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1.  Genomic organization of the crested ibis MHC provides new insight into ancestral avian MHC structure 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7963.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in immune response. Avian MHCs are not well characterized, only reporting highly compact Galliformes MHCs and extensively fragmented zebra finch MHC. We report the first genomic structure of an endangered Pelecaniformes (crested ibis) MHC containing 54 genes in three regions spanning ~500 kb. In contrast to the loose BG (26 loci within 265 kb) and Class I (11 within 150) genomic structures, the Core Region is condensed (17 within 85). Furthermore, this Region exhibits a COL11A2 gene, followed by four tandem MHC class II αβ dyads retaining two suites of anciently duplicated “αβ” lineages. Thus, the crested ibis MHC structure is entirely different from the known avian MHC architectures but similar to that of mammalian MHCs, suggesting that the fundamental structure of ancestral avian class II MHCs should be “COL11A2-IIαβ1-IIαβ2.” The gene structures, residue characteristics, and expression levels of the five class I genes reveal inter-locus functional divergence. However, phylogenetic analysis indicates that these five genes generate a well-supported intra-species clade, showing evidence for recent duplications. Our analyses suggest dramatic structural variation among avian MHC lineages, help elucidate avian MHC evolution, and provide a foundation for future conservation studies.
doi:10.1038/srep07963
PMCID: PMC4302302  PMID: 25608659
2.  Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing Zuo Gui Wan and/or You Gui Wan on the Differentiation of Stem Cells Derived from Human First Trimester Umbilical Cord into Oocyte-Like Cells In Vitro 
Zuo Gui Wan (ZGW) and You Gui Wan (YGW) are two classic formulas used in clinical treatment of infertility in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the actions of the formulas remain to be proven at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigate whether the two formulas have any effect on germ cell formation and differentiation by culturing rat medicated serums containing YGW or ZGW with stem cells derived from human first trimester umbilical cord. Our results showed that while the normal rat serums had no significant effects, the rat medicated serums had significant effects on the differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) based on (1) cell morphological changes that resembled purative cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs); (2) expressions of specific markers that were indicative of germ cell formation and oocyte development; and (3) estradiol production by the COC-like cells. Furthermore, ZGW medicated serums exhibited more obvious effects on specific gene expressions of germ cells, whereas YGW medicated serums showed stronger effects on estradiol production. Accordingly, our study provides evidence demonstrating for the first time that one of molecular and cellular actions of YGW or ZGW in treating human reproductive dysfunctions may be through an enhancement of neooogenesis.
doi:10.1155/2015/825805
PMCID: PMC4320897
3.  Centralized isolation of Helicobacter pylori from multiple centers and transport condition influences 
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of centralized culture and possible influencing factors.
METHODS: From January 2010 to July 2012, 66452 patients with suspected Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection from 26 hospitals in Zhejiang and Jiangsu Provinces in China underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastric mucosal biopsies were taken from the antrum for culture. These biopsies were transported under natural environmental temperature to the central laboratory in Hangzhou city and divided into three groups based on their transport time: 5, 24 and 48 h. The culture results were reported after 72 h and the positive culture rates were analyzed by a χ2 test. An additional 5736 biopsies from H. pylori-positive patients (5646 rapid urease test-positive and 90 14C-urease breath test-positive) were also cultured for quality control in the central laboratory setting.
RESULTS: The positive culture rate was 31.66% (21036/66452) for the patient samples and 71.72% (4114/5736) for the H. pylori-positive quality control specimens. In the 5 h transport group, the positive culture rate was 30.99% (3865/12471), and 32.84% (14960/45553) in the 24 h transport group. In contrast, the positive culture rate declined significantly in the 48 h transport group (26.25%; P < 0.001). During transportation, the average natural temperature increased from 4.67 to 29.14 °C, while the positive culture rate declined from 36.67% (1462/3987) to 24.12% (1799/7459). When the temperature exceeded 24 °C, the positive culture rate decreased significantly, especially in the 48 h transport group (23.17%).
CONCLUSION: Transportation of specimens within 24 h and below 24 °C is reasonable and acceptable for centralized culture of multicenter H. pylori samples.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i3.944
PMCID: PMC4299348  PMID: 25624729
Centralized isolation; Helicobacter pylori; Influencing factor; Multiple centers; Personalized treatment
4.  Sarcoidosis in gastric cancer at the time of diagnosis: A case report 
Oncology Letters  2015;9(3):1159-1162.
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease that commonly affects the lungs and lymphatic system and is characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Although the association between sarcoidosis and malignant diseases has been well described, it remains controversial whether this association is merely a coincidence or the consequence of a common pathophysiological mechanism. The present study reports a rare case of sarcoidosis that was present in a patient with gastric cancer at the time of diagnosis. A 64-year-old female diagnosed with stage I gastric cancer underwent curative surgery, and the postoperative pathology of the lymph nodes revealed non-caseating granulomas. At the 4-year follow-up, the sarcoidosis remained stable, and no recurrence of cancer was identified. The present case revealed that sarcoidosis and gastric cancer may coexist simultaneously and focused on the potential advantages of histological confirmation in patients with cancer and sarcoidosis.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.2850
PMCID: PMC4315069  PMID: 25663873
sarcoidosis; gastric cancer; diagnosis; pathology
5.  Zinc finger protein 139 expression in gastric cancer and its clinical significance 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(48):18346-18353.
AIM: To investigate the expression of zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) in gastric cancer (GC), and to analyze its clinical significance.
METHODS: A total of 108 patients who were diagnosed with GC and underwent surgery between January 2005 and March 2007 were enrolled in this study. Gastric tumor specimens and paired tumor-adjacent tissues were collected and paraffin-embedded, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were recorded. The expression of ZNF139, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were determined by immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and analyses, and significance was determined at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: The expression of ZNF139 was stronger in tumors than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 44.44%; P < 0.01). Overexpression of ZNF139 correlated with tumor differentiation, invasion depth, clinical stage, lymphatic metastasis, and blood vessel invasion (all Ps < 0.05). Patients with overexpression of ZNF139 had a poorer prognosis (P < 0.01), and overexpression of ZNF139 was an independent factor for the prognosis of GC patients by a Cox survival analysis (P = 0.02). A negative relationship between ZNF139 and the apoptosis index was observed (r = -0.686; P < 0.01). The expression of Bcl-2 in GC was stronger than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 41.67%), whereas the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were lower in primary tumors (54.63% and 47.22%, respectively) than in tumor-adjacent tissues (73.15% and 73.15%, respectively) (all Ps < 0.05). The expression of ZNF139 negatively correlated with caspase-3 (r = -0.370; P < 0.01). The expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were also negatively correlated (r = -0.231; P = 0.02). The expressions of caspase-3 and Bax protein were positively correlated (r = 0.217; P = 0.024).
CONCLUSION: ZNF139 is related to clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of GC. Furthermore, it is overexpressed and involved in apoptosis in GC tissues by regulating caspase-3.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i48.18346
PMCID: PMC4277971  PMID: 25561801
Apoptosis; Clinicopathologic characteristics; Gastric cancer; Prognosis; Zinc finger protein 139
6.  Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7586.
Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively.
doi:10.1038/srep07586
PMCID: PMC4274503  PMID: 25533571
7.  Serum Gamma - Glutamyltransferase Is Associated with Albuminuria: A Population-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114970.
Background
Serum γ - glutamyltransferase (GGT) is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Albuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and correlated with structural and functional integrity of the vasculature. Our objective was to evaluate the association between serum GGT level and prevalence of albuminuria in a Chinese population.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 9,702 subjects aged 40 years or older. Increased urinary albumin excretion was defined according to the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ranges greater or equal than 30 mg/g. Low-grade albuminuria was defined according to the highest quartile of ACR in participants without increased urinary albumin excretion.
Results
The prevalence of low-grade albuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion were respectively 23.4% and 6.6% in this population and gradually increased across the sex-specific serum GGT quartiles (all P for trend <0.05). In logistic regression analysis, compared with subjects in the lowest quartile of serum GGT level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.43] for low-grade albuminuria and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.18–2.04) for increased urinary albumin excretion. In subgroup analysis, significant relationship of serum GGT level with both low-grade albuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion were detected in women, younger subjects, overweight subjects and in those with hypertension or glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 (all P <0.05).
Conclusion
Serum GGT level is associated with urinary albumin excretion in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114970
PMCID: PMC4263709  PMID: 25500578
8.  A G-quadruplex DNA-based, Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Strategy for microRNA Detection 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7400.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered to be potent biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and for cancer therapy. The rapid and selective detection of miRNAs without reverse transcription and labelling is highly desired. Herein, we report a simple and label-free miRNA detection method that is based on the Duplex-Specific Nuclease (DSN)-Assisted simple target miRNA recycling procedure. The interaction of the G-quadruplex DNA structure with N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) led to a label-free signal output. Under the optimised conditions, this method allowed for simple, rapid, and sequence-specific detection of miR-141 over a dynamic range from 1 fM to 100 nM with a linear range from 1 pM to 100 nM. Moreover, our method offered an excellent capacity to discriminate between miRNA family members with just one mismatched nucleotide. This simple and label-free strategy holds great potential in applications in biomedical research and in early clinical diagnostics.
doi:10.1038/srep07400
PMCID: PMC4261168  PMID: 25492390
9.  Four new species of the genus Saigona Matsumura (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Dictyopharidae) from China 
ZooKeys  2014;27-41.
Four new species of the genus Saigona Matsumura, 1910, Saigona anisomorpha Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., Saigona daozhenensis Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., Saigona dicondylica Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n. and Saigona tenuisa Zheng, Yang & Chen, sp. n., from China, are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Saigona is provided.
doi:10.3897/zookeys.462.7500
PMCID: PMC4284430  PMID: 25589852
Fulgoroidea; Oriental region; Palaearctic region; planthopper; taxonomy
10.  Pulsed laser deposition of single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 core/shell nanowires 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):650.
Single-crystalline Cu7In3/CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CI/CIGS) core/shell nanowires are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires are made up of single-crystalline CI cores surrounded by single-crystalline CIGS shells. The CI/CIGS nanowires are grown at a considerably low temperature (350°C ~ 450°C) by vapor-liquid-solid mode combined with vapor-solid mode. The distribution density of the nanowires increases with the increasing of the deposition duration, and the substrate temperature determines the lengths of the nanowires. The U-V absorption spectra of the CIGS thin films with and without the CI/CIGS core/shell nanowires demonstrate that the CI/CIGS nanowires can remarkably enhance the absorption of CIGS thin films in the spectrum range of 300 to 900 nm.
PACS
61.46. + w; 61.41.e; 81.15.Fg; 81.07.b
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-650
PMCID: PMC4266518  PMID: 25520597
Pulsed laser deposition; Nickel catalyst; CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2; core/shell nanowires; Light absorption
11.  Concise Review: Differentiation of Human Adult Stem Cells Into Hepatocyte-like Cells In vitro 
Adult stem cells (ASCs) are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues, which are the powerful sources for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), and peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) are the common ASCs, and many studies indicated that ASCs isolated from various adult tissues could be induced to hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, the isolation, culture protocols, characterization of ASCs and hepatocyte-like cells are different. This review aims to describe the isolation and culture procedures for ASCs, to summarize the molecular characterization of ASCs, to characterize function of hepatocyte-like cells, and to discuss the future role of ASCs in cell therapy and tissue engineering.
doi:10.15283/ijsc.2014.7.2.49
PMCID: PMC4249903  PMID: 25473441
Adult stem cells; Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells; Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells Peripheral blood monocytes; Hepatocyte-like cells
12.  Breakthrough cancer medicine and its impact on novel drug development in China: report of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) and Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) Joint Session at the 17th CSCO Annual Meeting 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(12):620-624.
The US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) teamed up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session at the17th CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China. With a focus on breakthrough cancer medicines, the session featured innovative approaches to evaluate breakthrough agents and established a platform to interactively share successful experiences from case studies of 6 novel agents from both the United States and China. The goal of the session is to inspire scientific and practical considerations for clinical trial design and strategy to expedite cancer drug development in China. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing both early and full development of novel cancer medicines in China.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10246
PMCID: PMC4308658  PMID: 25418191
Breakthrough; clinical trial; cancer medicine
13.  Predictive supracolloidal helices from patchy particles 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:7021.
A priori prediction of supracolloidal architectures from nanoparticle and colloidal assembly is a challenging goal in materials chemistry and physics. Despite intense research in this area, much less has been known about the predictive science of supracolloidal helices from designed building blocks. Therefore, developing conceptually new rules to construct supracolloidal architectures with predictive helicity is becoming an important and urgent task of great scientific interest. Here, inspired by biological helices, we show that the rational design of patchy arrangement and interaction can drive patchy particles to self-assemble into biomolecular mimetic supracolloidal helices. We further derive a facile design rule for encoding the target supracolloidal helices, thus opening the doors to the predictive science of these supracolloidal architectures. It is also found that kinetics and reaction pathway during the formation of supracolloidal helices offer a unique way to study supramolecular polymerization, and that well-controlled supracolloidal helices can exhibit tailorable circular dichroism effects at visible wavelengths.
doi:10.1038/srep07021
PMCID: PMC4228328  PMID: 25387544
14.  Activity of dalotuzumab, a selective anti-IGF1R antibody, in combination with erlotinib in unselected patients with Non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase I/II randomized trial 
Background
We investigated the safety and antitumor activity of dalotuzumab, a selective anti-insulin growth factor 1 receptor monoclonal antibody (IGF1R MoAb), plus erlotinib in a sequential phase I/II trial in unselected patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).The phase I trial determined the recommended dose and safety of erlotinib plus dalotuzumab at 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg weekly in 20 patients. The phase II trial compared outcomes to erlotinib alone and erlotinib plus dalotuzumab at the mg/kg established in the phase I trial.
Results
Erlotinib at 150 mg plus dalotuzumab at 10 mg/kg was safe. The phase II trial included 37 patients in the erlotinib arm and 38 patients in the erlotinib plus dalotuzumab arm. Progression-free survival was 1.6 versus 2.5 months, overall survival was 10.2 and 6.6 months, and the objective response rate was 7.9% and 2.7%, respectively, with no significant differences between the two arms. Grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 11 (28.9%) versus 13 (35.1%) patients, respectively. The most frequent adverse events were asthenia (36.8% vs. 37.8%), dehydration (5.3% vs. 2.7%), diarrhea (71% vs. 81.1%), hyperglycemia (13.1% vs.18.9%), and skin-related toxicities (92.1% vs. 86.4%).
Conclusion
The addition of dalotuzumab to erlotinib did not improve efficacy outcome in patients with refractory advanced NSCLC.
doi:10.1186/2162-3619-3-26
PMCID: PMC4237770  PMID: 25414803
Non-small-cell lung cancer; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Insulin growth factor receptor; Dalotuzumab; Phase I/II trial
15.  The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology 
Nature Communications  2014;5:5315.
The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65 Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45 Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.
The jujube is a major dry fruit crop in China and is commonly used for medicinal purposes. Here the authors sequence the genome and transcriptome of the most widely cultivated jujube cultivar, Dongzao, and highlight the genetic and molecular basis of agronomically important jujube traits, such as vitamin C content.
doi:10.1038/ncomms6315
PMCID: PMC4220462  PMID: 25350882
17.  Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing You Gui Wan on Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization Competence 
You Gui Wan (YGW) is a classic herbal formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for the clinical treatment of infertility. This study was to explore whether YGW has an impact on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro and subsequent fertilization competence. Rat medicated serum containing YGW was prepared by orally administrating YGW. Mouse immature oocytes were cultured with YGW medicated serum and compared to those cultured with or without normal rat serum or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). YGW medicated serum significantly increased the percentages of matured oocytes when compared to the groups with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, YGW medicated serum increased the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) when compared to the groups treated with FSH and with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.001). YGW medicated serum also had significant effects on the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, MAPK, PKC, PKG, and MPF and the concentrations of cAMP, cGMP, and NO in matured oocytes. These results indicate that YGW can promote mouse oocyte maturation and IVF in vitro. Signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/PKA/MAPK, the PKC-MAPK, and the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, which are similar to those induced by FSH, may be responsible for this action.
doi:10.1155/2014/152010
PMCID: PMC4228818  PMID: 25530775
18.  Effects of an oral allosteric AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) on human nasopharyngeal cancer in vitro and in vivo 
Aim
Protein kinase B (AKT) signaling frequently is deregulated in human cancers and plays an important role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This preclinical study investigated the effect of MK-2206, a potent allosteric AKT inhibitor, on human NPC cells in vitro and in vivo.
Methods
The effect of MK-2206 on the growth and proliferation of CNE-1, CNE-2, HONE-1, and SUNE-1 cells was assessed by Cell Counting Kit 8 and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. The effects of MK-2206 on the AKT pathway were analyzed by Western blotting. Autophagy induction was evaluated via electron microscopy and Western blot. To test the effects of MK-2206 in vivo, CNE-2 cells were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with MK-2206 or placebo. Tumors were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis.
Results
In vitro, MK-2206 inhibited the four NPC cell line growths and reduced the sizes of the colonies in a dose-dependent manner. At 72 and 96 hours, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of MK-2206 in CNE-1, CNE-2, and HONE-1 cell lines were 3–5 μM, whereas in SUNE-1, IC50 was less than 1 μM, and MK-2206 induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. However, our study found no evidence of apoptosis. MK-2206 induced autophagy in NPC cells, as evidenced by electron microscopy and Western blot, and inhibited the growth of tumors that were subcutaneously implanted in mice. Inhibition of downstream phosphorylation through the PRAS40 and S6 pathways seems to be the main mechanism for the MK-2206-induced growth inhibition.
Conclusion
Our preclinical study suggests that MK-2206’s antiproliferative effect may be useful for NPC treatment; however, strategies for reinforcing this effect are needed to maximize clinical benefit.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S67961
PMCID: PMC4199975  PMID: 25336925
AKT inhibitor; MK-2206; nasopharyngeal carcinoma
19.  Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a subset of irritable bowel syndrome patients*  
The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is complex and not fully understood, so the aim of this study was to evaluate whether visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation of the gut wall are associated with diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS). Sixty-two patients with D-IBS and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Using the ascending method of limits (AML) protocol, we demonstrated that D-IBS patients had significantly lower sensory thresholds compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). Using diverse methods, especially the ischemic sensitivity test, for the first time in China, we confirmed that D-IBS patients have somatic hypersensitivity. They had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure and heart rate after a cold stimulus, indicative of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Compared with the control group, D-IBS patients had a significantly higher level of calprotectin (P<0.001). We also found significant correlations between visceral and somatic hypersensitivity, visceral hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction, and somatic hypersensitivity and autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction. Our findings may provide valuable suggestions for the treatment of D-IBS.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1400143
PMCID: PMC4201319  PMID: 25294380
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); Visceral hypersensitivity; Somatic hypersensitivity; Autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction; Low-grade inflammation
20.  Research of dose-effect relationship parameters of percutaneous microwave ablation for uterine leiomyomas - a quantitative study 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:6469.
Eighty eight patients with 91 uterine leiomyomas who underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) treatment were prospectively included in the study in order to study the dose-effect relationship parameters (DERP) of PMWA for uterine leiomyomas and its relationship with T2-weighted MR imaging (T2WI). Based on the signal intensity of T2WI, uterine leiomyomas were classified as hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense. During ablation, leiomyomas were treated with quantitative microwave ablation (QMWA) energy of 50 w × 300 s or 60 w × 300 s. After QMWA, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed to evaluate DERP. No matter under 50 w × 300 s or 60 w × 300 s, quantitative microwave ablation volume (QMAV) of hyperintense leiomyoma was smaller than that of hypointense and isointense leiomyoma (P<0.016). For hypointense and isointense leiomyoma, QMAV of 60 w × 300 s was larger than that of 50 w × 300 s (P<0.05). DERPs obtained by T2WI can be used to guide the treatment of uterine leiomyoma by PMWA.
doi:10.1038/srep06469
PMCID: PMC4179463  PMID: 25267154
21.  CT-pathologic correlation in primary hepatocellular carcinoma: an implication for target delineation 
Journal of Radiation Research  2013;54(5):938-942.
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the correlation between CT size and gross pathologic size for subjects with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This analysis included 174 patients with HCC who underwent surgery. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) was performed up to 30 days before surgery. After resection, the size of the tumor on gross pathologic examination was recorded. The maximal measurement in one dimension on axial imaging and pathologic examination was extracted for statistical analysis. The clinical and pathologic sizes were compared using a percent size difference (%Δsize) as an end point. A regression analysis was applied to study the association between pathologic and radiographic size. The median radiographic and pathologic size were 70.58 ± 38.9 mm and 68.59 ± 40.56 mm, respectively. The radiographic size was larger than or equal to the pathologic size in 110/174 tumors (63.2%), and smaller in 64/174 (36.8%) tumors. Overall, the radiographic and pathologic sizes were positively correlated (r = 0.983, P = 0.000). CT seemed to overestimate the tumor size by 2.16 mm compared to final pathology (P = 0.024). The median %Δsize was 3.3%. Pathologic tumor size was significantly underestimated in patients with a tumor size 3–5 cm (P = 0.011), Grade I HCC (P = 0.023), with clear boundary (P = 0.013). We concluded that CT size and pathologic size were positively correlated, but differences did exist. Utilizing the radiographic tumor when planning radiation would have covered 63.2% of gross tumors. For a radiographic tumor size < 50 mm, utilizing a 3-mm margin around the radiographic tumor would have covered 90% of gross lesions, while a margin of 5 mm would have covered 95%, and a margin of 15 mm would have covered 100%.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrt030
PMCID: PMC3766302  PMID: 23616629
hepatocellular carcinoma; CT-pathologic relation; target delineation; radiation
22.  Cancer immunotherapy 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(9):413-415.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10153
PMCID: PMC4190430  PMID: 25478631
23.  Earthworm Is a Versatile and Sustainable Biocatalyst for Organic Synthesis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105284.
A crude extract of earthworms was used as an eco-friendly, environmentally benign, and easily accessible biocatalyst for various organic synthesis including the asymmetric direct aldol and Mannich reactions, Henry and Biginelli reactions, direct three-component aza-Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of isoquinuclidines, and domino reactions for the synthesis of coumarins. Most of these reactions have never before seen in nature, and moderate to good enantioselectivities in aldol and Mannich reactions were obtained with this earthworm catalyst. The products can be obtained in preparatively useful yields, and the procedure does not require any additional cofactors or special equipment. This work provides an example of a practical way to use sustainable catalysts from nature.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105284
PMCID: PMC4141794  PMID: 25148527
24.  MYC Expression in Concert with BCL2 and BCL6 Expression Predicts Outcome in Chinese Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e104068.
Recent studies provide convincing evidence that a combined immunohistochemical or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) score of MYC, BCL2, BCL6 proteins and MYC translocations predicted outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). However, by far, all these researches are based on Western populations. Therefore, we investigate the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression by immunohistochemistry and FISH from 336 de novo DLBCL, NOS treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Breaks in MYC and BCL6, and fusion in IGH/BCL2 were detected in 9.7%, 20.0%, and 11.1% of the cases, respectively, and were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. Protein overexpression of MYC (≥40%), BCL2 (≥70%) and BCL6 (≥50%) was encountered in 51%, 51% and 36% of the tumors, respectively. On the basis of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 expression, double-hit scores (DHSs) and triple-hit score (THS) were assigned to all patients with DLBCL. Patients with high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS had multiple adverse prognostic factors including high LDH level, poor performance status, advanced clinical stage, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and non-germinal center B-cell. In univariate analysis, high MYC/BCL2 DHS, high MYC/BCL6 DHS and high THS were associated with inferior OS and PFS in both CHOP and R-CHOP cohorts (P<0.05). The highly significant correlations with OS and PFS were maintained in multivariate models that controlled for IPI (P<0.05). DLBCLs with high DHSs and high THS share the clinical features and poor prognosis of double-hit lymphoma (P>0.05). These data together suggest that the immunohistochemical DHSs and THS defined a large subset of DLBCLs with double-hit biology and was strongly associated with poor outcome in patients treated with R-CHOP or CHOP.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104068
PMCID: PMC4121314  PMID: 25090026
25.  Genomics in personalized cancer medicine and its impact on early drug development in China: report from the 6th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at the 50th ASCO Annual Meeting 
Chinese Journal of Cancer  2014;33(8):371-375.
The 6th Annual Meeting of the United States Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) was held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) on May 30, 2014 in Chicago, Illinois, the United States of America. With a focus on personalized medicine, the conference featured novel approaches to investigate genomic aberrations in cancer cells and innovative clinical trial designs to expedite cancer drug development in biomarker-defined patient populations. A panel discussion further provided in-depth advice on advancing development of personalized cancer medicines in China. The conference also summarized USCACA key initiatives and accomplishments, including two awards designated to recognize young investigators from China for their achievements and to support their training in the United States. As an effort to promote international collaboration, USCACA will team up with Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO) to host a joint session on “Breakthrough Cancer Medicines” at the upcoming CSCO Annual Meeting on September 20th, 2014 in Xiamen, China.
doi:10.5732/cjc.014.10110
PMCID: PMC4135365  PMID: 25096543
Genomics; cancer; personalized medicine

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