Currently, there are difficulties associated with the culturing of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and knowledge regarding their regulatory mechanisms is limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and have critical functions in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are key activators of signaling in hESCs. Based on the identification of complementary binding sites in miR-223 and IGF-1R mRNA, it is proposed that miR-223 acts as a local regulator of IGF-1R. Therefore, levels of miR-223 were detected in differentiated versus undifferentiated hESCs. In addition, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation were assayed in these two hESC populations and were compared in the presence of exogenous miR-223 and miR-223 inhibitor. Inhibition of miR-223 was found to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs, while addition of miR-223 induced differentiation. Furthermore, these effects were found to be likely dependent on IGF-1R/Akt signaling.
Antidepressants are effective in treating interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN-α/RBV)-associated depression during or after treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Whether antidepressant prophylaxis is necessary in this population remains under debate.
Comprehensive searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and PubMed. Reference lists were searched manually. The methodology was in accordance with the 2009 PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) Statement.
We identified six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 522 CHC patients treated with pegylated (PEG)-IFN-α plus RBV. The antidepressants used were escitalopram, citalopram, and paroxetine, which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The rates of depression (17.9% vs. 31.0%, P = 0.0005), and rescue therapy (27.4% vs. 42.7%, P<0.0001) in the SSRI group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group. The rate of sustained virological response (SVR) (56.8% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.60) and drug discontinuation (18.7% vs. 21.1%, P = 0.63) in the SSRI group did not differ significantly to those in the placebo group. In terms of safety, the incidence of muscle and joint pain (40.8% vs. 52.4%, P = 0.03) and respiratory problems (29.3% vs. 40.1%, P = 0.03) were lower, but the incidence of dizziness was significantly higher (22.3% vs. 10.2%, P = 0.001) in the SSRI group.
Prophylactic SSRI antidepressants can significantly reduce the incidence of PEG-IFN-α/RBV-associated depression in patients with CHC, with good safety and tolerability, without reduction of SVR.
Tissue factor (TF) is expressed in various types of cells. TF expression is essential for many biological processes, such as blood coagulation and embryonic development, while its high expression in stem cells often leads to failure of transplantation. In this study, we used the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture system to understand the molecular mechanisms by which TF expression is regulated in hESC-derived hematopoietic and trophoblastic cells.
hESCs were induced in vitro to differentiate into hematopoietic and trophoblastic cells. TF expression in various types of cells during these differentiation processes was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blot analysis. The regulatory mechanisms of TF expression were investigated by miRNA expression analysis, luciferase report assay, TF mRNA and protein analysis, and pathway phosphorylation analysis.
We first found that TF was expressed only in trophoblasts and granulocyte–monocyte (G-M) cells differentiated from hESCs; and then demonstrated that miR-20b downregulated and Erk1/2 signaling pathway upregulated the TF expression in trophoblasts and G-M cells. Finally, we found that miR-20b downregulated the TF expression independently of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway.
The miR-20b and Erk1/2 pathway independently regulate expression of TF in trophoblasts and G-M cells differentiated from hESCs. These findings will open an avenue to further illustrate the functions of TF in various biological processes.
The recently activated RTOG studies on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) require tissue density heterogeneity correction, where the high and intermediate dose compliance criteria were established based on superposition-algorithm dose calculations. The study was aimed to compare superposition-algorithm dose calculations with Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for SBRT NSCLC treatment and to evaluate whether compliance criteria need to be adjusted for MC dose calculations.
Materials and Methods
Fifteen RTOG 0236 study sets were used. The PTV volumes range from 10.7 to 117.1 cm3. SBRT conformal treatment plans were generated using CMS XiO treatment planning software with superposition algorithm to meet the dosimetric high and intermediate compliance criteria recommended by the RTOG 0813 protocol. The plans were recalculated using the MC algorithm of a CMS Monaco treatment planning system. Tissue density heterogeneity correction was applied in both calculations.
Overall, the dosimetric quantities of the MC calculations have larger magnitudes than those of the superposition calculations. On average, R100% (ratio of prescription isodose volume to PTV), R50% (ratio of 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV), D2cm (maximal dose 2 cm from PTV in any direction in percentage of prescription dose), and V20 (percentage of lung receiving dose equal to or larger than 20 Gy) increased by 9%, 12%, 7%, and 18%, respectively. In the superposition plans, 3 cases did not meet the criteria for R50% or D2cm. In the MC recalculated plans, 8 cases did not meet the criteria for R100%, R50%, or D2cm. After re-optimization with MC calculations, 5 cases did not meet the criteria for R50% or D2cm.
The results indicate that the dosimetric criteria, e.g., the criteria for R50%, recommended by RTOG 0813 protocol, may need to be adjusted when MC dose calculation algorithm is employed.
RTOG; stereotactic body radiation therapy; non-small-cell lung cancer; heterogeneity correction; Monte Carlo
Neurophysiological studies of infant speech suggest that mismatch responses (MMRs) have predictive value for later language. Their value, however, is diminished because unexplained differences in the MMR patterns are seen across studies. The current study aimed to identify the functional nature of infant MMRs by recording event-related-potentials (ERPs) to an infrequent English vowel change in internal or final positions of a sequence of ten vowels in six-month-old monolingually- and bilingually-exposed infants. Increased negativity of the MMR (infrequent minus frequent) was found in final compared to internal positions and correlated with an index of increased attention to the final position. This pattern helps explain the overall greater negativity to the speech sounds in the bilingually-exposed female infants. These findings substantially advance our understanding of neural indices of speech perception development and show promise for furthering our understanding of bilingual language development.
infant; attention; ERP; speech perception; neural mismatch; responses; bilingualism
The functional layers of few-layer two-dimensional (2-D) thin flakes on flexible polymers for stretchable applications have attracted much interest. However, most fabrication methods are “indirect” processes that require transfer steps. Moreover, previously reported “transfer-free” methods are only suitable for graphene and not for other few-layer 2-D thin flakes. Here, a friction based room temperature rubbing method is proposed for fabricating different types of few-layer 2-D thin flakes (graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), and tungsten disulphide (WS2)) on flexible polymer substrates. Commercial 2-D raw materials (graphite, h-BN, MoS2, and WS2) that contain thousands of atom layers were used. After several minutes, different types of few-layer 2-D thin flakes were fabricated directly on the flexible polymer substrates by rubbing procedures at room temperature and without any transfer step. These few-layer 2-D thin flakes strongly adhere to the flexible polymer substrates. This strong adhesion is beneficial for future applications.
Sporadic hepatitis E has become an important public health concern in China. Accurate forecasting of the incidence of hepatitis E is needed to better plan future medical needs. Few mathematical models can be used because hepatitis E morbidity data has both linear and nonlinear patterns. We developed a combined mathematical model using an autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) and a back propagation neural network (BPNN) to forecast the incidence of hepatitis E.
The morbidity data of hepatitis E in Shanghai from 2000 to 2012 were retrieved from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The ARIMA-BPNN combined model was trained with 144 months of morbidity data from January 2000 to December 2011, validated with 12 months of data January 2012 to December 2012, and then employed to forecast hepatitis E incidence January 2013 to December 2013 in Shanghai. Residual analysis, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and stationary R square methods were used to compare the goodness-of-fit among ARIMA models. The Bayesian regularization back-propagation algorithm was used to train the network. The mean error rate (MER) was used to assess the validity of the combined model.
A total of 7,489 hepatitis E cases was reported in Shanghai from 2000 to 2012. Goodness-of-fit (stationary R2=0.531, BIC= −4.768, Ljung-Box Q statistics=15.59, P=0.482) and parameter estimates were used to determine the best-fitting model as ARIMA (0,1,1)×(0,1,1)12. Predicted morbidity values in 2012 from best-fitting ARIMA model and actual morbidity data from 2000 to 2011 were used to further construct the combined model. The MER of the ARIMA model and the ARIMA-BPNN combined model were 0.250 and 0.176, respectively. The forecasted incidence of hepatitis E in 2013 was 0.095 to 0.372 per 100,000 population. There was a seasonal variation with a peak during January-March and a nadir during August-October.
Time series analysis suggested a seasonal pattern of hepatitis E morbidity in Shanghai, China. An ARIMA-BPNN combined model was used to fit the linear and nonlinear patterns of time series data, and accurately forecast hepatitis E infections.
Hepatitis E; Combined mathematical model; Forecast
In this work, we report the cloning and characterization of endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EGase) genes (TaEG) in the common wheat line three pistils. Three TaEG homoeologous genes (TaEG-4A, TaEG-4B and TaEG-4D) were isolated and found to be located on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS, respectively. The three genes showed high conservation of their coding nucleotide sequences and 3 untranslated region. The putative TaEG protein had a molecular mass of 69 kDa, a theoretical pI of 9.39 and a transmembrane domain of 74–96 amino acids in the N-terminus that anchored the protein to the membrane. The genome sequences of TaEG-4A, TaEG-4B and TaEG-4D contained six exons and five introns. All of the introns, except for intron IV, varied in length and sequence composition. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TaEG was most closely related to rice (Oryza sativa) OsGLU1. The TaEG transcript levels increased significantly during the subsidiary pistil primordium differentiation phase (spike size ∼7–10 mm) in Chuanmai 28 TP (CM28TP). These data provide a basis for future research into the function of TaEG and offer insights into the molecular mechanism of the three pistils mutation in wheat.
cloning; endo-β-1,4-glucanase; three pistils line; wheat
In our study, 50 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were selected to investigate the correlation between virus persistent infection and cardic function. We found that 44% of patients with DCM were coxsackie virus B-RNA (CVB-RNA) positive, significantly different from that (20%) of the normal control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) in patients with DCM were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P<0.01). In CVB-RNA-positive patients, expression levels of CAR were significantly higher than those in CVB-RNA-negative patients (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between CAR expression and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with DCM, but no significant correlations between the CAR expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDd). These results showed that expression levels of CAR on the surface of white cells can be used as an indicator for detecting persistent virus infection. We found that expression levels of CAR and heart function in patients with DCM were highly correlated.
To improve the performance of yeast surface-displayed Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) in the production of human milk fat substitute (HMFS), we mutated amino acids in the lipase substrate-binding pocket based on protein hydrophobicity, to improve esterification activity. Five mutants: Asn87Ile, Asn87Ile/Asp91Val, His108Leu/Lys109Ile, Asp256Ile/His257Leu, and His108Leu/Lys109Ile/Asp256Ile/His257Leu were obtained and their hydrolytic and esterification activities were assayed. Using Discovery Studio 3.1 to build models and calculate the binding energy between lipase and substrates, compared to wild-type, the mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu was found to have significantly lower energy when oleic acid (3.97 KJ/mol decrease) and tripalmitin (7.55 KJ/mol decrease) were substrates. This result was in accordance with the esterification activity of Asp256Ile/His257Leu (2.37-fold of wild-type). The four mutants were also evaluated for the production of HMFS in organic solvent and in a solvent-free system. Asp256Ile/His257Leu had an oleic acid incorporation of 28.27% for catalyzing tripalmitin and oleic acid, and 53.18% for the reaction of palm oil with oleic acid. The efficiency of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was 1.82-fold and 1.65-fold that of the wild-type enzyme for the two reactions. The oleic acid incorporation of Asp256Ile/His257Leu was similar to commercial Lipozyme RM IM for palm oil acidolysis with oleic acid. Yeast surface-displayed RML mutant Asp256Ile/His257Leu is a potential, economically feasible catalyst for the production of structured lipids.
The present study was designed to determine whether Allium ursinum L (ramson) could inhibit the proliferation of human AGS gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether this inhibition could occur by targeting regulatory elements of the cell cycle.
Flow cytometry was used to observe apoptosis and the cell cycle in AGS cell lines treated or not treated with ramson watery extract. Proteins related to the cell cycle were detected by Western blotting. Caspase activity was measured using a colorimetric assay kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Ramson watery extract induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in AGS cells. Western blotting showed that cyclin B was inhibited by ramson watery extract. However, G1 phase-related proteins remain unchanged after treatment.
Our results indicate that ramson effectively sup pressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest in AGS cells by regulating elements of the cell cycle.
ramson; G2/M phase arrest; apoptosis; Allium; gastric cancer
No studies on the risk factors of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in China have been reported. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for severe manifestations of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in China
A case–control study with 343 severe hospitalized patients and 343 randomly selected mild controls was conducted. The diagnosis was established by assessment of clinical symptoms and confirmed by the real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Severe or mild patients were classified by uniform criteria issued by the Ministry of Health in China.
The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the overweight or obese subjects admitted to hospital with H1N1 influenza were more likely to experience severe manifestations. The ORs were 3.70 (95% CI: 2.04-6.72) and 35.61 (95% CI: 7.96-159.21) respectively. Subjects at age less than 5 years or older than 60 years had an increased risk of severe manifestations (OR = 21.14, 95% CI: 7.79-57.33). We also observed increased risk among subjects with longer time interval from symptom onset to hospital admission (OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 2.08-5.11) or peasants (OR = 9.79, 95% CI: 5.11-18.78). Those with chronic disorders had increased risk of severe manifestations of H1N1 influenza.
We provide evidence on the risk factors associated with severe manifestations of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in a study of hospitalized subjects in China.
Severe manifestation; Novel influenza A; Risk factor
New Delhi metallo-β-lactmase-1 (NDM-1) has recently attracted extensive attention for its biological activities to catalyze the hydrolysis of almost all of β-lactam antibiotics. To study the catalytic property of NDM-1, the steady-kinetic parameters of NDM-1 toward several kinds of β-lactam antibiotics have been detected. It could effectively hydrolyze most β-lactams (kcat/Km ratios between 0.03 to 1.28 µmol−1.s−1), except aztreonam. We also found that thiophene-carboxylic acid derivatives could inhibit NDM-1 and have shown synergistic antibacterial activity in combination with meropenem. Flexible docking and quantum mechanics (QM) study revealed electrostatic interactions between the sulfur atom of thiophene-carboxylic acid derivatives and the zinc ion of NDM-1, along with hydrogen bond between inhibitor and His189 of NDM-1. The interaction models proposed here can be used in rational design of NDM-1 inhibitors.
Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant) in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we show that a combined treatment with 2 Hz EA and 5 mg/kg citalopram for three weeks induces a significant improvement in depressive-like symptoms as detected by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test, whereas these effects were not observed with either of the treatments alone. Further investigations revealed that 2 Hz EA plus 5 mg/kg citalopram produced a remarkably increased expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the hippocampus compared with those measured in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that EA combined with a low dose of citalopram could produce greater therapeutic effects, thereby, predictive of a reduction in drug side effects.
Phosphate removal to a hydrothermally modified fumed silica and pulverized oyster shell material for use in wastewater treatments were made. Sorption data modeling (pH’s 3–11, P concentrations of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, & 25 mg/L, and at an ambient temperature of 23°C) indicate that an optimal removal of P occurs at pH 11. Three kinetic models were also applied (a pseudo-first-order Lagergren kinetic model, a pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic and Elovich) and indicate that a PSO model best describes P-removal. In addition, an application of the Weber and Morris intra-particle diffusion model indicates that external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion were both involved in the rate-determining step. Langmuir, Freundlich modeling of the sorption data also indicate that the heterogeneous Freundlich sorption site model best describes the data although Langmuir data also fit with data tailing suggesting data are not linear. The data collected indicates that the hydrothermally modified fumed silica and pulverized oyster shell material is suitable for use in wastewater treatment, with P-removal to the solids being preferential and spontaneous.
The modification of proteins by ubiquitination and deubiquitination plays an important role in various cellular processes. BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme whose function in the control of the cell cycle requires both its deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization. In the present study, a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase belonging to the BAP1 family was identified and characterized from Artemia parthenogenetica, a member of a family of brine shrimp that, under certain conditions, produce and release diapause embryos in which cell division and turnover of macromolecules are arrested. Western blot analysis and in vitro enzyme activity assay revealed ArBAP1 to be a cytoplasmic protein with typical ubiquitin hydrolase activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that ArBAP1 was abundant in the abdomen of Artemia producing diapause-destined embryos. Furthermore, by in situ hybridization, ArBAP1 was located exclusively in the embryos. In vivo knockdown of ArBAP1 by RNA interference resulted in the formation of embryos with split shells and abortive nauplii. The present findings suggest that ArBAP1, the first reported cytoplasmic BAP1, participates in the formation of diapause embryos and plays an important role in the control of cell cycle arrest in these encysted embryos.
Artemia; BAP1; Deubiquitinate; Diapause; Formation; Maintenance
IFN1@ (interferon, type 1, cluster, also called IFNα) has been extensively studied as a treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The mechanism of anticancer activity of IFN1@ is complex and not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy, a mechanism of cellular homeostasis for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and proteins, regulates IFN1@-mediated cell death. IFN1@ activated the cellular autophagic machinery in immortalized or primary CML cells. Activation of JAK1-STAT1 and RELA signaling were required for IFN1@-induced expression of BECN1, a key regulator of autophagy. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy enhanced IFN1@-induced apoptosis by activation of the CASP8-BID pathway. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for an important mechanism that links autophagy to immunotherapy in leukemia.
IFN1@; autophagy; apoptosis; immunotherapy; chronic myeloid leukemia
Zta is a lytic transactivator of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and has been shown to promote migration and invasion of epithelial cells. Although previous studies indicate that Zta induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP1, direct evidence linking the MMPs to Zta-induced cell migration and invasion is still lacking. Here we performed a series of in vitro studies to re-examine the expression profile and biologic functions of Zta-induced MMPs in epithelial cells derived from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We found that, in addition to MMP9, MMP3 was a new target gene upregulated by Zta. Ectopic Zta expression in EBV-negative cells increased both mRNA and protein production of MMP3. Endogenous Zta also contributed to induction of MMP3 expression, migration and invasion of EBV-infected cells. Zta activated the MMP3 promoter through three AP-1 elements, and its DNA-binding domain was required for the promoter binding and MMP3 induction. We further tested the effects of MMP3 and MMP9 on cell motility and invasiveness in vitro. Zta-promoted cell migration required MMP3 but not MMP9. On the other hand, both MMP3 and MMP9 were essential for Zta-induced cell invasion, and co-expression of the two MMPs synergistically increased cell invasiveness. Therefore, this study provides integrated evidence demonstrating that, at least in the in vitro cell models, Zta drives cell migration and invasion through MMPs.
We demonstrate an approach to the assembly of DNA-containing polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) that can be used to promote rapid release of DNA from surfaces. The approach is based on layer-by-layer incorporation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to promote rapid film erosion in physiologically relevant media.
The aim of this study was to establish a robust and reliable assay for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. We used real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to detect survivin, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), cytokeratin-7 (CK-7) and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) mRNA expression levels in 68 advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients and 30 healthy patients. Statistical analyses were additionally performed to examine the correlation between the mRNA expression levels of these markers with the clinicopathological features of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. The sensitivity of these four mRNA markers in the PB of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients was 41.18, 61.76, 41.18 and 35.29%, respectively. The sensitivity of these four markers combined was 82.35%, which was significantly higher compared with single marker detection. Statistical analysis demonstrated that high expression levels of survivin, hTERT and TTF-1 mRNA are positively correlated with lymph node classification, and high expression levels of survivin, hTERT, CK7 and TTF-1 mRNA are positively correlated with distant metastasis (P<0.05). In addition, overexpression of these four mRNA markers is positively correlated with disease progression (P<0.05). Our data suggest that the combination of survivin, hTERT, CK-7 and TTF-1 mRNA markers may provide a valuable tool for CTC detection and is associated with disease progression in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients.
circulating tumor cells; quantitative real-time PCR; survivin; hTERT; CK-7; TTF-1
Functional gastrointestinal disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation are very common worldwide.
This research aims to estimate the prevalence and associated factors involved in functional gastrointestinal disorders in Chinese college and university students using the Rome III criteria.
A total of 5000 students from Shandong University in China were asked in January-May 2012 to complete questionnaires, including the Rome III questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and negative life events scale.
Based on the 4638 students who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation in college and university students of North China worked out to be 9.25%, 8.34% and 5.45% respectively. They were more frequent in female students. The factors of anxiety (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.16, P = 0.002<0.05) and depression (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.15 to 1.05, P = 0.045<0.05) indicated a high risk of causing irritable bowel syndrome.
Functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation were common in college and university students of North China. Psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression provide significant risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome patients.
Background and Aims
Subfamily Hyacinthoideae (Hyacinthaceae) comprises more than 400 species. Members are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, India, eastern Asia, the Mediterranean region and Eurasia. Hyacinthoideae, like many other plant lineages, show disjunct distribution patterns. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Hyacinthoideae based on phylogenetic analyses, to find the possible ancestral range of Hyacinthoideae and to identify factors responsible for the current disjunct distribution pattern.
Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees, based on sequences of the trnL-F region. Biogeographical inferences were obtained by applying statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) and Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis implemented in RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies).
S-DIVA and BBM analyses suggest that the Hyacinthoideae clade seem to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa. Dispersal and vicariance played vital roles in creating the disjunct distribution pattern. Results also suggest an early dispersal to the Mediterranean region, and thus the northward route (from sub-Saharan Africa to Mediterranean) of dispersal is plausible for members of subfamily Hyacinthoideae.
Biogeographical analyses reveal that subfamily Hyacinthoideae has originated in sub-Saharan Africa. S-DIVA indicates an early dispersal event to the Mediterranean region followed by a vicariance event, which resulted in Hyacintheae and Massonieae tribes. By contrast, BBM analysis favours dispersal to the Mediterranean region, eastern Asia and Europe. Biogeographical analysis suggests that sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean region have played vital roles as centres of diversification and radiation within subfamily Hyacinthoideae. In this bimodal distribution pattern, sub-Saharan Africa is the primary centre of diversity and the Mediterranean region is the secondary centre of diversity. Sub-Saharan Africa was the source area for radiation toward Madagascar, the Mediterranean region and India. Radiations occurred from the Mediterranean region to eastern Asia, Europe, western Asia and India.
Asparagaceae; biogeography; S-DIVA; Hyacinthoideae; Bayesian binary MCMC; RASP; Scilloideae
Both hyposmia and substania nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity on trascranial sonography (TCS) were risk markers for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), which was beneficial to the differential diagnosis of the disease. However, each of their single diagnostic value is often limited. The purpose of present study was to explore whether the combination of olfactory test and TCS of SN could enhance the differential diagnostic power in Chinese patients with PD.
Thirty-seven patients with PD and twenty-six patients with essential tremor (ET) were evaluated on 16-item odor identification test from extended version of sniffin’ sticks and TCS of SN. The frequency of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity in each group was compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the two clinical biomarkers were analyzed.
The frequency of hyposmia in patients with PD was significantly higher than in patients with ET (62.2% VS. 3.8%, P = 0.000). The frequency of SN hyperechogenicity in patients with PD was significantly higher than in ET subjects (48.6% VS. 15.4%, P = 0.006). The combination of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity (if either one or both present) discriminated patients with PD from ET with a sensitivity of 78.4% and 29.7%, specificity of 80.8% and 100%, PPV of 85.3% and 100%, and NPV of 72.4% and 50.0%, respectively.
Our preliminary data suggested that the combination of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity could improve the diagnostic potential for discriminating Chinese patients with PD from ET.
Parkinson’s disease; Hyposmia; Transcranial sonography
Pathologic studies play an important role in evaluating patients with Alport syndrome besides genotyping. Difficulties still exist in diagnosing Alport syndrome (AS), and misdiagnosis is a not-so-rare event, even in adult patient evaluated with renal biopsy.
We used nested case–control study to investigate 52 patients previously misdiagnosed and 52 patients initially diagnosed in the China Alport Syndrome Treatments and Outcomes Registry e-system.
We found mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN, 26.9%) and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, 19.2%) were the most common misdiagnosis. FSGS was the most frequent misdiagnosis in female X-linked AS (fXLAS) patients (34.8%), and MsPGN in male X-linked AS (mXLAS) patients (41.2%). Previous misdiagnosed mXLAS patients (13/17, 76.5%) and autosomal recessive AS (ARAS) patients (8/12, 66.7%) were corrected after a second renal biopsy. While misdiagnosed fXLAS patients (18/23, 78.3%) were corrected after a family member diagnosed (34.8%) or after rechecking electronic microscopy and/or collagen-IV alpha-chains immunofluresence study (COL-IF) (43.5%) during follow-up. With COL-IF as an additional criterion for AS diagnosis, we found that patients with less than 3 criteria reached have increased risk of misdiagnosis (3.29-fold for all misdiagnosed AS patients and 3.90-fold for fXLAS patients).
We emphasize timely and careful study of electronic microscopy and COL-IF in pathologic evaluation of AS patients. With renal and/or skin COL-IF as additional criterion, 3 diagnosis criteria reached are the cutoff for diagnosing AS pathologically.
Alport syndrome; Diagnosis; Immunohistology; Renal biopsy