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1.  Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry 
Context:
Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are not that much sensitive while other methods require sophisticated instrumental facilities (such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) and costly analytical processes.
Aims:
The present paper deals with a promising spectroscopic method to determine the tallow adulteration in cow ghee.
Materials and Methods:
Ghee and tallow (taken in chloroform) as such and mixed in different proportions were scanned by spectrophotometer and their second order spectra were analyzed.
Results:
The value of the ratio of the absorbance of peaks at about 238 nm and 297 nm steadily decreases with the increasing proportion of tallow. This decrease shows consistent linearity suggesting its applicability for quantitative estimation of tallow in cow ghee.
Conclusion:
The developed derivative spectroscopic method is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee.
doi:10.4103/0976-9668.136174
PMCID: PMC4121906  PMID: 25097406
Cow ghee; second order spectra; tallow adulteration; ultraviolet spectrophotometry
2.  Trividha Snehapaka of Panchagavya Ghrita: A critical comparative evaluation 
Backgorund:
The three stages of Snehapaka formulations namely Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka have been characteristically advocated for different routes of administration—Nasya, Pana/Basti and Abhyanga, respectively. Guidelines or established method for post-formulation characterization for the same is hardly available.
Objective:
The present communication is the comparative study of Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka of Panchagavya ghrita (PGG).
Materials and Methods:
Laboratory prepared samples of PGG following classical method were analyzed for different physicochemical, spectroscopic, chromatographic parameters, and antioxidant activity.
Results:
No significant difference was found among Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka in physicochemical parameters as well as chromatographic profiles. The ratio of absorbance at 240 and 294 nm showed steady increase from Mridu to Madhyama to Khara Paka in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra of unsaponifiable matter. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-2,2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography assay revealed presence of two antioxidant compounds in low concentration in all the samples. This was further supported by estimation of total reducing power and DPPH assay. No significant difference was found among the three samples.
Conclusion:
Comparison of various physicochemical parameters, chromatographic profiles, and in vitro antioxidant activity determination is of little help in establishing any significant difference among the samples. However, spectrophotometric analysis of unsaponifiable matter reveals some encouraging characteristic findings which will be useful in establishing difference among the three stages of processing of PGG as well as Snehapaka in general.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.113887
PMCID: PMC3737442  PMID: 23930043
Antioxidant; High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC); HPTLC-2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography; Panchagavya ghrita; Mridu/Madhyama/Khara Paka
3.  Physiological and biochemical changes with Vamana procedure 
Ayu  2012;33(3):348-355.
Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) primarily a Samshodhana Karma (purification procedure) is one of the five Pradhana Karmas (chief procedures) of Panchakarma. It is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts that a person after Samyak Vamana (proper Vamana) experiences lightness of the body, Hrit (precordium), Kantha (throat/voice), and Shirah (head) and weakness. This procedure is effectively used in healthy and ailing persons for purification of body and extraction of Doshas (especially Kapha) in Ayurvedic system. It has been found worth to observe the physiological and biochemical changes during Vamana and after the procedure to understand the effect/safety margins of the procedure in healthy volunteers.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.108821
PMCID: PMC3665106  PMID: 23723640
Biochemical changes; Doshas; Hrit; Kantha; Panchakarma; physiological changes; Samshodhana Karma; Shira; Vamana; Virechana
4.  Authors’ reply 
Ayu  2011;32(3):434.
PMCID: PMC3326902  PMID: 22529670
5.  Observations on Vamana procedure in healthy volunteers 
Ayu  2011;32(1):40-45.
Vamana Karma is one of the five Pradhana Karmas of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Panchakarma is also indicated in healthy states. (C.Su. 16/13-16) for Shodhana. Textual references are available in Ayurvedic classics, but the procedure needs to be validated in the modern times when Ahara Shakti, Bala and Agni of the individuals have decreased considerably. So the effect of procedure was observed in 30 healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 60 years. Lakshanik, Vaigiki, Maniki and Antiki Shuddhi were observed and vomitus was analyzed macroscopically, microscopically and chemically.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85723
PMCID: PMC3215415  PMID: 22131756
Agni; Ahara Shakti; Bala; Kaphaj disorders; Panchakarma; Shodhana; Vamana Karma

Results 1-5 (5)