Cortisol, a member of glucocorticoids, could potentiate the action of catecholamine by a non-genomic mechanism. Although this permissive effect has been well appreciated in the anti-asthmatic medication, the underlying signaling pathway has remained mysterious. Here, we show that extraneuronal monoamine transporter (EMT), a membraneous reuptake transporter for circulating catecholamine clearance, is the direct target of cortisol in its permissive effect. We found that BSA-conjugated cortisol, which functions as a cortisol but cannot penetrate cell membrane, enhanced the spasmolytic effect of β-adrenoceptor agonist (isoprenaline) in histamine-sensitized tracheal spirals of guinea pigs, and pharmacological inhibition of EMT with famotidine was powerful enough to imitate the permissive action of cortisol. To our surprise, EMT protein expression was high in the chondrocytes of tracheal cartilage, but was undetectable in tracheal smooth muscle cells. The functionality of EMT was further confirmed with measurement of catecholamine uptake by tracheal chondrocytes. Moreover, cortisol-initiated membrane signaling could activate protein kinase C (PKC), which phosphorylates EMT and induces its internalization via a lipid raft-dependent pathway. Both of the mechanisms slow down the reuptake process by chondrocytes, leading to extracellular catecholamine accumulation and results in a more profound adrenergic signaling activation in tracheal smooth muscle cells. Thus, an EMT-centered pathway was proposed to explain the permissive action of cortisol. Collectively, our results highlight the role of EMT in the crosstalk between glucocorticoid and catecholamine. EMT may represent a promising target for adrenergic signaling modulation.
The human SLC25A13 gene encodes citrin, the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), and SLC25A13 mutations cause citrin deficiency (CD), a disease entity that encompasses different age-dependant clinical phenotypes such as Adult-onset Citrullinemia Type II (CTLN2) and Neonatal Intrahepatic Cholestasis caused by Citrin Deficiency (NICCD). The analyses of SLC25A13 gene and its protein/mRNA products remain reliable tools for the definitive diagnoses of CD patients, and so far, the SLC25A13 mutation spectrum in Chinese CD patients has not been well-characterized yet.
Methods and Results
By means of direct DNA sequencing, cDNA cloning and SNP analyses, 16 novel pathogenic mutations, including 9 missense, 4 nonsense, 1 splice-site, 1 deletion and 1 large transposal insertion IVS4ins6kb (GenBank accession number KF425758), were identified in CTLN2 or NICCD patients from China, Japan and Malaysia, respectively, making the SLC25A13 variations worldwide reach the total number of 81. A large NICCD cohort of 116 Chinese cases was also established, and the 4 high-frequency mutations contributed a much larger proportion of the mutated alleles in the patients from south China than in those from the north (χ2 = 14.93, P<0.01), with the latitude of 30°N as the geographic dividing line in mainland China.
This paper further enriched the SLC25A13 variation spectrum worldwide, and formed a substantial contribution to the in-depth understanding of the genotypic feature of Chinese CD patients.
A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel.
To analyze the effectiveness and toxicities in the re-irradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
This is a retrospective analysis of 54 NPC patients with local recurrence re-irradiated with IMRT. The re-staging for rT1, rT2, rT3, rT4 were 3 (5.6%), 8 (14.8%), 9 (16.7%), 34 (63%) respectively. The average dose to GTV was 69.95 Gy (49.8-76.58 Gy), the average BED3Gy was 116.8 Gy (83.5-127.9 Gy). V95 was 96%, and D95 was 65.75Gy. 33.3% of them received concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
Median overall survival (OS) was 21 months (1-93 mon). The 1-, 2-year local progression free survival (LPFS) rate was 84.5%, 64% and OS rate was 71.7%, 44.3%. Severe late adverse events (SLAE) occurred in 48.1% of patients, including 31.5% with ulcer or necrosis of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, 20.4% with difficulty in feeding, 18.5% with temporal lobe necrosis, 11.1% with massive hemorrhage. 15.4% died of local regional progression, 5.8% died of distant metastasis, 25% died of SLAE, 9.6% died of both local regional progression and SLAE that could not be differentiated, 5.8% died of other medical complications. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was the independent negative prognostic factors for LPFS; PTV>100 ml was a predictive factor of poor OS; patients with invasion of post-styloid space were at higher risk of SLAE.
The present study demonstrated that IMRT with 70Gy was efficient for local tumor control. However, we observed a high frequency of serious late complications. More optimized combination treatment and patient selection are required to achieve excellent local control without significant late morbidities in locally recurrent NPC.
Recent studies point to an association between the late-onset sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1559085 and rs27852 in Ca2+-dependent protease calpain inhibitor calpastatin (CAST) gene. This finding is of interest since loss of CAST activity could result in over activated calpain, potentially leading to Ca2+ dysregulation and loss of substantia nigra neurons in PD. We explored the association between CAST SNPs and late-onset sporadic PD in the Han Chinese population. The study included 615 evaluable patients (363 male, 252 female) with PD and 636 neurologically healthy controls (380 male, 256 female) matched for age, gender, ethnicity, and area of residence. PD cases were identified from the PD cohort of the Chinese National Consortium on Neurodegenerative Diseases (www.chinapd.cn). A total of 24 tag-SNPs were genotyped capturing 95% of the genetic variation across the CAST gene. There was no association found between any of the polymorphisms and PD in all models tested (co-dominant, dominant-effect and recessive-effect). Similarly, none of the common haplotypes was associated with a risk for PD. Our data do not support a significant association between the CAST gene polymorphisms and late onset sporadic PD in the Han Chinese population.
AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we transplanted MSCs into an experimental model of IBD.
METHODS: A rectal enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) (100 mg/kg body weight) was administered to female BALB/c mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were derived from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and were transplanted intravenously into the experimental animals after disease onset. Clinical activity scores and histological changes were evaluated. GFP and Sex determining region Y gene (SRY) expression were used for cell tracking. Ki67 positive cells and Lgr5-expressing cells were determined to measure proliferative activity. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of different inflammatory mediators in the colon and serum. The inflammatory cytokines included tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β). Master regulators of Th1 cells (T-box expressed in T cells, T-bet), Th17 cells (retinoid related orphan receptor gamma(t), RORγt), Th2 cells (GATA family of transcription factors 3, GATA3) and regulatory T cells (forkhead box P3, Foxp3) were also determined.
RESULTS: Systemic infusion of GFP-BMSCs ameliorated the clinical and histopathologic severity of colitis, including body weight loss, diarrhea and inflammation, and increased survival (P < 0.05). The cell tracking study showed that MSCs homed to the injured colon. MSCs promoted proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and differentiation of intestinal stem cells (P < 0.01). This therapeutic effect was mainly mediated by down-regulation of both Th1-Th17-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, T-bet; IL-6, IL-17, RORγt), and by up-regulation of Th2 activities (IL-4, IL-10, GATA-3) (P < 0.05). MSCs also induced activated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TGF-β, IL-10, Foxp3) with a suppressive capacity on Th1-Th17 effecter responses and promoted Th2 differentiation in vivo (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MSCs are key regulators of immune and inflammatory responses and may be an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy of IBD.
Mesenchymal stem cells; Transplantation; Inflammatory bowel disease; Inflammatory response; Immunomodulation; Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis; Therapy
Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47–80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15–25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.
ApoE genotype; Age at menopause; Age at menarche
Some syphilis patients remain in a serologically active state after the recommended therapy. We currently know too little about the characteristics of this serological response.
We conducted a cohort study using the clinical database from Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College of Xiamen. In total, 1,327 HIV-negative patients with primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis were enrolled. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to identify factors associated with a serological cure and serofast state in syphilis patients one year after therapy. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences in the serological cure rate across different therapy time points.
One year after the recommended therapy, 870 patients achieved a serological cure, and 457 patients (34.4%) remained in the serofast state. The serological cure rate increased only within the first 6 months. The bivariate analysis indicated that male or younger patients had a higher likelihood of a serological cure than female or older patients. Having a baseline titre ≤1∶2 or ≥1∶64 was associated with an increased likelihood of a serological cure. The serological cure rate decreased for the different disease stages in the order of primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis. A distinction should be drawn between early and late syphilis. The multivariate analysis indicated that a serological cure was significantly associated with the disease phase, gender, age, and baseline rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre.
The serofast state is common in clinical work. After one year of the recommended therapy, quite a few syphilis patients remained RPR positive. The primary endpoint of the study indicated that disease phase, gender, age and baseline RPR titre were crucial factors associated with a serological cure.
The activated nuclear factor-KappaB signaling pathway plays a critical role in inducing inflammatory injury. It has been reported that electroacupuncture could be an effective anti-inflammatory treatment. We aimed to explore the complex mechanism by which EA inhibits the activation of the NF-κB signal pathway and ameliorate inflammatory injury in the short term; the effects of NEMO Binding Domain peptide for this purpose were compared. Focal cerebral I/R was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hrs. Total 380 male Sprague-Dawley rats are in the study. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and the levels of IL-1β and IL-13 were detected. NF-κB p65, IκBα, IKKα, and IKKβ were analyzed and the ability of NF-κB binding DNA was investigated. The EA treatment and the NBD peptide treatment both reduced infarct size, improved neurological scores, and regulated the levels of IL-1β and IL-13. The treatment reduced the expression of IKKα and IKKβ and altered the expression of NF-κB p65 and IκBα in the cytoplasm and nucleus; the activity of NF-κB was effectively reduced. We conclude that EA treatment might interfere with the process of NF-κB nuclear translocation. And it also could suppress the activity of NF-κB signaling pathway to ameliorate the inflammatory injury after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
Ridaforolimus (AP23573, MK-8669 or deforolimus) is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important regulator in the cell survival pathway. This open-label, single center phase I study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profiles of ridaforolimus in Chinese patients with treatment-refractory advanced or relapsed solid tumors. The PK data generated from these Chinese patients were further compared with those previously reported in Caucasian and Japanese patient populations.
The patients were given an oral dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus on Day 1 of the study. On Day 8, patients were initiated on a treatment regimen that comprised a once daily dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-day off-drug interval. Patients repeated this regimen until disease progression or intolerance. Blood samples were collected at specific times pre- and post-treatment to establish the PK profile of ridaforolimus in all patients.
Fifteen patients were given at least one dose of 40 mg of ridaforolimus. The median absorption lag-time was 2 hours, the median Tmax was 4 hours and the mean elimination half-life was 53 hours. The accumulation ratio for AUC0-24hr was 1.3 on day 19 (steady state)/day 1 (after a single dose). The most common drug-related adverse events (AEs) that occurred in ≥40% of patients were stomatitis, proteinuria, leukopenia, hyperglycemia, and pyrexia. Grade 3/4 drug-related AEs were anemia, stomatitis, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, constipation, gamma glutamyltransferase increase, and proteinuria. All 11 evaluable patients achieved stable disease.
Oral ridaforolimus at a daily dose of 40 mg were generally well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced or refractory solid tumors. Adverse events and PK profiles of ridaforolimus in this study were similar to those from Caucasian and Japanese patients reported previously.
MTOR inhibitor; Phase I study; Pharmacokinetic analysis; Adverse event
Growing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cellular radiosensitivity. This study aimed to explore the role of miRNAs in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) radiosensitivity. Microarray was employed to compare the miRNA expression profiles in B cell lymphoma cell line Raji before and after a 2-Gy dose of radiation. A total of 20 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified including 10 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated (defined as P < 0.05). Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-148b was up-regulated 1.53-fold in response to radiation treatment. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed the up-regulation of miR-148b after radiation. Transient transfection experiments showed that miR-148b was up-regulated by miR-148b mimic and down-regulated by miR-148b inhibitor in the Raji cells. A proliferation assay showed that miR-148b could inhibit the proliferation of Raji cells before and after radiation. A clonogenic assay demonstrated that miR-148b sensitized Raji cells to radiotherapy. MiR-148b did not affect the cell cycle profile of post-radiation Raji cells compared with controls. An apoptosis assay showed that miR-148b enhanced apoptosis of Raji cells after irradiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-148b increased the radiosensitivity of NHL cells probably by promoting radiation-induced apoptosis, which suggests that miR-148b plays an important role in the response of NHL to ionizing radiation.
miR-148b; ionizing radiation; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Raji cell; apoptosis
This study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic value of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ([18F]-FDG-PET/CT) in the detection of radiation toxicity in normal bone marrow using Tibet minipigs as a model. Eighteen Tibet minipigs were caged in aseptic rooms and randomly divided into six groups. Five groups (n = 3/group) were irradiated with single doses of 2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) using an 8-MV X-ray linear accelerator. These pigs were evaluated with [18F]-FDG-PET/CT, and their marrow nucleated cells were counted. The data were initially collected at 6, 24 and 72 h after treatment and were then collected on Days 5–60 post-TBI at 5-day intervals. At 24 and 72 h post-TBI, marrow standardized uptake value (SUV) data showed a dose-dependent decrease in the radiation dose range from 2–8 Gy. Upon long-term observation, SUV and marrow nucleated cell number in the 11-Gy and 14-Gy groups showed a continuous and marked reduction throughout the entire time course, while Kaplan–Meier curves of survival showed low survival. In contrast, the SUVs in the 2-, 5- and 8-Gy groups showed early transient increases followed by a decline from approximately 72 h through Days 5–15 and then normalized or maintained low levels through the endpoint; marrow nucleated cell number and survival curves showed approximately the same trend and higher survival, respectively. Our findings suggest that [18F]-FDG-PET/CT may be helpful in quickly assessing the absorbed doses and predicting the prognosis in patients.
[18F]-FDG-PET/CT; total body irradiation; bone marrow; Tibet minipigs
Lumican is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan highly expressed in connective tissue and has the ability to regulate collagen fibril assembly. Previous studies have shown that lumican is involved in wound healing, but the precise effects of lumican on reepithelialization and wound contraction, the two pivotal aspects of skin wound healing, have not been investigated. Here we explored the roles of lumican in fibroblast contractility, a main aspect of skin wound healing, by adopting mice skin wound healing model and the corresponding in vitro cellular experiments. Our results showed that lumican can promote skin wound healing by facilitating wound fibroblast activation and contraction but not by promoting keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Silencing of integrin α2 completely abolished the pro-contractility of lumican, indicating lumican enhances fibroblast contractility via integrin α2. Our study for the first time demonstrated that lumican can affect fibroblast’s mechanical property, which is pivotal for many important pathological processes, such as wound healing, fibrosis, and tumor development, suggesting that lumican might have a potential to be used to modulate these processes.
Previous studies have shown that cysteine-rich secretory protein containing LCCL domain 2 (CRISPLD2) is a novel lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, and the upregulation of CRISPLD2 expression protects mice against LPS-induced lethality. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of CRISPLD2 in patients with sepsis and characterize the association of this protein with procalcitonin.
The expression of CRISPLD2 was determined in100 healthy volunteers and 119 septic patients. According to the definition of sepsis, patients were divided into three groups sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. The relationship between CRISPLD2 levels and procalcitonin was also examined and statistically analyzed.
The CRISPLD2 levels in healthy individuals were 219.3±69.1 µg/ml. Patients with sepsis exhibited higher CRISPLD2 levels than observed in healthy individuals (p = 0.001), but CRISPLD2 expression was not upregulated in patients with septic shock. No significant differences were observed between the levels of CRISPLD2 in surviving and non-surviving spesis patients. CRISPLD2 levels were negatively correlated with procalcitonin levels(r = −0.334, p<0.001).
The present study is the first to demonstrate the decreased expression of CRISPLD2 in septic shock and its association with PCT in sepsis. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential association between CRISPLD2 expression and clinical outcomes to determine if it could be used as a novel sepsis biomarker.
Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet (HQJZ) is a famous Chinese medicine formula for treatment of various gastrointestinal tract diseases. This study investigated the role of HQJZ in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis and its underlying mechanism. Colonic mucosal injury was induced by TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the HQJZ treatment group, HQJZ was administered (2 g/kg) for 14 days starting from day 1 after TNBS infusion. Colonic mucosal injury occurred obviously 1 day after TNBS challenge and did not recover distinctively until day 15, including an increase in macro- and microscopic scores, a colonic weight index, a decrease in colonic length, a number of functional capillaries, and blood flow. Inverted intravital microscopy and ELISA showed colonic microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory responses after TNBS stimulation, respectively. TNBS decreased occludin, RhoA, and ROCK-I, while increasing Rac-1, PAK-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. In addition, ATP content and ATP5D expression in colonic mucosa decreased after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with HQJZ significantly attenuated all of the alterations evoked by TNBS, promoting the recovery of colonic injury. The present study demonstrated HQJZ as a multitargeting management for colonic mucosal injury, which set in motion mechanisms involving improvement of energy metabolism.
Crystals of argininosuccinate lyase from S. mutans were obtained and X-ray data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution in space group R3.
Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is an important enzyme in arginine synthesis and the urea cycle, which are highly conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes. The gene encoding Streptococcus mutans ASL (smASL) was amplified and cloned into expression vector pET28a. The recombinant smASL protein was expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by two-step column chromatography. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 254.5, c = 78.3 Å.
argininosuccinate lyase; Streptococcus mutans
Disgust is argued to be an emotion that motivates the avoidance of disease-causing entities in the physical domain and unacceptable behaviors in the social-moral domain. Empirical work from behavioral, physiological and brain imaging studies suggests moral judgments are strongly modulated by disgust feelings. Yet, it remains unclear how they are related in the time course of neural processing. Examining the temporal order of disgust emotion and morality could help to clarify the role of disgust in moral judgments. In the present research, a Go/No-Go paradigm was employed to evoke lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) to investigate the temporal order of physical disgust and moral information processing. Participants were asked to give a “yes” or “no” response regarding the physical disgust and moral wrongness of a social act. The results showed that the evaluation of moral information was processed prior to that of physical disgust information. This suggests that moral information is available earlier than physical disgust, and provides more data on the biological heterogeneity between disgust and morality in terms of the time course of neural activity. The findings implicate that physical disgust emotion may not be necessary for people to make moral judgments. They also suggest that some of our moral experience may be more fundamental (than physical disgust experience) to our survival and development, as humans spend a considerable amount of time engaging in social interaction.
To investigate myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) levels during the onset of asthma in both pediatric patients and mouse models, as well as their possible roles in the development of asthma.
Peripheral blood samples were gathered from children with asthma attacks (attack group) and alleviated asthma (alleviated group), as well as two control groups, children with pneumonia and healthy children. The pathological characteristics of asthma in asthmatic mice, budesonide-treated asthmatic mice, and normal control mice were also evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.
MDSC accumulation and serum IL-10 levels were significantly elevated in the children with asthma compared with the budesonide-treated alleviated group, normal healthy controls, and pneumonia controls (p<0.05), whereas those in the latter three groups showed no statistical differences (p>0.05). The level of serum IL-12 in the asthmatic children was drastically reduced compared to the budesonide-treated alleviated group, healthy controls, and pneumonia controls (p<0.05), whereas the latter three groups showed no significant differences in their serum IL-12 levels. The percentage of MDSCs in children with asthma was positively correlated with the level of serum IL-10 and negatively correlated with the level of serum IL-12. The levels of MDSCs and IL-10 in asthmatic mice were significantly higher than those in the normal control mice (both p<0.05) and were reduced after budesonide treatment (both p<0.05). IL-12 expression in the asthmatic mice was significantly lower than the control and was increased upon budesonide treatment (both p<0.05).
During the onset of asthma, the accumulation of MDSCs and the level of serum IL-10 increase, while the level of IL-12 decreases. These fluctuations may play an important role in the development of asthma.
Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) commonly co-exist. Some patients with unidentified ARAS may undergo cardiac surgery. While acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious complication of cardiac surgery, we aim to evaluate the influence of ARAS on the occurrence of postoperative AKI in patients with normal or near-normal baseline renal function following cardiac surgery.
A total of 212 consecutive patients undergoing aortography after coronary angiography and cardiac surgery were retrospectively studied for their preoperative and intraoperative conditions. AKI was defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 0.3 mg/dl (≥26.4 µmol/l) or a percentage increase in creatinine of more than or equal to 50% (1.5-fold from baseline) after cardiac surgery. A propensity score-adjusted logistic regression models was used in estimating the effect of ARAS on the risk of postoperative AKI.
ARAS (≥50%) was observed in 50 (23.6%) patients, and 83 (39.2%) developed AKI after cardiac surgery. A correlation existed between renal artery patency and preoperative–to–postoperative %ΔCr in patients with ARAS (r = 0.297, P<0.0001). The propensity score-adjusted regression model showed the occurrence of postoperative AKI in patients with ARAS was significantly higher than those without ARAS (OR 2.858, 95% CI 1.260–6.480, P = 0.011).
ARAS is associated with postoperative AKI in patients with normal or near-normal baseline renal function after cardiac surgery.
Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which induce signaling via Toll-like receptor 9, have recently been suggested to enhance sensitivity to traditional therapies, including chemotherapy, in certain cancer cell lines. This study aimed to define the dose-effect relationship for CpG ODN 1826 in increasing radiosensitivity and its impact on immune function in a mouse model of Lewis lung cancer.
The tumor-bearing mouse model was induced by injecting Lewis lung cancer cells into the right anterior leg subcutaneously. Sixty-four C57BL/6 J mice were evenly randomized into eight groups, comprising: a control group; an irradiation group; a CpG ODN 0.15 group; a CpG ODN 0.3 group; a CpG ODN 0.45 group; a CpG 0.15 + irradiation group; a CpG 0.3 + irradiation group; and a CpG 0.45 + irradiation group. Tumor growth, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-12 concentrations, spleen and thymus exponents, and effect of CpG on the secondary immune response were measured, and apoptosis of tumor cells was investigated using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) after treatment.
Tumor volumes in the treated groups were smaller than in the control group, with those of the CpG 0.45 + irradiation group being the smallest. TUNEL showed that the apoptosis rate in all the active treatment groups was higher than in the control group. CpG ODN apoptosis rate, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-12 levels, and the spleen and thymus exponent showed greater improvement in the groups receiving combination therapy of CpG ODN and irradiation than the control group or the group receiving irradiation alone. With the increasing concentration of CpG ODN 1826, its effect became more and more significant, meanwhile, inoculation of Lewis lung cancer cells failed in those CpG ODN-cured mice.
CpG ODNs dramatically increased the radiosensitivity of Lewis lung cancer and enhanced immune function in mice in a dose-related manner.
apoptosis; Lewis lung cancer; CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides; secondary immune response
The title compound, C20H47NO6Si4, was synthesized by per-O-trimethylsilylation of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine using chlorotrimethylsilane in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane. The trimethylsilyl group and acetamido group are located on the same side of the pyran ring, showing an α-configuration glycoside. One of the trimethylsilyl groups is disordered over two orientations, with site-occupancy factors of 0.625 (9) and 0.375 (9). In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into supramolecular chains along the a-axis direction.
Currently, antidepressants are the dominative treatment for depression, but they have limitations in efficacy and may even produce troublesome side effects. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study was conducted to determine whether EA could enhance the antidepressant efficacy of a low dose of citalopram (an SSRI antidepressant) in the chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression model rats. Here, we show that a combined treatment with 2 Hz EA and 5 mg/kg citalopram for three weeks induces a significant improvement in depressive-like symptoms as detected by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test, whereas these effects were not observed with either of the treatments alone. Further investigations revealed that 2 Hz EA plus 5 mg/kg citalopram produced a remarkably increased expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in the hippocampus compared with those measured in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that EA combined with a low dose of citalopram could produce greater therapeutic effects, thereby, predictive of a reduction in drug side effects.
Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) plays a key role in the formation, rupture, and subsequent thrombus formation in atherosclerotic plaques. In the current study, anti-mouse OxLDL polyclonal antibody and nonspecific IgG antibody were conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles, and a carotid perivascular collar model in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice was imaged at 7.0 Tesla MRI before contrast administration and at 8 h and 24 h after injection of 30 mg Fe/kg. The results showed MRI signal loss in the carotid atherosclerotic lesions after administration of targeted anti-OxLDL-USPIO at 8 h and 24 h, which is consistent with the presence of the nanoparticles in the lesions. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the colocalization of the OxLDL/macrophages and iron oxide nanoparticles. The nonspecific IgG-USPIO, unconjugated USPIO nanoparticles, and competitive inhibition groups had limited signal changes (p < 0.05). This report shows that anti-OxLDL-USPIO nanoparticles can be used to directly detect OxLDL and image atherosclerotic lesions within 24 h of nanoparticle administration and suggests a strategy for the therapeutic evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo.
atherosclerosis; molecular imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; low density lipoprotein