5402/2011/419591
PMCID: PMC3658564  PMID: 23738112
6.  Ultrasonographic Imaging for Structural Characterization of Renal Affections and Diagnosis of Associated Chronic Renal Failure in 10 Dogs 
ISRN Veterinary Science  2011;2011:901713.
The present study comprises of 10 dogs of either sex with primary indication of azotaemia. All the dogs were subjected to detailed clinical, haematobiochemical, urinalysis, and microbiological examination along with radiographical and ultrasonographical examination. Based on the ultrasonographic structural abnormalities, the different renal affections associated with CRF in majority of dogs were diagnosed. The different affections included “end-stage” kidneys (n = 4), hydronephrosis (n = 1), renomegaly (n = 1), nephritis (n = 1), nephrolithiasis (n = 1), nephrocalcinosis (n = 1), and renal cyst (n = 1). The significant ultrasonographic features in these affections included small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation (“end-stage” kidneys); increased cortical echogenicity (nephritis); dilation of the renal pelvis, separation of the central renal sinus with anechoic space, atrophy of renal medulla, (hydronephrosis); enlarged kidneys with increased overall echogenicity of renal cortex (renomegaly and associated nephritis); hyperechoic-mineralized structure with shadowing (nephrolithiasis); diffuse, small, multiple hyperechoic structures in the renal parenchyma with distal acoustic shadowing (nephrocalcinosis); small spherical intercortical anechoic structures fluid (renal cysts). In the present study, ultrasound proved to be a quick, convenient, and sensitive modality in detecting alterations in renal size and parenchymal architecture. All the dogs so diagnosed with CRF were rendered conservative medical treatment to control clinical signs of uraemia; maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance; provide adequate nutrition; minimize progression of renal failure.
doi:10.5402/2011/901713
PMCID: PMC3658835  PMID: 23738110
7.  Authors’ reply 
Ayu  2011;32(3):434.
PMCID: PMC3326902  PMID: 22529670
8.  Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines 
Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg), and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) in equines under field conditions.
doi:10.4061/2011/506831
PMCID: PMC3103860  PMID: 21647339
9.  Ultrasonographic Examination of the Rumen in Healthy Cows 
10 healthy Indian Jersey/Red Sindhi crossbred nonpregnant cows were subjected to transabdominal ultrasonography to develop baseline topographical data of the rumen. The wall of the rumen could be identified as a thick echogenic line adjacent to the left abdominal wall from left flank to 8th intercostal space. The motility pattern of rumen was characterized by approximately 1 contraction every minute. The mean amplitude of the ruminal contraction was 3.2 cm. Ultrasonography of the rumen in healthy cows is a useful adjunct to the noninvasive diagnostic investigation of the rumen.
doi:10.4061/2011/840629
PMCID: PMC3087506  PMID: 21547228
10.  Ultrasonographic Application in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Pericarditis in Cows 
The present study was conducted on 5 cows diagnosed with late-stage pericarditis based on a combination of clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and postmortem examinations. On clinical examination, all the cows were found to be depressed, dyspnoeic, and moderately to severely tachycardic. The main radiographic findings were poor thoracic details and indistinguishable cardiophrenic silhouette. Ultrasonographically, the pericardial sac contained varying quantities of hypoechogenic exudate and echogenic fibrin shreds, which had caused physical compression of the cardiac chambers. The clinical and radiographic findings did not allow a definitive diagnosis of pericarditis, because all of the characteristic signs were not present in every case. Thoracic and abdominal ultrasonography played an important role in the early diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.
doi:10.4061/2011/974785
PMCID: PMC3087613  PMID: 21547235
11.  Usefulness and Limitation of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Intestinal Intussusception in Cows 
The present study was conducted on 6 chronically ill Jersey/Red Sindhi cross-bred cows, which were suspected for intestinal obstruction on the basis of history and clinical signs. These cows were ultimately diagnosed with intestinal intussusception based on a combination of clinical, ultrasonographic and surgical examinations. “Bull's eye lesion” was the most prominent ultrasonographic finding, diagnostic for intussusception either trans-abdominally or transrectally. Dilated intestinal loops greater than 3.1 cm (mean ± SE, 4.41 ± 0.25) were imaged in the lower flank and the 12th intercostal space on the right side. Ultrasonography proved to be a useful tool in supplementing and substantiating the transrectal findings in cases of the bovine intestinal intussusception. However, ultrasonography was not significantly helpful where transrectal examination of the cows did not reveal any suspected intestinal mass.
doi:10.4061/2011/584387
PMCID: PMC3087463  PMID: 21547218
12.  Observations on Vamana procedure in healthy volunteers 
Ayu  2011;32(1):40-45.
Vamana Karma is one of the five Pradhana Karmas of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Panchakarma is also indicated in healthy states. (C.Su. 16/13-16) for Shodhana. Textual references are available in Ayurvedic classics, but the procedure needs to be validated in the modern times when Ahara Shakti, Bala and Agni of the individuals have decreased considerably. So the effect of procedure was observed in 30 healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 60 years. Lakshanik, Vaigiki, Maniki and Antiki Shuddhi were observed and vomitus was analyzed macroscopically, microscopically and chemically.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85723
PMCID: PMC3215415  PMID: 22131756
Agni; Ahara Shakti; Bala; Kaphaj disorders; Panchakarma; Shodhana; Vamana Karma
13.  Clinical observation on Greeva Stambha (cervical spondylosis) Chikitsa 
Ayu  2010;31(2):218-222.
Greeva Stambha (A Vataja Disorder) simulates cervical spondylosis, which is a chronic degenerative condition of the cervical spine. Keeping in view the increasing incidence of this problem in modern society with more of desk- workers; an observational study was conducted on 22 patients of Greeva stambha vis-a-vis cervical spondylosis selected from OPD/IPD of CRIA, Punjabi-Bagh, New-Delhi, satisfying the inclusion criteria. The Vatahara treatment viz. Maha Yogaraj Guggulu 500 mg BD, Panchguna tail for local use and Nadi sweda (Local steam with Dashmoola Kwatha) were given for seven days. The results were assessed on the basis of symptomatic improvement using visual analog scale.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.72402
PMCID: PMC3215367  PMID: 22131713
Cervical spondylosis; Greeva Stambha; Nadi Sweda; Panchguna Tail; Vatahara; visual analog scale; Yogaraj Guggulu
14.  Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Increased in Preterm Neonates 
Objective
To determine if massage therapy increased serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in preterm neonates.
Study Design
Forty-two preterm neonates who averaged 34.6 weeks (M=29.5 weeks gestational age; M birthweight= 1237 gms) and were in the “grower” (step-down) nursery were randomly assigned to a massage therapy group (body stroking and passive limb movements for three, 15-minute periods per day for 5 days) or a control group that received the standard nursery care without massage therapy. On days 1 and 5, the serum collected by clinical heelsticks was also assayed for insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and weight gain and kilocalories consumed were recorded daily.
Results
Despite similar formula intake, the massaged preterm neonates showed greater increases during the 5 day period in: 1) weight gain; 2) serum levels of insulin; and 3) insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Increased weight gain was significantly correlated with insulin and IGF-1.
Discussion
Previous data suggested that preterm infant weight gain following massage therapy related to increased vagal activity, which suggests decreased stress, and gastric motility, which may contribute to more efficient food absorption. The data from this study suggest for the first time that weight gain was also related to increased serum insulin and IGF-1 levels following massage therapy.
Conclusion
Preterm infants who received massage therapy not only showed greater weight gain but also a greater increase in serum insulin and IGF-1 levels, suggesting that massage therapy might be prescribed for all growing neonates.
doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181856d3b
PMCID: PMC2663361  PMID: 18714203
Preterm Infants; Massage Therapy; IGF-1
15.  Depletion of serotonin decreases the effects of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-69593 on cocaine-stimulated activity 
European journal of pharmacology  2008;586(1-3):123-129.
Treatment with a kappa-opioid receptor agonist for five days decreases locomotor activity and reduces activity in response to a cocaine challenge three days later. In addition, chronic cocaine increases kappa-opioid receptor density, striatal dynorphin, and dynorphin gene expression in the striatum. The upregulation of kappa-opioid receptors after cocaine treatment occurs predominantly in brain regions that are highly innervated by serotonin. To determine if serotonin plays a role in the effects of kappa-opioid receptor agonists on cocaine-stimulated activity, parachloroamphetamine (PCA), which depleted serotonin by 53%–66%, or saline, was given prior to a five-day treatment with U-69593 or vehicle. Three days later each rat received a single injection of cocaine and locomotor activity was measured. Treatment with PCA had no effect on the ability of U-69593 alone to decrease locomotor activity. Thus, the behavioral effects of U-69593 alone were not dependent upon serotonin. In rats pretreated with saline, U-69593 treatment significantly blocked the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine. Following PCA pretreatment, however, there were no significant differences in locomotor activity in rats challenged with an injection of cocaine after treatment with U-69593 or vehicle. Thus, serotonin depletion prevented the long-lasting blockade of the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine subsequent to repeated administration of U-69593 but did not alter the effects of cocaine in rats that were treated with vehicle. Thus, the effects of PCA on U-69593 are not due to non-specific alterations in cocaine-induced locomotor activity. These findings suggest that serotonin plays an important role in mediating the effects of kappa-opioid receptor agonists on the behavioral response to cocaine.
doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.02.065
PMCID: PMC2435175  PMID: 18395712
cocaine; kappa-opioid; locomotor activity; PCA; sensitization; serotonin
16.  Protein Quality of the Bacterium Hydrogenomonas eutropha 
Applied Microbiology  1969;17(1):176-178.
Hydrogenomonas eutropha cells harvested from semicontinuous autotrophic culture and washed free of substrate contain about 13% of nitrogen on a dry-solids basis. Biological value and digestibility of the bacterial nitrogen were determined in the rat by use of an abbreviated Mitchell-Thomas nitrogen balance technique and casein as the standard protein. Casein nitrogen was 99% digestible, and that of both whole boiled and sonically ruptured bacterial cells was 93%. Biological value of casein and the bacterial preparations was uniformly 77%. Amino acid composition of the bacteria, as in the case of casein, indicates a first limitation of sulfur-containing amino acids. These compositional features suggest that H. eutropha may be potentially valuable as a protein supplement in animal feeds.
PMCID: PMC377633  PMID: 4975453

Results 1-16 (16)