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1.  Research on the Compression Algorithm of the Infrared Thermal Image Sequence Based on Differential Evolution and Double Exponential Decay Model 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:601506.
This paper has proposed a new thermal wave image sequence compression algorithm by combining double exponential decay fitting model and differential evolution algorithm. This study benchmarked fitting compression results and precision of the proposed method was benchmarked to that of the traditional methods via experiment; it investigated the fitting compression performance under the long time series and improved model and validated the algorithm by practical thermal image sequence compression and reconstruction. The results show that the proposed algorithm is a fast and highly precise infrared image data processing method.
PMCID: PMC3947782  PMID: 24696649
2.  RNAi-mediated gene silencing of vascular endothelial growth factor C suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in mouse breast cancer in vitro and in vivo 
Oncology Letters  2016;12(5):3896-3904.
Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-C promotes tumorigenesis by allowing lymph node metastasis and lymphangiogenesis, among other actions. RNA interference (RNAi) is a novel technique for suppressing target gene expression and may increase the effectiveness of cancer treatments. The present study assessed the influence of VEGF-C RNAi on the apoptosis and proliferation of mouse breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. A total of three pairs of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting mouse VEGF-C were designed and synthesized prior to transfection into 4T1 cells via a liposomal approach. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry were performed in vitro to analyze VEGF-C expression, cleaved caspase-3 protein expression and 4T1 cell proliferation and apoptosis. Experiments were also conducted in vivo on BALB/c mice with breast cancer. Tumor weight and volume were measured and the number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues was assessed by a TUNEL assay. Immunohistochemical assays and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the expression of VEGF-C in tumor tissues. The results demonstrated that the three pairs of siRNA, particularly siV2, significantly reduced VEGF-C mRNA and protein levels in 4T1 cells. siV2 was deemed to be the most efficient siRNA and therefore was selected to be used in subsequent experiments. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicated that VEGF-C RNAi significantly decreased cell growth, induced apoptosis and upregulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. Tumor weight and volume in breast cancer in vivo models was reduced by the intratumoral injection of siV2. Antitumor efficacy was associated with decreased VEGF-C expression and increased induction of apoptosis. The present study therefore indicated that VEGF-C RNAi inhibited mouse breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo and that it may be a novel targeted therapy for breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC5104198  PMID: 27895746
small interfering RNA; RNA interference; vascular endothelial growth factor-C; apoptosis; breast cancer
3.  −94 ATTG Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of the NFKB1 Gene Is Associated with Coronary Artery Disease in Han and Uygur Women in China 
Objectives: The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulatory network of inflammation. The deletion variant allele of the NFKB1-94 insertion/deletion (ins/del) ATTG promoter polymorphism results in lower transcription levels of the p50 subunit, and the variant allele has been associated with several inflammatory diseases as well as with coronary artery disease (CAD) with inflammation playing an important part in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the human NFKB1 gene polymorphism and CAD in a Han and Uygur population of China. Methods: We used the following two independent case-control studies: a Han population (633 CAD patients and 616 control subjects) and a Uygur population (437 CAD patients and 356 control subjects). All participants were genotyped for the same one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs28362491) of the NFKB1 gene, that is, DD, ATTG deleted homozygote; ID, ATTG inserted and deleted heterozygote and II, ATTG inserted homozygote by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The distribution of the SNP (rs28362491) genotypes was significantly different between CAD and control participants in women of the Han (p=0.029) and the Uygur (p=0.032) populations, but not in men. Further, DD carriers of the SNP in the NFKB1 gene were more frequent in female CAD patients than in controls in both the Han (23.2% vs. 13.5%, p=0.009) and the Uygur (19.8% vs. 8.3%, p=0.012) population. The significant difference between DD and ID+II genotypes was retained after adjustment for covariates (for Han, odds ratio [OR]: 1.805, p=0.029 and for Uygur, OR: 3.192, p=0.011). Conclusions: The DD genotype of the SNP (rs28362491) in the NFKB1 gene may be considered a genetic marker of CAD in Han and Uygur women in China.
PMCID: PMC4043473  PMID: 24818816
4.  Clinical Presentation of a Patient with Congenital Cutis Laxa and Abnormal Thyroid Hormone Levels 
Case Reports in Dermatology  2014;6(1):43-48.
We describe a case of generalized cutis laxa (CL) in a 7-year-old female child. At 2 months of age, she was found to have a hoarse voice, and at 3 years, she was much smaller than her peers. Her aging face and short stature caught our attention, and the treatment of the patient was accepted by our hospital. She underwent a thorough examination. X-ray of the wrist bone showed a markedly delayed bone age, and thyroid function tests revealed significantly elevated free triiodothyronine 3 and free thyroxine 4 levels, but thyrotropin was within the normal range. Thyroid dysfunction and CL can be associated with lagged growth and development. Whether her abnormal development was due to thyroid dysfunction or CL could not be ascertained. CL is possibly more complex than it has been supposed so far, and is therefore worth to be further studied.
PMCID: PMC3975211  PMID: 24707249
Congenital cutis laxa; Thyroid function; Growth retardation
6.  Polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase and reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) genes predict survival outcome in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy 
Oncology Letters  2013;5(4):1165-1170.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between thymidylate synthase (TS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1) gene polymorphisms and the treatment efficacy of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Advanced NSCLC patients received pemetrexed and cisplatin every three weeks. Polymorphisms in the TS, MTHFR and SLC19A1 genes were detected in peripheral blood samples using DNA sequencing and Taqman PCR. An analysis of gene polymorphisms was performed with respect to the progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR) and overall survival (OS) of patients treated with pemetrexed. The median PFS times for patients with the TS 2R/2R, 2R/3C or 3C/3C genotypes were significantly longer than those of patients with the 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G genotypes (P=0.036). Patients with the SLC19A1 CC genotype had a significantly longer median OS compared with individuals with the homozygous and heterozygous genotypes (12.2 vs. 8.9 and 7.3 months, respectively; P=0.022). The PFS and OS did not differ for the three genotypes of MTHFR assessed. The RR was higher in patients with the TS 2R/2R, 2R/3C or 3C/3C genotypes than in the other groups (P=0.044). The polymorphisms of the 5′-UTR of the TS gene and exon 6 (2522) C/T of the SLC19A1 gene predict the survival of advanced NSCLC patients treated with pemetrexed. However, a large scale clinical trial is required to validate these findings.
PMCID: PMC3629022  PMID: 23599757
pemetrexed; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; thymidylate synthase; SLC19A1; single nucleotide polymorphism; advanced non-small cell lung cancer
7.  Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Improves Mouse Embryo Development 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40433.
X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the current study, we analyzed endogenous XBP-1 expression and localization, with a view to determining the effects of ER stress on the developmental competency of preimplantation embryos in mice. Fluorescence staining revealed that functional XBP-1 is localized on mature oocyte spindles and abundant in the nucleus at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. However, in preimplantation embryos, XBP-1 was solely detected in the cytoplasm at the one-cell stage. The density of XBP-1 was higher in the nucleus than the cytoplasm at the two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis confirmed active XBP-1 mRNA splicing at all preimplantation embryo stages, except the one-cell stage. Tunicamycin (TM), an ER stress inducer used as a positive control, promoted an increase in the density of nuclear XBP-1 at the one-cell and two-cell stages. Similarly, culture medium supplemented with 25 mM sorbitol displayed a remarkable increase active XBP-1 expression in the nuclei of 1-cell and 2-cell embryos. Conversely, high concentrations of TM or sorbitol led to reduced nuclear XBP-1 density and significant ER stress-induced apoptosis. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a known inhibitor of ER stress, improved the rate of two-cell embryo development to blastocysts by attenuating the expression of active XBP-1 protein in the nucleus at the two-cell stage. Our data collectively suggest that endogenous XBP-1 plays a role in normal preimplantation embryonic development. Moreover, XBP-1 splicing is activated to generate a functional form in mouse preimplantation embryos during culture stress. TUDCA inhibits hyperosmolar-induced ER stress as well as ER stress-induced apoptosis during mouse preimplantation embryo development.
PMCID: PMC3396646  PMID: 22808162
8.  Role of gamma-delta T cells in host response against Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia 
BMC Immunology  2012;13:38.
Staphylococcus aureus is the major cause of hospital-acquired and community-acquired pneumonia. Host defense to S.aureus infection is largely mediated by the innate immune system. γδ T cells play an important role in innate immunity to many infectious diseases. However, less is known about the role of these cells during S.aureus-induced pneumonia. In this study, we examined the response and the role of γδ T cells to pulmonary S.aureus infection.
Mice infected with S. aureus intranasally showed rapid γδ T cells accumulation in the lung. Deficiency of γδ T cells led to attenuated bacterial clearance and less tissue damage in lung compared with WT mice. Moreover, TCR-δ−/− mice exhibited impaired neutrophil recruitment and reduced cytokine production at the site of infection. The γδ T cells in response to pulmonary S. aureus infection mainly secreted IL-17 and γδ T cells deficiency reduced IL-17 production, which might regulate the production of neutrophil-inducing cytokine/chemokine in the S. aureus-infected lungs.
Accumulation of γδ T cells in the lungs to S. aureus infection is beneficial for bacteria clearance and also contributes to the tissue damage. These cells were the primary source of IL-17, which might influence the recruitment of neutrophils at the early stage of infection.
PMCID: PMC3524664  PMID: 22776294
9.  Compromised autophagy by MIR30B benefits the intracellular survival of Helicobacter pylori 
Autophagy  2012;8(7):1045-1057.
Helicobacter pylori evade immune responses and achieve persistent colonization in the stomach. However, the mechanism by which H. pylori infections persist is not clear. In this study, we showed that MIR30B is upregulated during H. pylori infection of an AGS cell line and human gastric tissues. Upregulation of MIR30B benefited bacterial replication by compromising the process of autophagy during the H. pylori infection. As a potential mechanistic explanation for this observation, we demonstrate that MIR30B directly targets ATG12 and BECN1, which are important proteins involved in autophagy. These results suggest that compromise of autophagy by MIR30B allows intracellular H. pylori to evade autophagic clearance, thereby contributing to the persistence of H. pylori infections.
PMCID: PMC3429542  PMID: 22647547
Helicobacter pylori; MIR30B; ATG12; BECN1; autophagy
10.  Phosphorylation Status of RNA Polymerase II Carboxyl-terminal Domain in Porcine Oocytes and Early Embryos 
Fertilization of the oocyte commences embryogenesis during which maternally inherited mRNAs are degraded and the embryonic genome is activated. Transcription of embryonic mRNA is initiated by embryonic genome activation (EGA). RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) is responsible for the synthesis of mRNAs and most small nuclear RNAs, and consists of 12 subunits, the largest of which characteristically harbors a unique C-terminal domain (CTD). Transcriptional activity of RNA Pol II is highly regulated, in particular, by phosphorylation of serine residues in the CTD. Here, we have shown the presence of RNA Pol II CTD phosphoisoforms in porcine oocytes and preimplantation embryos. The distribution pattern as well as phosphorylation dynamics in germinal vesicles and during embryogenesis differed in developmental stages with these isoforms, indicating a role of RNA Pol II CTD phosphorylation at the serine residue in transcriptional activation during both oocyte growth and embryonic genome activation. We additionally examined the effects of the RNA Pol II inhibitor, α-amanitin, on embryo development. Our results show that inhibition of polymerase, even at very early stages and for a short period of time, dramatically impaired blastocyst formation. These findings collectively suggest that the functionality of maternal RNA Pol II, and consequently, expression of early genes regulated by this enzyme are essential for proper embryo development.
PMCID: PMC4093084  PMID: 25049627
RNA Polymerase II; Porcine; Oocyte; Embryos; α-Amanitin
11.  Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1) in the porcine system 
BMC Molecular Biology  2011;12:25.
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1) gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF) cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing.
We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected.
It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.
PMCID: PMC3112107  PMID: 21605464

Results 1-11 (11)