Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are recognized as a new class of widely-distributed and persistent contaminants for which effective treatment and remediation technologies are needed. In this study, two kinds of commercially available nanoscale Fe° slurries (Nanofer N25 and N25S), a freeze-dried laboratory-synthesized Fe° nanoparticle (nZVI), and their palladized forms were used to investigate the effect of particle properties and catalyst on PBDE debromination kinetics and pathways. Nanofers and their palladized forms were found to debrominate PBDEs effectively. The laboratory-synthesized Fe° nanoparticles also debrominated PBDEs, but were slower due to deactivation by the freeze-drying and stabilization processes in the laboratory synthesis. An organic modifier, polyacrylic acid (PAA), bound on N25S slowed PBDE debromination by a factor of three to four compared to N25. The activity of palladized nZVI (nZVI/Pd) was optimized at 0.3 Pd/Fe wt% in our system. N25 could debrominate selected environmentally-abundant PBDEs, including BDE 209, 183, 153, 99, and 47, to end products di-BDEs, mono-BDEs and diphenyl ether (DE) in one week, while nZVI/Pd (0.3 Pd/Fe wt%) mainly resulted in DE as a final product. Step-wise major PBDE debromination pathways by unamended and palladized Fe° are described and compared. Surface precursor complex formation is an important limiting factor for palladized Fe° reduction as demonstrated by PBDE pathways where steric hindrance and rapid sequential debromination of adjacent bromines play an important role.
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE); Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI); Palladium; Nanofer; Debromination; Pathways
An effective immune response to antigen challenge is critically dependent on the size of the effector cell population generated from clonal activation of antigen-specific T cells. The transcription network involved in regulating the size of the effector population, particularly for CD4 helper T cells, is poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of Id2, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, in the generation of CD4 effectors. Utilizing a T cell-specific conditional Id2 knock-out mouse model, we show that Id2 is essential for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although antigen-specific and IL-17 producing CD4 T cells are produced in these mice, the activated CD4 T cells form a smaller pool of effector cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs, exhibit reduced proliferation and increased cell death, and are largely absent in the central nervous system. In the absence of Id2, E protein targets, including the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), are expressed at higher levels among activated CD4 T cells. This study reveals a critical role of Id2 in the control of effector CD4 T cell population size and the development of a Th17-mediated autoimmune disease.
Mitotic recombination is an effective tool for generating mutant clones in somatic tissues. Due to difficulties associated with detecting and quantifying mutant clones in mice, this technique is limited to analysis of growth related phenotypes induced by loss function of tumor suppressor genes. Here, we used the polymorphic CD45.1/CD45.2 alleles on chromosome 1 as pan-hematopoietic markers to track mosaic clones generated through mitotic recombination in developing T cells. We show that lineage specific mitotic recombination can be induced and reliably detected as CD45.1 or CD45.2 homozygous clones from the CD45.1/CD45.2 heterozygous background. We have applied this system in the analysis of a lethal mutation in the Dhx9 gene. Mosaic analysis revealed a stage specific role for Dhx9 during T cell maturation. Thus, the experimental system described in this study offers a practical means for mosaic analysis of germline mutations in the hematopoietic system.
Mitotic recombination; CD45.1/CD45.2; T lymphocyte; Dhx9; Cre/lox
The stable genomic integration and expression of a large transgene is a major hurdle in gene therapy. We show that the modified piggyBac (PB) transposon system can be used to introduce a 207 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the RORγ/γt locus into human cells and mice. PB-mediated transgenesis results in a single copy of a stably inherited and expressed transgene. These results indicate that PB could serve as an effective high-capacity vector for functional analysis of the mammalian genome and for gene therapy in human cells.
Stem-cell functions require activation of stem-cell-intrinsic transcriptional programs and extracellular interaction with a niche microenvironment. How the transcriptional machinery controls residency of stem cells in the niche is unknown. Here we show that Id proteins coordinate stem-cell activities with anchorage of neural stem cells (NSCs) to the niche. Conditional inactivation of three Id genes in NSCs triggered detachment of embryonic and postnatal NSCs from the ventricular and vascular niche, respectively. The interrogation of the gene modules directly targeted by Id deletion in NSCs revealed that Id proteins repress bHLH-mediated activation of Rap1GAP, thus serving to maintain the GTPase activity of RAP1, a key mediator of cell adhesion. Preventing the elevation of the Rap1GAP level countered the consequences of Id loss on NSC–niche interaction and stem-cell identity. Thus, by preserving anchorage of NSCs to the extracellular environment, Id activity synchronizes NSC functions to residency in the specialized niche.
The double-positive (DP) to single-positive (SP) transition during T cell development is initiated by down-regulation of the E-protein transcription factors HEB and E2A. Here, we have demonstrated that in addition to regulating the onset of this transition, HEB and E2A also play a separate role in CD4+ lineage choice. Deletion of HEB and E2A in DP thymocytes specifically blocked the development of CD4+ lineage T cells. Furthermore, deletion of the E-protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3 allowed CD4+ T cell development but blocked CD8+ lineage development. Analysis of the CD4+ lineage transcriptional regulators ThPOK and Gata3 placed HEB and E2A up-stream of CD4+ lineage specification. These studies identify an important role for E-proteins in the activation of CD4+ lineage differentiation as thymocytes undergo the DP to SP transition.
The DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair are critical for maintaining genomic stability and evading many human diseases [1, 2]. Recent findings indicate accumulation of SUN1, a nuclear envelope (NE) protein, is a significant pathogenic event in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, both caused by mutations in LMNA [3, 4]. However, roles of mammalian SUN proteins in mitotic cell division and genomic stability are unknown. Here we report that the inner NE proteins SUN1 and SUN2 may play a redundant role in DDR. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Sun1−/−Sun2−/− mice displayed premature proliferation arrest in S phase of cell cycle, increased apoptosis and DNA damage, and decreased perinuclear heterochromatin, indicating genome instability. Furthermore, activation of ATM and H2A.X, early events in DDR, were impaired in Sun1−/−Sun2−/− fibroblasts. A biochemical screen identified interactions between SUN1/2 and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNAPK) complex that functions in DNA nonhomologous end joining repair and possibly in DDR [2, 5, 6]. Knockdown of DNAPK reduced ATM activation in NIH3T3 cells, consistent with a potential role of SUN1/2-DNAPK interaction during DDR. SUN1/2 could affect DDR by localizing certain nuclear factors to the NE or by mediating the communication between nuclear and cytoplasmic events.
KASH-SUN complex; Genomic instability; DNA repair; DNAPK; Ku70; Ku80; DDR; H2A.X; ATM; HGPS
Formaldehyde (FA) induces neurotoxicity by overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increasing studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gastransmitter, protects nerve cells against oxidative stress by its antioxidant effect. It has been shown that overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the activity of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), the predominant H2S-generating enzyme in the central nervous system.
We hypothesize that FA-caused neurotoxicity involves the deficiency of this endogenous protective antioxidant gas, which results from excessive generation of NO. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether FA disturbs H2S synthesis in PC12 cells, and whether this disturbance is associated with overproduction of NO.
We showed that exposure of PC12 cells to FA causes reduction of viability, inhibition of CBS expression, decrease of endogenous H2S production, and NO production. CBS silencing deteriorates FA-induced decreases in endogenous H2S generation, neurotoxicity, and intracellular ROS accumulation in PC12 cells; while ADMA, a specific inhibitor of NOS significantly attenuates FA-induced decreases in endogenous H2S generation, neurotoxicity, and intracellular ROS accumulation in PC12 cells.
Our data indicate that FA induces neurotoxicity by inhibiting the generation of H2S through excess of NO and suggest that strategies to manipulate endogenous H2S could open a suitable novel therapeutic avenue for FA-induced neurotoxicity.
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are incurable brain tumors that are characterized by the
presence of glioma-initiating cells (GICs). GICs are essential to tumor
aggressiveness and retain the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage
differentiation as long as they reside in the perivascular niche. ID proteins are
master regulators of stemness and anchorage to the extracellular niche
microenvironment, suggesting that they may play a role in maintaining GICs. Here, we
modeled the probable therapeutic impact of ID inactivation in HGG by selective
ablation of Id in tumor cells and after tumor initiation in a new
mouse model of human mesenchymal HGG. Deletion of 3 Id genes induced
rapid release of GICs from the perivascular niche, followed by tumor regression. GIC
displacement was mediated by derepression of Rap1gap and subsequent
inhibition of RAP1, a master regulator of cell adhesion. We identified a signature
module of 5 genes in the ID pathway, including RAP1GAP, which
segregated 2 subgroups of glioma patients with markedly different clinical outcomes.
The model-informed survival analysis together with genetic and functional studies
establish that ID activity is required for the maintenance of mesenchymal HGG and
suggest that pharmacological inactivation of ID proteins could serve as a therapeutic
Id3−/− mice represent a model for T cell mediated primary Sjogren's syndrome (PSS). An intriguing feature of this disease model is the early appearance of impaired salivary function or exocrinopathy prior to lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary glands. This phenomenon prompted us to examine the role of cytokines produced by T cells in the systemic regulation of gland function. A comprehensive examination of serum cytokine profiles revealed elevated levels of IL-13 in Id3−/− mice. We found that the increase in serum IL-13 levels in Id3−/− mice was largely dependent on αβ T cells. Removal of αβ T cells in Id3−/− mice also eliminates disease symptoms, including lymphocytic infiltration in the gland tissues, and impaired saliva production. We further show that the number of mast cells in the salivary glands of Id3−/− mice is significantly increased, in a trend inversely related to the saliva production. This increase in the number of mast cells is also dependent on the presence of αβ T cells. Treatment of young Id3−/− mice with anti-IL-13 antibodies over a two-month period resulted in a reduction of both serum IL-13 levels and the number of mast cells in the salivary gland tissues, as well as correspondingly improved saliva production. These findings indicate a potentially important role for IL-13 in gland regulation and disease pathology.
Id3 deficient mice; IL-13; Exocrinopathy; Mast cells
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia. Host defense to S.aureus infection is largely mediated by the innate immune system. γδ T cells play an important role in innate immunity to many infectious diseases. However, less is known about the role of these cells during S.aureus-induced pneumonia. In this study, we examined the response and the role of γδ T cells to pulmonary S.aureus infection.
Mice infected with S. aureus intranasally showed rapid γδ T cells accumulation in the lung. Deficiency of γδ T cells led to attenuated bacterial clearance and less tissue damage in lung compared with WT mice. Moreover, TCR-δ−/− mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment and reduced cytokine production at the site of infection. The γδ T cells in response to pulmonary S. aureus infection mainly secreted IL-17 and γδ T cells deficiency reduced IL-17 production, which might regulate the production of neutrophil-inducing cytokine/chemokine in the S. aureus-infected lungs.
Accumulation of γδ T cells in the lungs to S. aureus infection is beneficial for bacteria clearance and also contributes to the tissue damage. These cells were the primary source of IL-17, which might influence the recruitment of neutrophils at the early stage of infection.
Helicobacter pylori evade immune responses and achieve persistent colonization in the stomach. However, the mechanism by which H. pylori infections persist is not clear. In this study, we showed that MIR30B is upregulated during H. pylori infection of an AGS cell line and human gastric tissues. Upregulation of MIR30B benefited bacterial replication by compromising the process of autophagy during the H. pylori infection. As a potential mechanistic explanation for this observation, we demonstrate that MIR30B directly targets ATG12 and BECN1, which are important proteins involved in autophagy. These results suggest that compromise of autophagy by MIR30B allows intracellular H. pylori to evade autophagic clearance, thereby contributing to the persistence of H. pylori infections.
Helicobacter pylori; MIR30B; ATG12; BECN1; autophagy
Flavonoids are found in most parts of plants and have been shown to have multiple biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation, antibacteria, antivirus, and immune-stimulation. Existing data showed that the total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) can provide biological system with resistance to injury and can possess antimutagenic, atherosclerotic inhibition, and other biological effects. This study investigated the effects of TFA and calycosin (a compound isolated from TFA), on apoptosis induction, and cell cycle of human erythroleukemia cell line K562 by an array of techniques, including proliferation (MTT), PI staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, and RT-PCR. The experimental data showed that TFA and calycosin could inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells. The 50% inhibiting concentrations of TFA and calycosin were 98.63 μg/mL and 130.32 μg/mL, respectively. However, TFA and calycosin could not induce apoptosis in K562 cells, but could increase the number of the cells in the G0/G1 phase. The level of cyclin D1 mRNA in K562 cells decreased after the treatment with TFA and calycosin. This study provides new insights into the functional mechanism of total flavonoids of Astragalus and calycosin on human erythroleukemia cells.
Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI.
The Id3 gene has been shown to play important roles in the development and function of broad tissue types including B and T cells. Id3 deficient mice develop autoimmune disease similar to human Sjögren’s syndrome. Both B and T lymphocytes have been implicated to contribute to the disease phenotype in this disease model. In order to gain a better understanding of individual cell types in this disease model, we generated an Id3 conditional allele. An LckCre transgene was used to induce Id3 deletion in developing T cells. We showed that the Id3 gene was efficiently disrupted in early thymocyte development prior to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated positive selection. Consequently, thymocyte maturation was impaired in the conditional knockout mice. These mice developed exocrinopathy starting at two months of age and subsequently exhibited high incidence of lymphocyte infiltration to salivary glands between eight and 12 months of age. This progressive feature of disease development is very similar to those observed in Id3 germline knockout mice. This study establishes a new model for investigating the relationship between T cell development and autoimmune disease. Our observation provides an experimental case that autoimmune disease may be induced by acquired mutation in developing T cells.
Id3; thymocyte development; Sjögren’s syndrome; lymphocyte infiltration; saliva secretion
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Furthermore, newly formed photoreceptor cells migrate and form the outer nuclear layer (ONL). In the current study, we demonstrated that a KASH domain-containing protein, Syne-2/Nesprin-2, as well as SUN domain-containing proteins, SUN1 and SUN2, play critical roles during INM and photoreceptor cell migration in the mouse retina. A deletion mutation of Syne-2/Nesprin-2 or double mutations of Sun1 and Sun2 caused severe reduction of the thickness of the ONL, mislocalization of photoreceptor nuclei and profound electrophysiological dysfunction of the retina characterized by a reduction of a- and b-wave amplitudes. We also provide evidence that Syne-2/Nesprin-2 forms complexes with either SUN1 or SUN2 at the nuclear envelope to connect the nucleus with dynein/dynactin and kinesin molecular motors during the nuclear migrations in the retina. These key retinal developmental signaling results will advance our understanding of the mechanism of nuclear migration in the mammalian retina.
Astragalus mongholicus Bunge has long been used to treat cardiovascular disease in Chinese traditional medicine. However, its mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored potential mechanisms and protective effects of total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) on cardiovascular disease using in vitro experiments and diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbits. We identified six components and their proportion in TFA. The animal experiments showed that TFA significantly reduced plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05 to 0.01), increased HDL cholesterol levels (P < 0.01), and reduced the aortic fatty streak area by 43.6 to 63.6% (P < 0.01). We also found that TFA scavenged superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and this effect increased with higher TFA concentration. In in vivo experiments, TFA effectively inhibited the free radical spectrum in the ischemia-reperfusion module. In conclusion, TFA was the active component of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, which benefits cardiovascular disease attributing to the potent antioxidant activity to improve the atherosclerosis profile.
Recent progress has been made in the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). To better understand the mechanism of this reaction, seven selected BDE congeners and their anions were investigated at the density functional theory (DFT) level using four different methods, including B3LYP/6-31G(d), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). The cleaved C–Br bonds observed in the equilibrium structures of anionic PBDEs were adopted as the probe of the susceptible debromination position of PBDEs in the presence of nZVI, and the proposed major reaction pathways based on our calculations can satisfactorily conform to the reported experimental results. The debromination preference is theoretically evaluated as meta-Br > ortho-Br > para-Br. In addition, both the calculated frontier orbital energies and adiabatic electronic affinities were found to be highly related to their experimental reductive debromination rate constants. The highest linear regression coefficient was observed in the case using the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital as the molecular descriptor obtained from B3LYP/6-31G(d) (R2 = 0.961, n = 7) or B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) (R2 = 0.961, n = 7). The results clearly showed the evidence of an electron transfer mechanism associated with this reductive debromination reaction.
polybrominated diphenyl ethers; reductive debromination; radical anion; density functional theory; electron transfer
The debromination of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) was studied to investigate the degradation pathways and the reaction kinetics of the PBDEs. The primary PBDE investigated was 2,3,4-tribromo diphenyl ether (BDE 21) to assess degradation pathways. nZVI could effectively debrominate the selected PBDEs into lower brominated compounds and diphenyl ether, a completely debrominated form of PBDEs. The susceptibility of the meta-bromine by nZVI was observed from the debromination tests for PBDEs with single-flanked (2,3-diBDE and 3,4-diBDE) and unflanked (three monoBDEs) bromines. The stepwise debromination from n-bromo- to (n-1)-bromodiphenyl ether was observed as the dominant reaction process, although simultaneous multistep debromination seemed to be plausible for di-BDEs having two bromines adjacent on the same phenyl ring. The reaction rate constants were estimated by assuming the reaction between PBDEs and nZVI was a pseudo-first order reaction and the rates decreased with fewer bromine substituents. The reaction rate constants were correlated with the heat of formation and the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the corresponding compounds, and these appear to be useful descriptors of relative reaction rates among PBDE homologue groups.
The hydrogen sulfide-releasing sildenafil, ACS6, has been demonstrated to inhibit superoxide formation through donating hydrogen sulfide (H2S). We have found that H2S antagonizes homocysteine-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study is to explore the protection of ACS6 against homocysteine-triggered cytotoxicity and apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying in PC12 cells.
Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was observed using the chromatin dye Hoechst 33258 and analyzed by Flow Cytometry after propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored using the fluorescent dye Rh123. Intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined by oxidative conversion of cell permeable 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate to fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 and bcl-2 and the accumulation of cytosolic cytochrome c were analyzed by Western blot.
We show that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by homocysteine and blocks homocysteine-triggered cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. ACS6 treatment results in not only prevention of homocysteine-caused mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) loss and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction but also reversal of Bcl-2 down-expression.
These results indicate that ACS6 protects PC12 cells against homocysteine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by preservation of mitochondrial function though inhibiting both loss of Δψ and accumulation of ROS as well as modulating the expression of Bcl-2. Our study provides evidence both for a neuroprotective effect of ACS6 and for further evaluation of ACS6 as novel neuroprotectants for Alzheimer's disease associated with homocysteine.
H2S-releasing sildenafil; Apoptosis; Homocysteine; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Reactive oxygen species; Bcl-2
The molecular mechanisms directing Foxp3 gene transcription in CD4+ T cells remain ill defined. We show that deletion of the inhibitory helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein Id3 results in defective Foxp3+ Treg cell generation. We identified two transforming grothw factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-dependent mechanisms that are vital for activation of Foxp3 gene transcription, and are defective in Id3−/− CD4+ T cells. Enhanced binding of the HLH protein E2A to the Foxp3 promoter promoted Foxp3 gene transcription. Id3 was required to relieve inhibition by GATA-3 at the Foxp3 promoter. Further, Id3−/− T cells increased differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro and in a mouse asthma model. A network of factors therefore act in a TGF-β-dependent manner to control Foxp3 expression and inhibit Th17 cell development.
SUR-8, a conserved leucine-rich repeats protein, was first identified as a positive regulator of Ras pathway in C. elegans. Biochemical studies indicated that SUR-8 interacts with Ras and Raf, leading to the elevated ERK activity. However, the physiological role of SUR-8 during mammalian development remains unclear. Here we found that germline deletion of SUR-8 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality. Inactivated SUR-8 specifically in mouse endothelial cells (ECs) revealed that SUR-8 is essential for embryonic heart development. SUR-8 deficiency in ECs resulted in late embryonic lethality, and the mutant mice displayed multiple cardiac defects. The reduced endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and the reduced mesenchyme proliferation phase were observed in the atrioventricular canal (AVC) within the mutant hearts, leading to the formation of hypoplastic endocardial cushions. However, ERK activation did not appear to be affected in mutant ECs, suggesting that SUR-8 may act in an ERK-independent pathway to regulate AVC development.
SUR-8; Atrioventricular cushion; MAPK/ERK; Congenital heart disease; Endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT)
T cell homeostasis is crucial for maintaining an efficient and balanced T cell immunity. The interaction between TCR and self peptide (sp) MHC ligands is known to be the key driving force in this process, and it is believed to be functionally and mechanistically different from that initiated by the antigenic TCR stimulation. Yet, very little is known about the downstream signaling events triggered by this TCR-spMHC interaction and how they differ from those triggered by antigenic TCR stimulation. In this study, we show that T cell conditional ablation of MEKK3, a Ser/Thr kinase in the MAPK cascade, causes a significant reduction in peripheral T cell numbers in the conditional knockout mice, but does not perturb thymic T cell development and maturation. Using an adoptive mixed transfer method, we show that MEKK3-deficient T cells are severely impaired in lymphopenia-induced cell proliferation and survival. Interestingly, the Ag-induced T cell proliferation proceeds normally in the absence of MEKK3. Finally, we found that the activity of ERK1/2, but not p38 MAPK, was attenuated during the lymphopenia-driven response in MEKK3-deficient T cells. Together, these data suggest that MEKK3 may play a crucial selective role for spMHC-mediated T cell homeostasis.
Most T cell progenitors develop into the αβ T cell lineage with an exception of a small fraction contributing to the γδ lineage throughout postnatal life. T cell progenitors usually commit to the αβ lineage upon the expression of a fully rearranged and functional TCRβ gene, and most cells that fail to produce a functional TCRβ chain will die instead of adopting the alternative γδ T cell fate. What prevents these cells from continuing TCRγ rearrangement and adopting the γδ T cell fate is not known. Here, we show that functional loss of Id3 results in a significant increase of γδ T cell production from progenitor cells undergoing TCRβ rearrangement. The enhanced γδ T cell development correlated with increased TCRγ gene rearrangement involving primarily Vγ1.1 in Id3 deficient mice. We further show that Id3 deficiency promotes γδ T cell production in dependent of TCRβ chain expression. Our data indicates that Id3 suppresses Vγ1.1 rearrangement and γδ lineage potential among T cell progenitors which have completed TCRβ gene rearrangement without producing a functional TCRβ protein.
Thymus; VDJ recombination; E2A; TCR; DN3
Nuclear movement is critical during neurogenesis and neuronal migration that are fundamental for mammalian brain development. While dynein, Lis1 and other cytoplasmic proteins are known for their roles in connecting microtubules to the nucleus during interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) and nucleokinesis, the factors connecting dynein/Lis1 to the nuclear envelope (NE) remain to be determined. We report here that the SUN-domain proteins SUN1 and SUN2 and the KASH-domain proteins Syne-1/Nesprin-1 and Syne-2/Nesprin-2 play critical roles in neurogenesis and neuronal migration in mice. We show that SUN1 and SUN2 redundantly form complexes with Syne-2 to mediate the centrosome-nucleus coupling during both INM and radial neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex. Syne-2 is connected to the centrosome through interactions with both dynein/dynactin and kinesin complexes. Syne-2 mutants also display severe defects in learning and memory. These results fill an important gap in our understanding of the mechanism of nuclear movement during brain development.
KASH domain; UNC-84; nuclear envelope; nucleokinesis; interkinetic nuclear movement; learning and memory