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1.  Curcumin inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in endothelial cell damage via trapping methylglyoxal 
Molecular Medicine Reports  2015;13(2):1475-1486.
Methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses have been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa L., may protect endothelial cells against carbonyl stress-induced damage by trapping dicarbonyl compounds such as MGO. However, Cur-MGO adducts have not been studied in depth to date and it remains to be known whether Cur-MGO adducts are able to attenuate endothelial damage by trapping MGO. In the present study, 1,2-diaminobenzene was reacted with MGO to ensure the reliability of the reaction system. Cur was demonstrated to trap MGO at a 1:1 ratio to form adducts 1, 2 and 3 within 720 min. The structures of these adducts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The kinetic curves of Cur (10−7, 10−6 and 10−5 M) were measured from 0–168 h by fluorescent intensity. Cur significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The differences in oxidative damage and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines following MGO + HSA or Cur-MGO treatment were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to the Cur-MGO reaction adducts significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels and improved cell viability compared with MGO alone. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 following treatment with Cur-MGO adducts compared with MGO alone. These results provide further evidence that the trapping of MGO by Cur inhibits the formation of AGEs. The current study indicates that the protective effect of Cur on carbonyl stress and pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial damage occurs via the trapping of MGO.
doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.4725
PMCID: PMC4732849  PMID: 26718010
curcumin; methylglyoxal; trapping dicarbonyl compounds; AGE generation; endothelial injury
2.  Enhanced oral absorption of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol by self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing piperine: in vitro and in vivo studies 
Background
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), similar to several other anticancer agents, has low oral absorption and is extensively metabolized. These factors limit the use of PPD for treatment of human diseases.
Methods
In this study, we used cubic nanoparticles containing piperine to improve the oral bioavailability of PPD and to enhance its absorption and inhibit its metabolism. Cubic nanoparticles loaded with PPD and piperine were prepared by fragmentation of glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel and verified using transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. We evaluated the in vitro release of PPD from these nanoparticles and its absorption across the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and subsequently, we examined the bioavailability and metabolism of PPD and its nanoparticles in vivo.
Results
The in vitro release of PPD from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 hours. PPD-cubosome and PPD-cubosome loaded with piperine (molar ratio PPD/piperine, 1:3) increased the apical to basolateral permeability values of PPD across the Caco-2 cell monolayer from 53% to 64%, respectively. In addition, the results of a pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that the relative bioavailabilities of PPD-cubosome [area under concentration–time curve (AUC)0–∞] and PPD-cubosome containing piperine (AUC0–∞) compared to that of raw PPD (AUC0–∞) were 166% and 248%, respectively.
Conclusion
The increased bioavailability of PPD-cubosome loaded with piperine is due to an increase in absorption and inhibition of metabolism of PPD by cubic nanoparticles containing piperine rather than because of improved release of PPD. The cubic nanoparticles containing piperine may be a promising oral carrier for anticancer drugs with poor oral absorption and that undergo extensive metabolism by cytochrome P450.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S38203
PMCID: PMC3576041  PMID: 23426652
20(S)-protopanaxadiol; cubosome; piperine; Caco-2 cell monolayer; bioavailability; metabolites
3.  Preparation of a nanoscale baohuoside I-phospholipid complex and determination of its absorption: in vivo and in vitro evaluations 
Background
Baohuoside I is a potential anticancer drug for a variety of malignancies and has been approved for in vitro use. However, baohuoside I has very poor oral absorption.
Methods
In the present study, we prepared baohuoside I-phospholipid complexes of different diameters and determined their physicochemical properties using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The in vitro absorption of baohuoside I and baohuoside I-phospholipid complexes of different sizes were compared using the Caco-2 cell culture model, and subsequently, the bioavailability of baohuosidel and its complexes were estimated in vivo.
Results
Compared with the large-sized phospholipid complexes, a nanoscale phospholipid complex improved the oral bioavailability of baohuoside I. In addition, our results suggest that the smaller the particle size, the faster the complexes crossed the Caco-2 monolayer and the faster they were resorbed after oral administration in rats. The relative oral bioavailability of a nanoscale size 81 ± 10 nm baohuoside I-phospholipid complex (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]0–∞) was 342%, while that of baohuoside I and a 227.3 ± 65.2 μm baohuoside I-phospholipid complex was 165%.
Conclusion
We enhanced the oral bioavailability of baohuoside I by reducing the particle size of the phospholipid complex to the nanometer range, thereby improving its potential for clinical application.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S35965
PMCID: PMC3446837  PMID: 23028219
nanoscale phospholipid complex; Caco-2 cell monolayer; bioavailability; oral absorption
4.  LncRNA PANDAR regulates the G1/S transition of breast cancer cells by suppressing p16INK4A expression 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:22366.
It has been reported that lncRNA PANDAR (promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage-activated RNA) is induced as a result of DNA damage, and it regulates the reparation of DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA PANDAR in the progression of breast cancer and found that PANDAR was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The knockdown of PANDAR suppresses G1/S transition of breast cancer cells. We demonstrated mechanistically that the regulation of G1/S transition by PANDAR was partly due to the transcriptional modulation of p16INK4A. Moreover, we showed that PANDAR impacted p16INK4A expression by regulating the recruitment Bmi1 to p16INK4A promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study which showed the functional roles and mechanisms of PANDAR in regulating the progression of breast cancer. The PANDAR/Bmi1/p16INK4A axis could serve as novel targets for breast cancer therapy.
doi:10.1038/srep22366
PMCID: PMC4772134  PMID: 26927017
5.  Applicability of visceral adiposity index in predicting metabolic syndrome in adults with obstructive sleep apnea: a cross-sectional study 
Background
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is severely affected by visceral adiposity (VA) that correlates to another disorder—metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little is known concerning the relation of visceral adiposity index (VAI)—a novel and simple indicator of VA, with OSA and MetS. The objective of the study was to analyze the association of VAI with both disorders and applicability to identify OSA patients at risk of MetS.
Methods
Consecutive individuals undergoing polysomnography and biochemical tests were enrolled, and differences in all subjects grouped by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were analyzed. Spearman correlation was performed for assessing the relationship between VAI, OSA-related indices and metabolic score—total number of the positive diagnostic criteria of MetS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was conducted to obtain a cut-off value of VAI for predicting incident MetS by sex. Then, the risk of MetS in OSA patients according to the cut-offs was attained by logistic regression.
Results
A total of 411 individuals were enrolled. Of whom, 361 subjects were diagnosed OSA (mild in 67 patients, moderate in 89 and severe in 205, respectively). A significant increasing trend based on AHI was observed in the variables of blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose, incident MetS, metabolic score and VAI (all p < 0.05). Irrespective of gender, VAI was all significantly correlated with PSG characteristics as AHI, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation, the lowest oxygen saturation, metabolic score(all p < 0.05). A VAI of 2.282, 2.105, 2.511 (for all subjects, males and females, separately) were calculated to determine the occurrence of MetS. According to the cut-offs, OSA patients tended to suffer from greater risk in MetS (odds ratio [OR] = 10.237, p = 0.000; OR = 13.556, p = 0.000; OR = 21.458, p = 0.000).
Conclusions
The present study suggested that VAI was significantly associated with MetS and OSA. As a simple and alternative approach obtained in everyday practice, it may offer a powerful tool to identify patients with OSA at risk of MetS.
doi:10.1186/s12890-016-0198-0
PMCID: PMC4774032  PMID: 26931776
Obstructive sleep apnea; Visceral adiposity; Visceral adiposity index; Metabolic syndrome; Metabolic score; Receiver operating characteristic
6.  Genetic Variation in Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer-1 and the Risk of Breast Cancer Among the Chinese Han Population 
Medicine  2016;95(6):e2801.
Abstract
Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, is involved in angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis in many cancers. Epidemiological studies have indicated the associations between MACC1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms in MACC1 and breast cancer (BC) was not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between MACC1 polymorphisms and BC risk.
We genotyped 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MACC1 (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) to determine the haplotypes in 560 BC patients and 583 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy individuals. Genotypes were determined using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the chi-square test.
There were significant differences between patients and controls in the MACC1 rs975263 allelic (T vs C: OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.61–0.95, P = 0.014) and genotypic groups (TC vs TT: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.54–0.92, P = 0.009; TC+CC vs TT: OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55–0.92, P = 0.008). Analysis of clinical features demonstrated significant associations between rs975263 and Scarff–Bloom–Richardson (SBR) grade 3 cancer (P = 0.006) and postmenopausal women (P = 0.018). Compared with the rs4721888 CC genotype, the frequency of rs4721888 GC and GC+CC variants was higher in patients. Further analysis revealed that the variant genotypes were positively associated with lymph node metastasis. However, we failed to find any relationships between rs1990172 or rs3735615 polymorphism and BC risk. In addition, haplotype analysis indicated that the CTGG and CTCG haplotypes (rs975263, rs1990172, rs3735615, rs4721888) were significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to BC (P = 0.029 and 0.019 respectively).
Our results suggest that rs975263 and rs4721888 polymorphisms in MACC1 are associated with the risk of BC susceptibility and may be involved in the progression of BC in Chinese women.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002801
PMCID: PMC4753940  PMID: 26871844
7.  Prognostic Value of Adrenomedullin and Natriuretic Peptides in Uroseptic Patients Induced by Ureteroscopy 
Mediators of Inflammation  2016;2016:9743198.
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether urosepsis is related to irrigation pressure of ureteroscopy (URS) and evaluate the prognostic value of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) in URS-induced uroseptic patients. From July 2008 to October 2013, we enrolled 332 patients with untreated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The UUO group included three subgroups of, respectively, 118, 132, and 82 patients who underwent URS under intermittent stable irrigation pressure of, respectively, 80, 120, and 160 mmHg. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were measured in all subjects. URS was performed for all UUO patients; the values of the three peptides were measured again after URS. Irrigation pressure and stone size were independent risk factors of urosepsis. After URS, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP, and BNP were significantly higher in uroseptic patients. Moreover, the concentrations were significantly higher depending on the disease severity. Plasma concentrations of the three peptides were correlated with plasma ET concentration in the uroseptic patients. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of ADM, ANP, and BNP for predicting urosepsis were 0.811, 0.728, and 0.764, respectively. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, is valuable for prognosis in urosepsis secondary to URS which is associated with irrigation pressure.
doi:10.1155/2016/9743198
PMCID: PMC4736384  PMID: 26880865
8.  Impact of Timing following Acute Myocardial Infarction on Efficacy and Safety of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Therapy: A Network Meta-Analysis 
Stem Cells International  2015;2016:1031794.
Background. The optimal timing for Bone Marrow Stem Cells (BMCs) therapy following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. Aims. To synthesize the evidence from trials using a multiple-treatment comparison method, thereby permitting a broader comparison across multiple timing of BMCs therapy. Methods and Results. Randomized controlled trials in patients with AMI receiving BMCs therapy were identified from PubMed, Ovid LWW, BIOSIS Previews, and the Cochrane Library through January 2015. 2 035 patients of 31 studies included in our analysis were allocated to 5 groups' treatments: 1~3 days, 4~7 days, 8~14 days, 15~30 days, or placebo/control group. The multiple-treatment meta-analysis showed that 4~7 days' group could lead to significantly increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as compared with control (mean of MDs and 95% CI: 6 months, 3.05 (0.92~5.25); 12 months, 4.18 (2.30~5.84)). Only 4~7 days led to significant reduction of MACEs compared with control (OR and 95% CI 0.34 (0.13~0.96)) for 12-months follow-up. In simulated comparisons, the 4~7 days' group ranked better than other timing groups for improvement of LVEF or reduction of the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. Conclusions. 4~7 days after AMI might be the optimal timing for cell therapy in terms of efficacy or safety.
doi:10.1155/2016/1031794
PMCID: PMC4691493  PMID: 26783397
9.  SUN2 exerts tumor suppressor functions by suppressing the Warburg effect in lung cancer 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:17940.
SUN2, a key component of LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex located at the inner nuclear membrane, plays unknown role in lung cancer. We found that SUN2 expression was decreased in lung cancer tissue compared with paired normal tissues and that higher SUN2 levels predicted better overall survival and first progression survival. Overexpression of SUN2 inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation and migration in lung cancer, whereas knockdown of SUN2 promotes cell proliferation and migration. Additionally, SUN2 increases the sensitivity of lung cancer to cisplatin by inducing cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, we showed that SUN2 exerts its tumor suppressor functions by decreasing the expression of GLUT1 and LDHA to inhibit the Warburg effect. Finally, our results provided evidence that SIRT5 acts, at least partly, as a negative regulator of SUN2.Taken together, our findings indicate that SUN2 is a key component in lung cancer progression by inhibiting the Warburg effect and that the novel SIRT5/SUN2 axis may prove to be useful for the development of new strategies for treating the patients with lung cancer.
doi:10.1038/srep17940
PMCID: PMC4674702  PMID: 26658802
10.  Spatiotemporal dynamics of traction forces show three contraction centers in migratory neurons 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2015;209(5):759-774.
Traction force microscopy provides a comprehensive description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of contractile activities and their regulation by guidance molecules in migrating neurons, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Traction force against the substrate is required for neuronal migration, but how it is generated and regulated remains controversial. Using traction force microscopy, we showed in cultured granule cells the coexistence of three distinct contraction centers (CCs) that are located at the distal and proximal regions of the leading process as well as at the trailing process, regions exhibiting high-level myosin-II activities. The CC activities depended on myosin-II, actin filaments, and microtubules, as well as substrate adhesion, and exhibited apparently independent fluctuation. The difference of strain energies associated with CC activities between leading versus trailing processes tightly correlated with the displacement of the soma at any given time. Application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Slit2, factors known to guide neuronal migration, at the leading process altered CC activities by regulating the small GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA, respectively, leading to forward and rearward soma translocation. These results delineate the multiple origins and spatiotemporal dynamics of the traction force underlying neuronal migration.
doi:10.1083/jcb.201410068
PMCID: PMC4460152  PMID: 26056143
11.  LYAR promotes colorectal cancer cell mobility by activating galectin-1 expression 
Oncotarget  2015;6(32):32890-32901.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of CRC pathogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we report the characterization of LYAR (Ly-1 antibody reactive clone) as a key regulator of the migration and invasion of human CRC cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that LYAR is expressed at a higher level in metastatic CRC tissues. We found that LYAR promoted the migratory and invasive capabilities of CRC cells. Gene expression profile analysis of CRC cells showed that LGALS1, which encodes the galectin-1 protein, was a potential target of LYAR. The ChIP assay and gene reporter assays indicated that LYAR directly bound to the LGALS1 promoter. The ectopic expression of galectin-1 partially restored the mobile potential of LYAR knocked-down cells, which suggests that galectin-1 contributed to the LYAR-promoted cell migration and invasion of CRC cells. Thus, this study revealed a novel mechanism by which the transcription factor LYAR may promote tumor cell migration and invasion by upregulating galectin-1 gene expression in CRC.
PMCID: PMC4741737  PMID: 26413750
LYAR; galectin-1; colorectal cancer; cell migration and invasion
12.  SLC39A6: a potential target for diagnosis and therapy of esophageal carcinoma 
Background
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly lethal cancer, and its underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies in Chinese Han populations have identified an ESCC susceptibility locus within the SLC39A6 gene. Here, we sought to explore the expression and biological function of SLC39A6 in ESCC.
Methods
Multiethnic validation of SLC39A6 protein expression was performed in different cohorts of patients from Chinese Han and Kazakh populations in the Xinjiang region by immunohistochemistry. The associations among SLC39A6 expression, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis outcomes of ESCC were analyzed. And the effects of SLC39A6 silencing by siRNA on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness, as well as the proteins involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of esophageal cancer cells, were studied.
Results
SLC39A6 protein expression increased progressively from normal esophageal epithelium (NEE) to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to ESCC, and finally reached the highest in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia from Han ethnic. Similarly, SLC39A6 protein was significantly overexpressed in Kazakh ethnic ESCC compared with that in NEE. Increased expression of SLC39A6 was found to be closely correlated with histological grade and early Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage I/II. High tumorous SLC39A6 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis confirmed that SLC39A6 expression was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in ESCC. Experimentally, the suppression of SLC39A6 expression promoted ESCC cell apoptosis but abrogated proliferation and invasion, and induced an EMT phenotype that included enhanced expression of E-cadherin, loss of vimentin, and morphological changes in ESCC cells in vitro.
Conclusions
Combined, our findings highlight a tumor-promoting role for SLC39A6 in ESCC, suggesting that SLC39A6 could serve as an early detector of high-risk subjects and prognostic biomarker. The targeting of SLC39A6 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for blocking ESCC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0681-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0681-z
PMCID: PMC4595240  PMID: 26444413
SLC39A6; ESCC; Precursor lesions; Prognosis
13.  Type-specific detection of human papillomaviruses in Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by genotyping both E6 and L1 genes with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry 
Background: Many studies have suggested a relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, findings are inconclusive, potentially because of geographic heterogeneity and variations in detection methods. Objectives: We sought to further investigate the prevalence of HPV with a new detection method, the MassARRAY Sequenom technique, in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas occurring in patients belonging to Kazakh populations in Xinjiang, China. Study design: In the present study, a novel genotyping method for detecting 30 HPV genotypes, specifically by genotyping both the HPV E6 and L1 genes with multiplex PCR using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS) was first adopted to evaluate HPV genotypes in 89 esophageal cancer samples and 49 matched adjacent normal esophageal tissues. Results: Six HPV genotypes (HPV6, HPV16, HPV33, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV82) were present in at least 51.7% of the esophageal carcinoma tissues, which was significantly greater than 28.6% prevalence among controls (P < 0.05). HPV16 was the most common of all the genotypes investigated (HPV16 prevalence in carcinoma tissue: 49.4%; odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.39-6.53). HPV-positive ESCC patients were generally younger than HPV-negative patients (P = 0.04). In addition, HPV infection was more common in cases of well-differentiated and shallower invasive depth. Conclusions: Based on this new detection method, our findings reiterate the possibility that HPV infection (especially HPV16) may be involved in the etiology of esophageal carcinoma in the Kazakh populations and that HPV E6 gene positivity may be associated with prognosis of patients.
PMCID: PMC4680459  PMID: 26722514
Human papillomavirus; HPV genotyping; MassARRAY Sequenom technique; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
14.  Efficiency and safety of radiofrequency-assisted hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis: A single-center retrospective cohort study 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2015;21(35):10159-10165.
AIM: To assess the efficiency and safety of radiofrequency-assisted hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis.
METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2013, 179 patients with HCC and cirrhosis were recruited for this retrospective study. Of these, 100 patients who received radiofrequency-assisted hepatectomy (RF+ group) were compared to 79 patients who had hepatectomy without ablation (RF- group). The primary endpoint was intraoperative blood loss. The secondary endpoints included liver function, postoperative complications, mortality, and duration of hospital stay.
RESULTS: The characteristics of the two groups were closely matched. The Pringle maneuver was not used in the RF+ group. There was significantly less median intraoperative blood loss in the RF+ group (300 vs 400 mL, P = 0.01). On postoperative days (POD) 1 and 5, median alanine aminotransferase was significantly higher in the RF+ group than in the RF- group (POD 1: 348.5 vs 245.5, P = 0.01; POD 5: 112 vs 82.5, P = 0.00), but there was no significant difference between the two groups on POD 3 (260 vs 220, P = 0.24). The median AST was significantly higher in the RF+ group on POD 1 (446 vs 268, P = 0.00), but there was no significant difference between the two groups on POD 3 and 5 (POD 3: 129.5 vs 125, P = 0.65; POD 5: 52.5 vs 50, P = 0.10). Overall, the rate of postoperative complications was roughly the same in these two groups (28.0% vs 17.7%, P = 0.11) except that post hepatectomy liver failure was far more common in the RF+ group than in the RF- group (6% vs 0%, P = 0.04).
CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency-assisted hepatectomy can reduce intraoperative blood loss during liver resection effectively. However, this method should be used with caution in patients with concomitant cirrhosis because it may cause severe liver damage and liver failure.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i35.10159
PMCID: PMC4572796  PMID: 26401080
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Blood loss; Radiofrequency-assisted hepatectomy; Complications; Cirrhosis
15.  Accelerated one-step generation of full-color holographic videos using a color-tunable novel-look-up-table method for holographic three-dimensional television broadcasting 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:14056.
A color-tunable novel-look-up-table (CT-NLUT) for fast one-step calculation of full-color computer-generated holograms is proposed. The proposed method is composed of four principal fringe patterns (PFPs) such as a baseline, a depth-compensating and two color-compensating PFPs. CGH patterns for one color are calculated by combined use of baseline-PFP and depth-compensating-PFP and from them, those for two other colors are generated by being multiplied by the corresponding color-compensating-PFPs. color-compensating-PFPs compensate for differences in the wavelength between two colors based on their unique achromatic thin-lens properties, enabling transformation of one-color CGH pattern into those for other colors. This color-conversion property of the proposed method enables simultaneous generation of full color-CGH patterns, resulting in a significant reduction of the full color-CGH calculation time. Experimental results with test scenario show that the full color-CGH calculation time of the proposed CT-NLUT has been reduced by 45.10%, compared to the conventional NLUT. It has been further reduced by 96.01% when a data compression algorithm, called temporal redundancy-based NLUT, was used together, which means 25-fold reduction of its full color-CGH calculation time. Successful computational and optical reconstructions of full color-CGH patterns confirm the feasibility of the proposed method.
doi:10.1038/srep14056
PMCID: PMC4566101  PMID: 26358334
16.  Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(5):3163-3170.
The present study aimed to evaluate any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC). The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were measured in 45 healthy control individuals and 90 untreated patients with PC, who consisted of 20 normotensive patients, 30 borderline hypertensive patients and 40 hypertensive patients. After 4 weeks of effective antihypertensive therapy for hypertensive PC patients, the concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were measured again, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was then performed for all PC patients with values that were measured 2 weeks later. The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive and hypertensive patients compared with the concentrations in control individuals and normotensive patients. In addition, there were significant differences between the levels of ADM, ANP and BNP in the borderline and hypertensive groups. The plasma ADM concentration was not associated with the blood urea nitrogen levels, serum creatinine levels or glomerular filtration rate, but was correlated with the serum epinephrine, serum norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid levels. In addition, the ADM concentration was associated with the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP in the hypertensive patients with PC. After 4 weeks of antihypertensive treatment, the values of the three peptides in the hypertensive patients with PC were not significantly changed. As expected, the values in borderline and hypertensive groups were significantly decreased 2 weeks subsequent to surgery, whereas there were no significant changes in the normotensive group. ADM may participate, along with ANP and BNP, in the mechanisms that counteract further elevation of blood pressure in patients with PC, and there may be an ADM/catecholamine local regulatory mechanism that is important for the control of adrenal medulla functions.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3660
PMCID: PMC4665925  PMID: 26722306
adrenomedullin; atrial natriuretic peptide; brain natriuretic peptide; adrenal; pheochromocytoma
17.  Endobronchial valve to treat large bulla at right middle lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2015;7(9):E374-E377.
We have used endobronchial valve (EBV) to treat large bulla at right middle lobe (RML) on three chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and presented the clinical datum of three COPD patients with RML bulla. The improvement of lung function was significant on two patients, whose lung parenchyma was preserved well in lobes other than RML. On one patient, whose lung function did not show improvement after EBV treatment, the parenchyma of bilateral lungs was destructed heavily by chronic inflammation of COPD, and the RML bulla did not collapse because right major and/or minor fissures are incomplete. EBV may be used to treat large RML bulla in selected patients, whose parenchyma of other parts of the lung was conserved well and right major and minor fissures are complete.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.09.33
PMCID: PMC4598498  PMID: 26623141
Endobronchial valve (EBV); bulla; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
18.  Tumor necrosis factor-α gene 308G/A polymorphism is not associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kazakh patients 
Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignant tumor with a strong tendency toward familial aggregation and a higher incidence as well as mortality in Kazakh population. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important inflammatory cytokine that plays a role in controlling the progression of lung cancer, hepatocellular cancer, breast cancer and gastric cancer. But the association between TNF-α-308G/A and ESCC still remains unclarified. Materials and Methods: Here, we investigated the potential associations between the TNF-α-308G/A and susceptibility to ESCC in 212 cases and 200 controls from a pure ethnic population of Kazakh. DNA extraction and Real-time PCR were performed to detect the TNF-α-308G/A expression levels and odd ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were to evaluate their association with TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism. Results: We found that the frequencies of TNF-α-308G/A in the cases were similar to that of the controls with no differences being statistically significant (χ2=1.23, P>0.05). Using the G allele as the reference genotype, individuals who carried A allele had a significantly increased risk of developing ESCC (OR=2.64, 95% CI=1.31~5.35). Especially, the G/A+A/A genotype are associated with increased risk of metastatic as compared with GG genotype individuals (OR=2.08, 95% CI=1.14-3.80, P=0.02). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that though the TNF-α-308G/A polymorphism may not be correlated with the susceptibility to Kazakh’s ESCC in Xinjiang, patients who carry A allele tend to poorly differentiated and lymph node metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4583911  PMID: 26464679
Tumor necrosis factor; gene polymorphism; esophageal cancer; Kazakh
19.  Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:12493.
Published data on the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to more accurately assess its prognostic value. The analysis was performed based on the data from 14 studies with 3,656 patients to estimate the correlation between NLR and overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in NSCLC. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the effect. We also conducted subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis. The results demonstrated that elevated pretreatment NLR predicted poorer OS (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.39–2.09) and PFS (HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27–2.09) in patients with NSCLC. Subgroup analysis indicated that cut-off value of 5 showed consistently prognostic value. There was no significant heterogeneity or publication bias for OS and PFS for included studies. This meta-analysis revealed that elevated pretreatment NLR might be a predicative factor of poor prognosis for NSCLC patients.
doi:10.1038/srep12493
PMCID: PMC4513342  PMID: 26205001
20.  Subcutaneous Versus Submuscular Anterior Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome 
Medicine  2015;94(29):e1207.
Abstract
Subcutaneous and submuscular anterior ulnar nerve transposition have been widely used in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. However, the reliable evidence in favor of 1 of 2 surgical options on clinical improvement remains controversial.
To maximize the value of the available literature, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare subcutaneous versus submuscular anterior ulnar nerve transposition in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.
PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched for randomized and observational studies that compared subcutaneous transposition with submuscular transposition of ulnar nerve for cubital tunnel syndrome. The primary outcome was clinically relevant improvement in function compared to the baseline. Randomized and observational studies were separately analyzed with relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 observational studies, involving 605 patients, were included. Our meta-analysis suggested that no significant differences in the primary outcomes were observed between comparison groups, both in RCT (RR, 1.16; 95% CI 0.68–1.98; P = 0.60; I2 = 81%) and observational studies (RR, 1.01; 95% CI 0.95–1.08; P = 0.69; I2 = 0%). These findings were also consistent with all subgroup analyses for observational studies. In the secondary outcomes, the incidence of adverse events was significantly lower in subcutaneous group than in submuscular group (RR, 0.54; 95% CI 0.33–0.87; P = 0.01; I2 = 0%), whereas subcutaneous transposition failed to reveal more superiority than submuscular transposition in static two-point discrimination (MD, 0.04; 95% CI −0.18–0.25; P = 0.74; I2 = 0%).
The available evidence is not adequately powered to identify the best anterior ulnar nerve transposition technique for cubital tunnel syndrome on the basis of clinical outcomes, that is, suggests that subcutaneous and submuscular anterior transposition might be equally effective in terms of postoperative clinical improvement. However, differences in clinical outcomes metrics should be noted, and these findings largely rely on the outcomes data from observational studies that are potentially subject to a high risk of selection bias. Therefore, more high-quality and adequately powered RCTs with standardized clinical outcomes metrics are necessary for proper comparison of these techniques.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001207
PMCID: PMC4602994  PMID: 26200640
21.  In situ pressurized biphase acid hydrolysis, a promising approach to produce bioactive diosgenin from the tubers of Dioscorea Zingiberensis 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2015;11(43):636-642.
Background:
The tubers of Dioscorea zingiberensis, is the most favorable plant material for the production of diosgenin, an important bioactive steroidal sapogenin and requisite precursor of cortin, contraceptive and sex hormone, which is the only desired product after steroidal saponins from the tubers are hydrolyzed.
Objective:
A novel technology, in situ pressurized biphase acid hydrolysis was constructed for the first time to simplify extraction process, increase extraction yield and decrease the consumption of mineral acids.
Materials and Methods:
The method developed in this study has been optimized and verified through orthogonal design for experiments, in which the effect and their significance of four factors including molarity of acid, temperature, extraction duration and sample quantity have been investigated. Then, the comparison was conducted among the newly developed method and other reported methods. The diosgenin was also isolated by column chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis for structural confirmation.
Results:
It was found that temperature is the factor of the most influence and the highest extraction yield at 2.21% has been achieved while the hydrolysis was performed at 140°C for 1.5 h in 0.20M H2SO4 solution with petroleum ether under an uncontrolled pressurized condition. And, compared to the others, the increment in the extraction yield of new method was 20.8 ~ 74.0%, and the consumption of H2SO4 was reduced by 17 times at most.
Conclusion:
This method is a much cleaner and more efficient approach for extraction of diosgenin from the tubers, and is promising to be applied in pharmaceutical industry.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.160472
PMCID: PMC4522854  PMID: 26246743
Dioscorea zingiberensis; diosgenin; in situ pressurized biphase acid hydrolysis; reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography
22.  Anterior Subcutaneous versus Submuscular Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0130843.
Objective
To pool reliable evidences for the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome by comparing the clinical efficacy of subcutaneous and submuscular anterior ulnar nerve transposition.
Methods
A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, OVID AMED, EBSCO and potentially relevant surgical archives. Risk of bias of each included studies was evaluated according to Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the clinical improvement in function compared to baseline. Heterogeneity was assessed across studies, and subgroup analysis was also performed based on the study type and follow-up duration.
Results
Three studies with a total of 352 participants were identified, and the clinically relevant improvement was used as the primary outcomes. Our meta-analysis revealed that no significant difference was observed between two comparison groups in terms of postoperative clinical improvement in those studies (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.25, P = 0.72). Meanwhile, subgroup analyses by study type and follow-up duration revealed the consistent results with the overall estimate. Additionally, the pre- and postoperative motor nerve conduction velocities were reported in two studies with a total of 326 patients, but we could not perform a meta-analysis because of the lack of concrete numerical value in one study. The quality of evidence for clinical improvement was ‘low’ or ‘moderate’ on the basis of GRADE approach.
Conclusions
Based on small numbers of studies with relatively poor methodological quality, the limited evidence is insufficient to identify the optimum anterior transposition technique in the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. The results of the present study suggest that anterior subcutaneous and submuscular transposition might be equally effective in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Therefore, more high-quality randomized controlled trials with standardized clinical improvement metrics are required to further clarify this topic and to provide reproducible pre- and postoperative objective outcomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130843
PMCID: PMC4482721  PMID: 26114865
23.  Mitochondrial fission determines cisplatin sensitivity in tongue squamous cell carcinoma through the BRCA1–miR-593-5p–MFF axis 
Oncotarget  2015;6(17):14885-14904.
Cisplatin has been widely employed as a cornerstone chemotherapy treatment for a wide spectrum of solid neoplasms; increasing tumor responsiveness to cisplatin has been a topic of interest for the past 30 years. Strong evidence has indicated that mitochondrial fission participates in the regulation of apoptosis in many diseases; however, whether mitochondrial fission regulates cisplatin sensitivity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MFF mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) cells after cisplatin treatment and that miR-593-5p was downregulated in this process. miR-593-5p attenuated mitochondrial fission and cisplatin sensitivity by targeting the 3′ untranslated region sequence of MFF and inhibiting its translation. In exploring the underlying mechanism of miR-593-5p downregulation, we observed that BRCA1 transactivated miR-593-5p expression and attenuated cisplatin sensitivity in vitro. The BRCA1-miR-593-5p-MFF axis also affected cisplatin sensitivity in vivo. Importantly, in a retrospective analysis of multiple centers, we further found that the BRCA1-miR-593-5p-MFF axis was significantly associated with cisplatin sensitivity and the survival of patients with TSCC. Together, our data reveal a model for mitochondrial fission regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels; we also reveal a new pathway for BRCA1 in determining cisplatin sensitivity through the mitochondrial fission program.
PMCID: PMC4558123  PMID: 25912308
mitochondrial fission; cisplatin sensitivity; BRCA1; miR-593-5p; MFF
24.  Interleukin-8 -251A/T gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis 
Many studies have examined the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A (rs4073) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk in various populations, but the results have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, PubMed was searched for case–control studies published through 01 December 2013. The data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We assessed six published studies on the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A polymorphism and lung cancer risk. The included studies yielded a total of 3265 lung cancer cases and 3607 controls. For the homozygous A/A and A allele carriers (T/A + A/A), the pooled ORs for all studies combining 3265 cases and 3607 controls were 1.03 (95% CI = 0.92–1.14; P = 0.235 for heterogeneity) and 1.07 (95% CI = 0.96–1.19; P = 0.245 for heterogeneity) when compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (T/T). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, significant risks were found among Asians for both the A allele carriers and the homozygous A/A individuals. However, no significant associations were found in non-Asian populations using any of the genetic models. This meta-analysis suggests that the interleukin-8 -251A allele confer an increased risk for the development of lung cancer among Asians.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12466
PMCID: PMC4459837  PMID: 25817779
Interleukin-8; polymorphism; lung cancer; susceptibility; meta-analysis
25.  Multi-stage resection and repair for the treatment of adult giant sacrococcygeal teratoma: A case report and literature review 
Oncology Letters  2015;10(1):425-429.
Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a sacrococcygeal neoplasm derived from more than one primitive germ layer and is only occasionally encountered in adults. The primary treatment for all primary SCTs is surgical excision. The present study reports the case of a giant SCT in a middle-aged female with a history lasting >3 decades. Multi-staged surgical treatment was performed, including ileostomy plus tumor excision, four debridement plus flap repair procedures, and closure of the ileostomy. Follow-up showed improved quality of life without evidence of local recurrence after resection. The study also presents a brief overview of the relevant literature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of multi-staged surgical treatment for giant SCT in an adult patient.
doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3249
PMCID: PMC4487105  PMID: 26171044
sacrococcygeal teratoma; presacral tumor; presacral teratoma; teratoma; adult

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