Limphonia rugosa Roth. (Merr.), family-Scrophulariaceae is considered as a botanical source of classical Ayurvedic drug Bhringaraja by the traditional practitioners of Odisha and is being used for the management of various disorders.
To study the antimicrobial activity of leaf of L. rugosa.
Materials and Methods:
Methanol extract of L. rugosa leaf (LRLM) has been studied, at various (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml) dilutions, against medically important human pathogenic bacteria (two Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and two Gram-negative-Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, Candida albicans) by using the agar disc diffusion method. A zone of inhibition of extract was compared with that of different standards such as ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity.
The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the LRLM increased linear with the increase in concentration of extracts. When compared with standard drugs, the results revealed that, for bacterial activity S. pyogenes and S. aureus were more sensitive and in fungal activity C. albicans was more inhibited. The range of growth inhibition zone for all the sensitive bacteria was 11-20 mm and 13-19 mm for fungal strains.
Methanolic extract of L. rugosa leaf is having antibacterial and antifungal activities.
Antifungal activity; Bhringaraja; Gandhamardan hills; in vitro antibacterial activity; Limnophila rugosa leaf; microbial load
“Pashanbheda” is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of “Pashanbheda”. Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal.
Ammania buccifera; Bergenia ligulata; Pashanbheda; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry
Triphaladi Kwatha, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation, is recommended by Chakradatta and Yogaratnakara in the management of Prameha which has resemblance with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study deals with development of pharmacognostical and preliminary pharmaceutical profile of Triphaladi granules. The pH (5% aqueous extract) was 6.0, water-soluble extract 48.66% w/w, alcohol-soluble extract 33.91% w/w, ash value 5.97% w/w, and loss on drying at 105°C was 6.53% w/w. High performance thin layer chromatography were carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum nine spots were distinguished and few of the Rf values were identical in the alcoholic extract.
High performance thin layer chromatography; Pharmacognosy; Prameha; Triphaladi granules
Ayurveda, the science of life, deals with the drugs of animal, herbal, or mineral origin. Drugs of plant origin occupy more than 90% of the constituents of the Ayurvedic formulations used during treatment. Due to over exploitation and non-availability of medicinal plants, certain classical drugs are being substituted by locally available ethnomedicinal plants that are being claimed to possess similar activity by the tribal and local practitioners. The authentic source of Prishniparni is Uraria picta Desv. (Fabaceae) and is being substituted by Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr. (Fabaceae) by some traditional healers of Gujarat (Saurashtra region). Both the plants are locally known by the names Samervo or Pithvan and both have similar characteristics with reference to leaves and flowers (inflorescence type). Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical evaluation of Alysicarpus longifolius W. and A. Prodr has been carried out and results are reported.
Alysicarpus longifolius; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; Prishniparni; Samervo; Uraria picta
Cissus repanda Vahl. belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known in Hindi as “Panivel,” is a large climber distributed all over India. The crushed or powder of root is prescribed by tribal people and traditional medical practitioners of Orissa for its healing properties in cases of bone fracture, cuts and wounds, swellings, and so on. In spite of its reputation, its leaves have not been investigated scientifically. The present study deals with pharmacognostical and molecular characterization by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and their role in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters. Genomic isolation of DNA from fresh leaves was amplified by RAPD markers. The diagnostic characters are mucilage, calcium oxalate rosette crystals, spiral vessels, and fibers. The unique bands obtained in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification clearly discriminated having, many bright and light bands indicating the genuinity of the plant. RAPD may serve as a complementary tool in quality control of many herbal sources.
Cissus repanda; pharmacognosy; RAPD
Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc.
Asteraceae; Kulhafila; Launaea sarmentosa; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry
Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda.
Brahmi; Bacopa floribunda; Bacopa monnieri; bacoside A; HPTLC; pharmacognosy
Brahmi Ghrita, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of various psychological disorders like Unmada, Apasmara and Graharogas. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Brahmi Ghrita and its physico-chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study containing both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Brahmi Ghrita. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed. Acid value was 0.16075, saponification value 184.17, Refractive Index value 1.467 at room temperature, Iodine value 26.715, Specific gravity at room temperature was 0.9133. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 9 spots were distinguished and most of the Rf values were identical in alcoholic extract which shows the presence of certain definite constituents in Brahmi Ghrita.
Brahmi Ghrita; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; physico-chemical analysis
Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight is a folk medicinal plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of this herb are said to be successful in managing high blood glucose levels. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific appraisal of C. neilgherrensis in the course of pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical parameters, as these are not yet been done. Pharmacognostic study mainly covered the macroscopic and microscopic features of the leaves including powder microscopy, and revealed the presence of trichomes, spiral vessels etc. Phytochemical parameters such as pH, total ash value, water-soluble extract and MeOH extract values were assessed in the preliminary physicochemical screening. Qualitative analysis revealed the existence of certain chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and saponin glycosides. The crude extract of leaves was subjected to TLC and HPTLC for the separation of components.
Curcuma neilgherrensis; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; TLC
Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.
Ayurveda; Chincha; powder microscopy; tamarind; thin layer chromatography
Vara Asanadi Kwatha (VAK) is a compound Ayurvedic formulation prescribed in the management of obesity. Pharmacognostical study counting both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug exposed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of VAK. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standard range. Specific gravity of the decoction was 1.0185 and pH was 5.5.Total solid content present in the Kwatha was 4.525% w/v, total ash 0.949% w/v, and acid insoluble ash was 0.052% w/v. Iron assay showed the presence of Fe2O3 as 0.065% w/v. Qualitative scrutiny demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and tannis. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum three spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC and most of the Rf values were identical when done with different sample extractive methods. This shows the presence of certain definite constituents in the decoction and is helpful for the easy separation of these constituents.
HPTLC; Pharmacognosy; TLC; Vara Asanadi Kwatha
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic characters of this plant include stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hair and mucilage cells. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (0.6%), total ash (10.75%), acid insoluble ash (0.045%), alcohol-soluble extractive (21.7%), and water-soluble extractive (30.72%). Preliminary analysis for the presence of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and proteins. Thin layer chromatographic study of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of five, six and seven spots in short UV, long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species.
Pharmacognostical study; physicochemical study; thin layer chromatography