The modification of proteins by ubiquitination and deubiquitination plays an important role in various cellular processes. BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme whose function in the control of the cell cycle requires both its deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization. In the present study, a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase belonging to the BAP1 family was identified and characterized from Artemia parthenogenetica, a member of a family of brine shrimp that, under certain conditions, produce and release diapause embryos in which cell division and turnover of macromolecules are arrested. Western blot analysis and in vitro enzyme activity assay revealed ArBAP1 to be a cytoplasmic protein with typical ubiquitin hydrolase activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that ArBAP1 was abundant in the abdomen of Artemia producing diapause-destined embryos. Furthermore, by in situ hybridization, ArBAP1 was located exclusively in the embryos. In vivo knockdown of ArBAP1 by RNA interference resulted in the formation of embryos with split shells and abortive nauplii. The present findings suggest that ArBAP1, the first reported cytoplasmic BAP1, participates in the formation of diapause embryos and plays an important role in the control of cell cycle arrest in these encysted embryos.
Artemia; BAP1; Deubiquitinate; Diapause; Formation; Maintenance
Zta is a lytic transactivator of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and has been shown to promote migration and invasion of epithelial cells. Although previous studies indicate that Zta induces expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP1, direct evidence linking the MMPs to Zta-induced cell migration and invasion is still lacking. Here we performed a series of in vitro studies to re-examine the expression profile and biologic functions of Zta-induced MMPs in epithelial cells derived from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We found that, in addition to MMP9, MMP3 was a new target gene upregulated by Zta. Ectopic Zta expression in EBV-negative cells increased both mRNA and protein production of MMP3. Endogenous Zta also contributed to induction of MMP3 expression, migration and invasion of EBV-infected cells. Zta activated the MMP3 promoter through three AP-1 elements, and its DNA-binding domain was required for the promoter binding and MMP3 induction. We further tested the effects of MMP3 and MMP9 on cell motility and invasiveness in vitro. Zta-promoted cell migration required MMP3 but not MMP9. On the other hand, both MMP3 and MMP9 were essential for Zta-induced cell invasion, and co-expression of the two MMPs synergistically increased cell invasiveness. Therefore, this study provides integrated evidence demonstrating that, at least in the in vitro cell models, Zta drives cell migration and invasion through MMPs.
We demonstrate an approach to the assembly of DNA-containing polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) that can be used to promote rapid release of DNA from surfaces. The approach is based on layer-by-layer incorporation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) to promote rapid film erosion in physiologically relevant media.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation are very common worldwide.
This research aims to estimate the prevalence and associated factors involved in functional gastrointestinal disorders in Chinese college and university students using the Rome III criteria.
A total of 5000 students from Shandong University in China were asked in January-May 2012 to complete questionnaires, including the Rome III questionnaire, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and negative life events scale.
Based on the 4638 students who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation in college and university students of North China worked out to be 9.25%, 8.34% and 5.45% respectively. They were more frequent in female students. The factors of anxiety (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.16, P = 0.002<0.05) and depression (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.15 to 1.05, P = 0.045<0.05) indicated a high risk of causing irritable bowel syndrome.
Functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation were common in college and university students of North China. Psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression provide significant risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome patients.
Background and Aims
Subfamily Hyacinthoideae (Hyacinthaceae) comprises more than 400 species. Members are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, India, eastern Asia, the Mediterranean region and Eurasia. Hyacinthoideae, like many other plant lineages, show disjunct distribution patterns. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Hyacinthoideae based on phylogenetic analyses, to find the possible ancestral range of Hyacinthoideae and to identify factors responsible for the current disjunct distribution pattern.
Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees, based on sequences of the trnL-F region. Biogeographical inferences were obtained by applying statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis (S-DIVA) and Bayesian binary MCMC (BBM) analysis implemented in RASP (Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies).
S-DIVA and BBM analyses suggest that the Hyacinthoideae clade seem to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa. Dispersal and vicariance played vital roles in creating the disjunct distribution pattern. Results also suggest an early dispersal to the Mediterranean region, and thus the northward route (from sub-Saharan Africa to Mediterranean) of dispersal is plausible for members of subfamily Hyacinthoideae.
Biogeographical analyses reveal that subfamily Hyacinthoideae has originated in sub-Saharan Africa. S-DIVA indicates an early dispersal event to the Mediterranean region followed by a vicariance event, which resulted in Hyacintheae and Massonieae tribes. By contrast, BBM analysis favours dispersal to the Mediterranean region, eastern Asia and Europe. Biogeographical analysis suggests that sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean region have played vital roles as centres of diversification and radiation within subfamily Hyacinthoideae. In this bimodal distribution pattern, sub-Saharan Africa is the primary centre of diversity and the Mediterranean region is the secondary centre of diversity. Sub-Saharan Africa was the source area for radiation toward Madagascar, the Mediterranean region and India. Radiations occurred from the Mediterranean region to eastern Asia, Europe, western Asia and India.
Asparagaceae; biogeography; S-DIVA; Hyacinthoideae; Bayesian binary MCMC; RASP; Scilloideae
Both hyposmia and substania nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity on trascranial sonography (TCS) were risk markers for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), which was beneficial to the differential diagnosis of the disease. However, each of their single diagnostic value is often limited. The purpose of present study was to explore whether the combination of olfactory test and TCS of SN could enhance the differential diagnostic power in Chinese patients with PD.
Thirty-seven patients with PD and twenty-six patients with essential tremor (ET) were evaluated on 16-item odor identification test from extended version of sniffin’ sticks and TCS of SN. The frequency of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity in each group was compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the two clinical biomarkers were analyzed.
The frequency of hyposmia in patients with PD was significantly higher than in patients with ET (62.2% VS. 3.8%, P = 0.000). The frequency of SN hyperechogenicity in patients with PD was significantly higher than in ET subjects (48.6% VS. 15.4%, P = 0.006). The combination of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity (if either one or both present) discriminated patients with PD from ET with a sensitivity of 78.4% and 29.7%, specificity of 80.8% and 100%, PPV of 85.3% and 100%, and NPV of 72.4% and 50.0%, respectively.
Our preliminary data suggested that the combination of hyposmia and SN hyperechogenicity could improve the diagnostic potential for discriminating Chinese patients with PD from ET.
Parkinson’s disease; Hyposmia; Transcranial sonography
Pathologic studies play an important role in evaluating patients with Alport syndrome besides genotyping. Difficulties still exist in diagnosing Alport syndrome (AS), and misdiagnosis is a not-so-rare event, even in adult patient evaluated with renal biopsy.
We used nested case–control study to investigate 52 patients previously misdiagnosed and 52 patients initially diagnosed in the China Alport Syndrome Treatments and Outcomes Registry e-system.
We found mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN, 26.9%) and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, 19.2%) were the most common misdiagnosis. FSGS was the most frequent misdiagnosis in female X-linked AS (fXLAS) patients (34.8%), and MsPGN in male X-linked AS (mXLAS) patients (41.2%). Previous misdiagnosed mXLAS patients (13/17, 76.5%) and autosomal recessive AS (ARAS) patients (8/12, 66.7%) were corrected after a second renal biopsy. While misdiagnosed fXLAS patients (18/23, 78.3%) were corrected after a family member diagnosed (34.8%) or after rechecking electronic microscopy and/or collagen-IV alpha-chains immunofluresence study (COL-IF) (43.5%) during follow-up. With COL-IF as an additional criterion for AS diagnosis, we found that patients with less than 3 criteria reached have increased risk of misdiagnosis (3.29-fold for all misdiagnosed AS patients and 3.90-fold for fXLAS patients).
We emphasize timely and careful study of electronic microscopy and COL-IF in pathologic evaluation of AS patients. With renal and/or skin COL-IF as additional criterion, 3 diagnosis criteria reached are the cutoff for diagnosing AS pathologically.
Alport syndrome; Diagnosis; Immunohistology; Renal biopsy
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological processes of ischemic brain damage. Many antioxidants have been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E), an ecdysteroid hormone, exhibits antioxidative effects. For the work described in this paper, we used an in vitro oxidative damage model and an in vivo ischemic model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to investigate the neuroprotective effects of 20E and the mechanisms related to these effects. Treatment of cells with H2O2 led to neuronal injury, intracellular ROS/RNS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cellular antioxidant potential descent, an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and an elevation of intracellular [Ca2+], all of which were markedly attenuated by 20E. Inhibition of the activation of the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK stress signaling pathway and cleaved caspase-3 induced by oxidative stress were involved in the neuroprotection afforded by 20E. In addition, 20E reduced the expression of iNOS protein by inhibition of NF-κB activation. The neuroprotective effect of 20E was also confirmed in vivo. 20E significantly decreased infarct volume and the neurological deficit score, restored antioxidant potential and inhibited the increase in MDA and TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the cerebral cortex in MCAO rats. Together, these results support that 20E protects against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting ROS/RNS production and modulating oxidative stress-induced signal transduction pathways.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly metastatic, and this malignant feature may be promoted by an EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). Acting as a signal regulator, LMP2A can enhance invasiveness and motility of epithelial cells. Downstream from the LMP2A-triggered signaling events, it is largely unknown what key effector proteins are induced and essentially promote cell invasion. In the present study, we found that in NPC cells, LMP2A upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a metastasis-associated protease. LMP2A increased MMP9 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. It also activated the MMP9 promoter, in which two AP-1 elements were required for the promoter activation. Among AP-1 transcription factors, Fra-1 was induced by LMP2A and is essential for LMP2A-triggered MMP9 expression. Induction of Fra-1 was dependent on the LMP2A-activated ERK1/2 pathway, and induction of the ERK1/2–Fra-1–MMP9 axis required PY motifs in the amino-terminal domain of LMP2A. Notably, LMP2A-promoted invasion of NPC cells was blocked when MMP9 expression, Fra-1 induction, or ERK1/2 activation was inhibited. In addition, we found an association of LMP2A with MMP9 expression in NPC tumor biopsy specimens, where Fra-1 was a major mediation factor. This study reveals an underlying mechanism of LMP2A-induced cell invasion, from signal transduction to upregulation of a critical protease. Considering that MMP9 can also be upregulated by another EBV oncoprotein, LMP1, this protease may be a pivotal effector at which the EBV-induced, invasion-promoting mechanisms converge, serving as an attractive therapeutic target for NPC treatment.
Sulfatide is a glycosphingolipid known to interact with several extracellular matrix proteins, such as tenascin-C which is overexpressed in many types of cancer including that of the colon. In view of the limited success of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer and high toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a sulfatide-containing liposome (SCL) encapsulation approach was taken to overcome these barriers. This study assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity in vivo of sulfatide-containing liposomal doxorubicin (SCL-DOX) using human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 xenograft as the experimental model. In vitro, SCL-DOX was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention compared with the free DOX. The use of this nanodrug delivery system to deliver DOX for treatment of tumor-bearing mice produced a much improved therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor growth suppression and extended survival in contrast to the free drug. Furthermore, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with SCL-DOX resulted in a lower DOX uptake in the principal sites of toxicity of the free drug, namely the heart and skin, as well as reduced myelosuppression and diminished cardiotoxicity. Such natural lipid-guided nanodrug delivery systems may represent a new strategy for the development of effective anticancer chemotherapeutics targeting the tumor microenvironment for both primary tumor and micrometastases.
The goal of this paper was to examine intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to the development of speech perception in monolingual and bilingual infants and toddlers. A substantial number of behavioral studies have characterized when infants show changes in behavior towards speech sounds in relation to amount of experience with these sounds. However, these studies cannot explain to what extent the developmental timeline is influenced by experience with the language versus constraints imposed by cortical maturation. Studies using electrophysiological measures to examine the development of auditory and speech processing have shown great differences in infant and adult electrophysiological correlates of processing. Many of these differences are a function of immature cortex in the infant. In this paper, we examined the maturation of infant and child event-related-potential (ERP) electrophysiological components in processing an English vowel contrast and explored to what extent these components are influenced by intrinsic (e.g., sex) versus extrinsic factors, such as language experience (monolingual vs. bilingual). Our findings demonstrate differences in the pattern of ERP responses related to age and sex, as well as language experience. These differences make it clear that general maturational factors need to be taken into consideration in examining the effect of language experience on the neurodevelopment of speech perception.
bilingual; development; electrophysiology; infants; MMN; speech perception; vowels
Paracrine signaling of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cytokine plays an important role in survival and invasion ability of placental trophoblasts. However, the intracellular factors and biological pathways underlying these responses remain unclear.
This study investigated whether HGF affected the expression of homeobox gene HLX1, which is principally expressed in reproductive tissues and in some immune cells, and evaluated the implications of such in the HGF-induced human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo.
HGF was found to up-regulate both HLX1 mRNA and protein levels. Transient transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HLX1 abrogated its induction by HGF. Functionally, HLX1 siRNA not only reduced the growth and invasion capacities of HTR-8/SVneo cells at the basal level, but also inhibited these responses induced by HGF treatment.
HLX1 is an essential downstream signaling component of HGF that leads to growth and invasiveness of trophoblast cells.
Hepatocyte growth factor; Trophoblast; Cell invasion; RNA interference
Most of the deaths among patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are caused by progressive right ventricular (RV) pathological remodeling, dysfunction, and failure. Nicorandil can inhibit the development of PAH by reducing pulmonary artery pressure and RV hypertrophy. However, whether nicorandil can inhibit apoptosis in RV cardiomyocytes and prevent RV remodeling has been unclear.
RV remodeling was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (MCT). RV systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured at the end of each week after MCT injection. Blood samples were drawn for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) ELISA analysis. The hearts were excised for histopathological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and Western blotting analyses. The MCT-injected rats exhibited greater mortality and less weight gain and showed significantly increased RVSP and RV hypertrophy during the second week. These worsened during the third week. MCT injection for three weeks caused pathological RV remodeling, characterized by hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and RV mitochondrial impairment, as indicated by increased levels of apoptosis. Nicorandil improved survival, weight gain, and RV function, ameliorated RV pressure overload, and prevented maladaptive RV remodeling in PAH rats. Nicorandil also reduced the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes, with a concomitant increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) reversed these beneficial effects of nicorandil in MCT-injected rats.
Nicorandil inhibits PAH-induced RV remodeling in rats not only by reducing RV pressure overload but also by inhibiting apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoKATP) channels. The use of a mitoKATP channel opener such as nicorandil for PAH-associated RV remodeling and dysfunction may represent a new therapeutic strategy for the amelioration of RV remodeling during the early stages of PAH.
The aim of this study was to identify a biomarker useful in the diagnosis and therapy of ovarian malignant germ cell tumor (OMGCT).
The karyopherin 2 (KPNA2) expression in OMGCT and normal ovarian tissue was determined by standard gene microarray assays, and further validated by a quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The correlation between KPNA2 expression in OMGCT and certain clinicopathological features were analyzed. Expression of SALL4, a stem cell marker, was also examined in comparison with KPNA2.
KPNA2 was found to be over-expressed by approximately eight-fold in yolk sac tumors and immature teratomas compared to normal ovarian tissue by microarray assays. Overexpression was detected in yolk sac tumors, immature teratomas, dysgerminomas, embryonal carcinomas, mature teratomas with malignant transformation and mixed ovarian germ cell tumors at both the transcription and translation levels. A positive correlation between KPNA2 and SALL4 expression at both the transcription level (R = 0.5120, P = 0.0125), and the translation level (R = 0.6636, P<0.0001), was presented. Extensive expression of KPNA2 was positively associated with pathologic type, recurrence and uncontrolled, ascitic fluid presence, suboptimal cytoreductive surgery necessity, resistance/refraction to initial chemotherapy, HCG level and SALL4 level in OMGCT patients. KPNA2 was found to be an independent factor for 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of OMGCT (P = 0.02). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and DFS rate for KPNA2-low expression patients (88% and 79%, n = 48) were significantly higher than the OS and DFS rate for KPNA2-high expression patients (69% and 57.1%, n = 42)(P = 0.0151, P = 0.0109, respectively). The 5-year OS and DFS rate for SALL4-low expression patients (84% and 74%, n = 62) was marginally significantly higher than the high expression patients (78.6% and 71.4%, n = 28)(P = 0.0519, P = 0.0647, respectively).
KPNA2 is a potential candidate molecular marker and important prognostic marker in OMGCT patients.
Objective: To introduce a novel surgical technique for correction of adult congenital webbed penis. Methods: From March 2010 to December 2011, 12 patients (age range: 14–23 years old) were diagnosed as having a webbed penis and underwent a new surgical procedure designed by us. Results: All cases were treated successfully without severe complication. The operation time ranged from 20 min to 1 h. The average bleeding volume was less than 50 ml. All patients achieved satisfactory cosmetic results after surgery. The penile curvature disappeared in all cases and all patients remained well after 1 to 3 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Adult webbed penis with complaints of discomfort or psychological pressure due to a poor profile should be indicators for surgery. Good corrective surgery should expose the glans and coronal sulcus, match the penile skin length to the penile shaft length dorsally and ventrally, and provide a normal penoscrotal junction. Our new technique is a safe and effective method for the correction of adult webbed penis, which produces satisfactory results.
Webbed penis; Plastic surgery; Inconspicuous penis; Penile anomalies
Post-implant dosimetry following prostate seed implantation (PSI) occasionally reveals suboptimal dosimetric coverage of the gland. Published reports of re-implantation techniques have focused on earlier-generation techniques, including preplanned approaches and stranded seeds. The purpose of this case report is to describe a customizable approach to perform corrective re-implantation using loose seeds and intraoperative planning technique.
Material and methods
This case report describes a 63-year-old male with favorable risk prostate adenocarcinoma receiving PSI. Thirty day post-implant dosimetric evaluation revealed suboptimal coverage of the base of the gland. Using guidance from post-implant CT-images and real-time planning, the patient received a corrective re-implantation with intraoperative planning.
Post-implant dosimetry after re-implantation procedure with intraoperative planning yielded improved target volume coverage that achieved standard dosimetric criteria.
Re-implantation as a salvage treatment technique after sub-optimal PSI is a valid treatment option performed with intraoperative real-time planning.
low-dose-rate brachytherapy; prostate cancer; re-implantation; salvage therapy; seeds
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in patients on chronic dialysis. The question whether dialysis modality impacts cardiovascular risk remains to be addressed. China Collaborative Study on Dialysis, a multi-centers cohort study, was performed to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity during maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD).
The cohort consisted of chronic dialysis patients from the database of 9 of the largest dialysis facilities around China. The inclusion period was between January 1, 2005, and December 1, 2010. Cardiovascular morbidity was defined as the presence of clinically diagnosed ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and/or stroke. The patients who had cardiovascular morbidity before initiation of dialysis were excluded. Data collection was based on review of medical record.
A total of 2,388 adult patients (1,775 on HD and 613 on PD) were enrolled. Cardiovascular morbidity affected 57% patients and was comparable between HD and PD patients. However, clinically diagnosed ischemic heart disease and stroke was more prevalent in PD than HD patients. When the patients were stratified by age or dialysis vintage, the cardiovascular morbidity was significantly higher in PD than HD among those aged 50 years or older, or those receiving dialysis over 36 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity had different pattern in PD and HD patients. Hyperglycemia was the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in PD, but not in HD patients. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalbuminemia were independently associated with CVD only in PD patients.
Cardiovascular morbidity during chronic dialysis was more prevalent in PD than HD patients among those with old age and long-term dialysis. Metabolic disturbance-related risk factors were independently associated with CVD only in PD patients. Better understanding the impact of dialysis modality on CVD would be an important step for prevention and treatment.
Cardiovascular morbidity; Dialysis modality; Risk factor
Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.
We hypothesized that aliskiren provides renoprotection in diabetic animals that did not receive sufficient renoprotection by AT1-receptor antagonist treatment. Type 2 diabetic KKAy mice were treated with group 1: vehicle or group 2: valsartan (15 mg/kg per day) from 12 to 16 weeks of age. The mice were subsequently divided into 4 groups and treated with the following combinations of drugs for another 6 weeks: 1: group 1 kept receiving vehicle, 2: group 2 continuously received 15 mg/kg per day of valsartan (Val-Val15), 3: group 2 received 50 mg/kg per day of valsartan (Val-Val50), 4: group 2 continuously received 15 mg/kg per day of valsartan with 25 mg/kg per day of aliskiren (Val-Val+Ali). Aliskiren exerted significant anti-albuminuric effects, whereas valsartan failed to ameliorate the albuminuria in the first four weeks. Surprisingly, the increasing dosage of valsartan in the Val-Val50 group showed non-significant tendencies to attenuate the albuminuria compared with vehicle infusion. Val-Val+Ali significantly suppressed the development of albuminuria and podocyte injury. Val-Val50 and Val-Val+Ali showed similar suppression of angiotensin II contents in the kidney of KKAy mice. In conclusion, the anti-albuminuric effect that was observed in the type 2 diabetic mice showing no anti-albuminuric effect by valsartan can be attributed to the add-on aliskiren.
aliskiren; valsartan; diabetic nephropathy
Myopodin is a tumor suppressor gene that suppresses growth of prostate and urothelial carcinomas. However, the mechanism of myopodin tumor suppressor activity or signaling that leads to activation of myopodin remains unclear. In this report, we showed that the N-terminus of myopodin binds integrin-linked kinase (ILK) both in vivo and in vitro. An ILK interaction motif of 78 amino acids (amino acids 82–157) was identified in the N-terminus region of myopodin. Induction of ILK dependent kinase activity by integrin α7 led to phosphorylation of myopodin both in vivo and in vitro. Knocking down ILK dramatically reduced the inhibition of cell growth and motility mediated by myopodin. A mutant of myopodin lacking the ILK interaction motif is inactive in suppressing the growth and motility of PC3 cells. As a result, this study showed a novel and critical signaling pathway that leads to activation of myopodin.
Objective: Our objective was to construct a recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (rBCG) that secretes human interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) and to study its immunogenicity and in vitro antitumor activity against human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. Methods: The signal sequence BCG Ag85B and the gene IFNα-2b were amplified from the genome of BCG and human peripheral blood, respectively, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The two genes were cloned in Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle-vector pMV261 to obtain a new recombinant plasmid pMV261-Ag85B-IFNα-2b. BCG was transformed with the recombinant plasmid by electroporation and designated rBCG-IFNα-2b. Mononuclear cells were isolated from human peripheral blood (PBMCs) and stimulated with rBCG-IFNα-2b or wild type BCG for 3 d, and then cultured with human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. Their cytotoxicities were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: BCG was successfully transformed with the recombinant plasmid pMV261-Ag85B-IFNα-2b by electroporation and the recombinant BCG (rBCG-IFNα-2b) was capable of synthesizing and secreting cytokine IFNα-2b. PBMC proliferation was enhanced significantly by rBCG-IFNα-2b, and the cytotoxicity of PBMCs stimulated by rBCG-IFNα-2b to T24 and T5627 was significantly stronger in comparison to wild type BCG. Conclusions: A recombinant BCG, secreting human IFNα-2b (rBCG-IFNα-2b), was constructed successfully and was superior to control wild type BCG in inducing immune responses and enhancing cytotoxicity to human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and T5637. This suggests that rBCG-IFNα-2b could be a promising agent for bladder cancer patients in terms of possible reductions in both clinical dosage and side effects of BCG immunotherapy.
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; Bladder neoplasms; Gene recombination; Interferon-alpha 2b
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs play important roles in the regulation of development, growth, and metastasis of cancer, and in determining the response of tumor cells to anticancer therapy. In recent years, they have also emerged as important regulators of autophagy, a lysosomal-mediated pathway that contributes to degradation of a cell's own components. Imatinib, a targeted competitive inhibitor of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, has revolutionized the clinical treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We demonstrate that MIR30A-mediated autophagy enhances imatinib resistance against CML including primary stem and progenitor cells. MIR30A, but not MIR101, is a potent inhibitor of autophagy by selectively downregulating BECN1 and ATG5 expression in CML cells. MIR30A mimics, as well as knockdown of BECN1 and ATG5, increases intrinsic apoptotic pathways. In contrast, the antagomir-30A increases autophagy and inhibits intrinsic apoptotic pathways, confirming that autophagy serves to protect against apoptosis. Taken together, these data clarify some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced autophagy.
Atg5; autophagy; BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase; Beclin 1; chronic myelogenous leukemia; microRNA
Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC) is very rare, and due to the long time period required to recruit sufficient numbers of patients, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic factors associated with survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as cancer-related biomarkers in a variety of tumor types, and the objective of this study was to determine whether microRNA expression profiles can predict clinical outcome in SCCC.
Forty-four patients with SCCC who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2000 and October 2009 were enrolled. Using the GeneCopoeia All-in-One™ Customized Human qPCR Primer Array, the expression profiles of 30 miRNAs associated with tumor metastasis was obtained from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples of all 44 patients. Seven miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-10b, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly down-regulated in advanced stage SCCCpatients (FIGO IB2-IV) compared to early stage SCCC patients (FIGOIB1). Among, downregulation of six miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and reduced survival in SCCC. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses revealed that SCCC patients with low expression of has-miR-100 (P = 0.019) and has-miR-125b (P = 0.020) projected a significant tendency towards poorer prognosis.
This study demonstrates that downregulation of 7 miRNA associated with advanced stage, 6 miRNAs with metastasis and 2 with poor prognosis in SCCC. Functional analysis of these miRNAs may enhance our understanding of SCCC, as altered expression of specific miRNAs may regulate the metastatic pathway and provide novel targets for therapy.