Intrahepatic cell-derived, early IL-17 is important for activating antigen-presenting cells in viral infection; however, the source and regulation of this IL-17 surge in the liver microenvironment are not well defined. Here, we present evidence for a significant expansion of IL-17A/F-producing cells in mouse liver within 24 h of adenovirus (Ad) infection. In addition to λδ T cells, a subset of IL-17A/F+ cells expressed no myeloid or lymphoid lineage markers. Instead, they expressed high levels of stem cell markers, IL-7 receptor and RORλt, consistent with the newly described innate lymphoid cells. Based on their unique surface markers and cytokine profiles, these cells were confirmed as group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). In addition to Ad infection, ILC3s were also found in mouse liver within 24 h of LCMV infection. They contributed significantly to the establishment of the early cytokine milieu in virus-infected liver. Functional studies with mice deficient of IL-17 receptor, IL-17A, and IL-17F further revealed that IL-17 signaling was critical for priming T cell responses in viral hepatitis. IL-17A repressed IL-17F secretion in vitro and in vivo; IL-17F+ intrahepatic cells expanded more vigorously in IL-17A knockout animals, permitting efficient antigen-presentation and T cell function. However, IL-17F neither inhibited IL-17A in vitro, nor regulated its secretion in vivo. Together, this study has demonstrated the importance of a unique intrahepatic subpopulation and subsequent IL-17A/F regulation at initial stages of viral infection in the liver. These results have important implications for anti-cytokine biologic therapy and vaccine development.
Background and aim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine related with cell proliferation and survival; however, its role in viral hepatitis is not elucidated. In this study we studied HGF immune role in viral hepatitis.
Mice received hydrodynamically-delivered HGF plasmid or control plasmid, and then infected with adenovirus (Ad); and parameters of immune-mediated liver damage were evaluated. We studied dendritic cell (DC) activation in the presence of HGF. T cells collected from infected mice were re-stimulated with virally-infected DC to measure cytokine production in vitro.
HGF ameliorated the liver inflammation during viral hepatitis, as alanine transferase (ALT), intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHL) and splenocyte counts were diminished by HGF. Lower histological scores of liver pathology were observed in the HGF group. DC from the HGF group expressed reduced CD40. The hepatic expression and serum concentration of IL-12p40 were diminished in HGF-transfected mice. In vitro experiments with DC confirmed that HGF diminished CD40 expression and IL-12p40 production. The expression and serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-6 and CXCL9 were significantly decreased in the HGF group. HGF over-expression diminished the expression and concentration of IL-10 and TGF-β. The frequency of PD-1+Tim-3+ in CD8 T cells was decreased by HGF over-expression. Moreover, T cells in the HGF group at day 14 secreted more IFN-γ and TNF-α than those in the control group, when re-stimulated with virally-infected DC.
HGF modulated DC activation and T cell priming, thereby limiting the immune-mediated damage in the liver. However, viral clearance was not compromised by HGF.
Hepatocyte growth factor; viral hepatitis; dendritic cells; T cell inhibition
Chronic inflammation is a key factor contributing to the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The goals of the current study were to develop an improved mouse model with retinal pathologic features similar to those of AMD and to characterize the immunoreactive cells in the outer retina and choroid during degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
Mice deficient in nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) at 12 months of age were fed a high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet for up to 16 weeks. Ocular phenotype was monitored by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) in live animals, and was further validated by retinal histopathology. Immunofluorescence staining of either cryosections or RPE flat mounts was used to define immunoreactive cells. Flow cytometry analyses were further performed to define the subsets of intraocular T lymphocytes.
After 16 weeks on a high-fat (HF) diet, 58% of the eyes from Nrf2−/− mice had progression of retinal lesions. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)-positive microglia, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), and CD3+ IL-17-producing T cells were detected in either the retina or sub-RPE space. Flow cytometry analyses further revealed that most of the IL-17-producing cells were CD3+ CD4− TCRγδ+ cells.
The results suggest that the T cell-mediated immune responses played important roles in controlling the progression of AMD-like phenotype in Nrf2-deficient mice.
γδ T lymphocytes infiltrated in degenerating RPE and produced IL-17.
age-related macular degeneration; IL-17; inflammation; T lymphocyte
Commensal flora plays an important role in the development of the mucosal immune system and in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. However, the mechanisms involved in regulation of host-microbiota interaction are still not completely understood. In this study, we examined how microbiota and intestinal inflammatory conditions regulate host microRNA expression and observed lower microRNA-107 (miR-107) expression in the inflamed intestines of colitic mice, compared with that in normal control mice. miR-107 was predominantly reduced in epithelial cells and CD11c+ myeloid cells including dendritic cells and macrophages in the inflamed intestines. We demonstrate that IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α downregulated, whereas TGF-β promoted, miR-107 expression. In addition, miR-107 expression was higher in the intestines of germ-free mice than in mice housed under specific pathogen-free conditions, and the presence of microbiota downregulated miR-107 expression in DCs and macrophages in a MyD88- and NF-κB-dependent manner. We determined that the ectopic expression of miR-107 specifically repressed the expression of IL-23p19, a key molecule in innate immune responses to commensal bacteria. We concluded that regulation of miR-107 by intestinal microbiota and pro-inflammatory cytokine serve as an important pathway for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.
IL-23p19; Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); microRNAs; miR-107; Toll-like Receptor (TLR); colitis; DC; Microbiota
Scrub typhus is a neglected, but important, tropical disease, which puts one-third of the world's population at risk. The disease is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligately intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. Dysregulation in immune responses is known to contribute to disease pathogenesis; however, the nature and molecular basis of immune alterations are poorly defined. This study made use of a newly developed murine model of severe scrub typhus and focused on innate regulators and vascular growth factors in O. tsutsugamushi-infected liver, lungs and spleen. We found no activation or even reduction in base-line expression for multiple molecules (IL-7, IL-4, IL-13, GATA3, ROR-γt, and CXCL12) at 2, 6 and 10 days post-infection. This selective impairment in type 2-related immune responses correlated with a significant activation of the genes for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, as well as CXCR3- and CXCR1-related chemokines in inflamed tissues. The elevated angiopoietin (Ang)-2 expression and Ang-2/Ang-1 ratios suggested excessive inflammation and the loss of endothelial integrity. These alterations, together with extensive recruitment of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-expressing neutrophils and the influx of CD3+ T cells, contributed to acute tissue damage and animal death. This is the first report of selective alterations in a panel of immune regulators during early O. tsutsugamushi infection in intravenously inoculated C57BL/6 mice. Our findings shed new light on the pathogenic mechanisms associated with severe scrub typhus and suggest potential targets for therapeutic investigation.
Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease, often displayed as severe acute febrile illness. It is caused by infection with O. tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Every year, approximately one million people are infected globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Mechanistic studies of host immune responses are limited, partially due to the limited availability of suitable animal models and research facilities. We demonstrated here selective suppression in innate immune regulators, but activation of inflammatory cytokines, during the first few days of O. tsutsugamushi infection in mice. Importantly, these immune alterations correlated with acute tissue damage, disease progression, and animal death. As the first report describing dysregulation in innate immune responses in a murine model of severe scrub typhus, this study improves our understanding of disease mechanisms and opens new avenues for the exploration of treatment options.
γδ T cells express several different toll-like receptor (TLR)s. The role of MyD88- dependent TLR signaling in TCR activation of murine γδ T cells is incompletely defined. Here, we report that Pam3CSK4 (PAM, TLR2 agonist) and CL097 (TLR7 agonist), but not lipopolysaccharide (TLR4 agonist), increased CD69 expression and Th1-type cytokine production upon anti-CD3 stimulation of γδ T cells from young adult mice (6-to 10-week-old). However, these agonists alone did not induce γδ T cell activation. Additionally, we noted that neither PAM nor CL097 synergized with anti-CD3 in inducing CD69 expression on γδ T cells of aged mice (21-to 22-month-old). Compared to young γδ T cells, PAM and CL097 increased Th-1 type cytokine production with a lower magnitude from anti-CD3- stimulated, aged γδ T cells. Vγ1+ and Vγ4+ cells are two subpopulations of splenic γδ T cells. PAM had similar effects in anti-CD3-activated control and Vγ4+ subset- depleted γδ T cells; whereas CL097 induced more IFN-γ production from Vγ4+ subset-depleted γδ T cells than from the control group. Finally, we studied the role of MyD88-dependent TLRs in γδ T cell activation during West Nile virus (WNV) infection. γδ T cell, in particular, Vγ1+ subset expansion was significantly reduced in both MyD88- and TLR7- deficient mice. Treatment with TLR7 agonist induced more Vγ1+ cell expansion in wild-type mice during WNV infection. In summary, these results suggest that MyD88-dependent TLRs provide co-stimulatory signals during TCR activation of γδ T cells and these have differential effects on distinct subsets.
Type I IFNs exert diverse effector and regulatory functions in host immunity to viral and nonviral infections; however, the role of endogenous type I IFNs in leishmaniasis is unclear. We found that type I IFNR-deficient (IFNAR−/−) mice developed attenuated lesions and reduced Ag-specific immune responses following infection with Leishmania amazonensis parasites. The marked reduction in tissue parasites, even at 3 d in IFNAR−/− mice, seemed to be indicative of an enhanced innate immunity. Further mechanistic analyses indicated distinct roles for neutrophils in parasite clearance; IFNAR−/− mice displayed a rapid and sustained infiltration of neutrophils, but a limited recruitment of CD11b+Ly-6C+ inflammatory monocytes, into inflamed tissues; interactions between IFNAR−/−, but not wild-type (WT) or STAT1−/−, neutrophils and macrophages greatly enhanced parasite killing in vitro; and infected IFNAR−/− neutrophils efficiently released granular enzymes and had elevated rates of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, although coinjection of parasites with WT neutrophils or adoptive transfer of WT neutrophils into IFNAR−/− recipients significantly enhanced infection, the coinjection of parasites with IFNAR−/− neutrophils greatly reduced parasite survival in WT recipients. Our findings reveal an important role for type I IFNs in regulating neutrophil/monocyte recruitment, neutrophil turnover, and Leishmania infection and provide new insight into innate immunity to protozoan parasites.
The outcomes of Leishmania infection are determined by host immune and nutrition status, parasite species, and co-infection with other pathogens. While subclinical infection and self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are common, uncontrolled parasite replication can lead to non-healing local lesions or visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is known that infection control requires Th1-differentiation cytokines (IL-12, IL-18, and IL-27) and Th1 cell and macrophage activation. However, there is no generalized consensus for the mechanisms of host susceptibility. The recent studies on regulatory T cells and IL-17-producing cells help explain the effector T cell responses that occur independently of the known Th1/Th2 cell signaling pathways. This review focuses on the immunopathogenesis of non-healing American CL and progressive VL. We summarize recent evidence from human and animal studies that reveals the mechanisms of dysregulated, hyper-responses to Leishmania braziliensis, as well as the presence of disease-promoting or the absence of protective responses to Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. We highlight immune-mediated parasite growth and immunopathogenesis, with an emphasis on the putative roles of IL-17 and its related cytokines as well as arginase. A better understanding of the quality and regulation of innate immunity and T cell responses triggered by Leishmania will aid in the rational control of pathology and the infection.
Pathogenesis; Immune regulation; Leishmania; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Visceral leishmaniasis
Professional phagocytes generate a myriad of antimicrobial molecules to kill invading microorganisms, of which nitrogen oxides are integral in controlling the obligate intracellular pathogen Leishmania. Although reactive nitrogen species produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) can promote the clearance of intracellular parasites, some Leishmania species/stages are relatively resistant to iNOS-mediated antimicrobial activity. The underlying mechanism for this resistance remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that the amastigote form of L. amazonensis is hyper-resistant to the antimicrobial actions of cytokine-activated murine and human macrophages as compared to its promastigote counterpart. Amastigotes exhibit a marked ability to directly counter the cytotoxicity of peroxynitrite (ONOO−), a leishmanicidal oxidant that is generated during infection through the combined enzymatic activities of NADPH oxidase and iNOS. The enhanced antinitrosative defense of amastigotes correlates with the increased expression of a tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) isoform that is also upregulated in response to iNOS enzymatic activity within infected macrophages. Accordingly, ectopic over-expression of the TXNPx isoform by L. amazonensis promastigotes significantly enhances parasite resistance against ONOO− cytotoxicity. Moreover, TXNPx-overexpressing parasites exhibit greater intra-macrophage survival, and increased parasite growth and lesion development in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Our investigations indicate that TXNPx isoforms contribute to Leishmania's ability to adapt to and antagonize the hostile microenvironment of cytokine-activated macrophages, and provide a mechanistic explanation for persistent infection in experimental and human leishmaniasis.
Pathogens of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although it is well accepted that host-derived leishmanicidal molecules mediate resolution of Leishmania infection, some Leishmania species/stages are relatively resistant to host cell antimicrobial activity. These intracellular pathogens have developed evasive strategies to subvert host antimicrobials, and promote pathogen survival within the harsh intracellular environment. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that L. amazonensis, an agent of persistent infection in humans and non-healing skin lesions in mice, antagonize macrophage antimicrobial activity. The superb ability of the amastigote form to survive within host cells is related to its increased expression of a tryparedoxin peroxidase isoform that confers resistance to the cytotoxicity of host-derived antimicrobial molecules. Parasites induce higher expression of the TXNPx in response to iNOS activity during infection of macrophages, indicating that parasites can “sense” the microenvironment of host cells and regulate the expression of relevant virulence factors accordingly. Our investigations are consistent with a model by which Leishmania amastigotes utilize TXNPx to defend against host-derived molecules thereby promoting their intracellular survival and persistent infection.
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25×106 focus (FFU) forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection.
Scrub typhus is a disease found in Southeast Asia that infects over 1 million people each year. This disease is caused by the intracellular pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi transmitted by the bite of chigger mites. Scrub typhus is characterized by pulmonary disease and in severe cases, multiorgan system failure. The current research model utilizes an intraperitoneal route of inoculation of mice to study the host response to Orientia infection. Infection via this route results in severe peritonitis that does not occur in human scrub typhus. The development of animal models that accurately portray human disease is an important step toward understanding and managing disease. In this manuscript we describe a new mouse model that results in scrub typhus-like pathology following intravenous inoculation of mice. This model presents dose-dependent mortality with scrub typhus-like pathology that parallels human disease. Utilization of this model will provide a valuable research tool for characterizing the immune response and pathogenesis induced by O. tsutsugamushi allowing development of better treatment and an effective vaccine.
Molecules containing damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) play an important role in many pathogenic processes. Our aim was to investigate the role of IL-33, a DAMP molecule, in adenovirus (Ad)-induced liver inflammation. Ad-infected mice exhibited a steadily increased IL-33 and its receptor ST2 expression in the liver during the first week of the infection. Treatment of exogenous IL-33 resulted in a great decrease in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and the number of Councilman bodies in the liver. Attenuated liver injury by IL-33 correlated with an increase in T regulatory (Treg) cells but with a decrease in macrophages, dendritic cells and NK cells in the liver. IL-33 enhanced both type 1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and type 2 (IL-5 and IL-13) immune responses in infected mice. However, IL-33 inhibited TNF-α expression in hepatic T cells and macrophages, and significantly reduced TNF-α levels in the liver. We found that in addition to its direct effects, IL-33 strongly induced novel nuocytes in the livers and spleens of infected mice. When co-cultured with nuocytes, hepatic T cells and macrophages expressed lower levels of TNF-α. The IL-33-treated mice also demonstrated a slight delay, but no significant impairment, in eliminating an intrahepatic infection with Ad. In conclusion, this study reveals that IL-33 acts as a potent immune stimulator and a hepatoprotective cytokine in acute viral hepatitis. Its direct immunoregulatory functions and ability to induce novel nuocytes further suggest to us that it may be a potentially promising therapeutic candidate for the management of viral hepatitis.
Neutrophils are the first cells to infiltrate to the site of Leishmania promastigote infection, and these cells help to reduce parasite burden shortly after infection is initiated. Several clinical reports indicate that neutrophil recruitment is sustained over the course of leishmaniasis, and amastigote-laden neutrophils have been isolated from chronically infected patients and experimentally infected animals. The goal of this study was to compare how thioglycolate-elicited murine neutrophils respond to L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes derived from axenic cultures or from the lesions of infected mice. Neutrophils efficiently internalized both amastigote and promastigote forms of the parasite, and phagocytosis was enhanced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated neutrophils or when parasites were opsonized in serum from infected mice. Parasite uptake resulted in neutrophil activation, oxidative burst, and accelerated neutrophil death. While promastigotes triggered the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), uptake of amastigotes preferentially resulted in the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) from neutrophils. Finally, the majority of promastigotes were killed by neutrophils, while axenic culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes were highly resistant to neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms. This study indicates that neutrophils exhibit distinct responses to promastigote and amastigote infection. Our findings have important implications for determining the impact of sustained neutrophil recruitment and amastigote-neutrophil interactions during the late phase of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Leishmania amazonensis parasites can cause diverse forms of leishmaniasis in humans and persistent lesions in most inbred strains of mice. In both cases, the infection is characterized by a marked immunosuppression of the host. We previously showed that amastigote forms of the parasite make use of surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules to infect host cells and promote alternative macrophage activation, leading to uncontrolled intracellular proliferation of the parasites. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of infected mice with an PS-targeting monoclonal antibody ameliorated parasite loads and lesion development, which correlated with increased proliferative responses by lymphocytes. In addition, we observed an enhanced dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation in vitro. Our data imply that the recognition of PS exposed on the surface of amastigotes plays a role in down-modulating DC functions, in a matter similar to that of apoptotic cell clearance. This study provides new information regarding the mechanism of immune suppression in Leishmania infection.
This study was conducted to examine the interactions among the innate and adaptive immune components of the liver parenchyma during acute viral hepatitis. Mice were i.v. infected with a recombinant adenovirus, and within the first 24 h of infection, we found a transient, but significant, accumulation of IL-17 and IL-23 in the liver. In vivo neutralization of these interleukins alleviated the liver injury. Further investigations showed that IL-17 neutralization halted the intrahepatic accumulation of CTL and Th1 cells. A majority of the IL-17-producing cells in the liver were γδ T cells. Additionally, intrahepatic IL-17+ γδ T cells, but not the IFN-γ+ ones, preferentially expressed IL-7Rα (CD127) on their surface, which coincided with an elevation of hepatocyte-derived IL-7 at 12 h post-infection. IL-7Rα blockade in vivo severely impeded the expansion of IL-17-producing cells following viral infection. In vitro, IL-7 synergized with IL-23 and directly stimulated IL-17 production from γδ T cells in response to TCRγδ stimulation. Finally, type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling was found to be critical for hepatic IL-7 induction. Collectively, these results showed that the IFN-I/IL-7/IL-17 cascade was important in priming T cell responses in the liver. Moreover, the highly coordinated cross talk among hepatocytes and innate and adaptive immune cells played a critical role in antiviral immunity in hepatitis.
Cystatin 9 (CST9) is a member of the type 2 cysteine protease inhibitor family, which has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects that restrain inflammation, but its functions against bacterial infections are unknown. Here, we report that purified human recombinant (r)CST9 protects against the deadly bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) in vitro and in vivo. Macrophages infected with the Ft human pathogen Schu 4 (S4), then given 50 pg of rCST9 exhibited significantly decreased intracellular bacterial replication and increased killing via preventing the escape of S4 from the phagosome. Further, rCST9 induced autophagy in macrophages via the regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. rCST9 promoted the upregulation of macrophage proteins involved in antiinflammation and antiapoptosis, while restraining proinflammatory-associated proteins. Interestingly, the viability and virulence of S4 also was decreased directly by rCST9. In a mouse model of Ft inhalation, rCST9 significantly decreased organ bacterial burden and improved survival, which was not accompanied by excessive cytokine secretion or subsequent immune cell migration. The current report is the first to show the immunomodulatory and antimicrobial functions of rCST9 against Ft. We hypothesize that the attenuation of inflammation by rCST9 may be exploited for therapeutic purposes during infection.
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed.
leishmania immunology; cytokines and leishmania; chemokines and leishmania; signal transduction in infection; interferon gamma and leishmania
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 130 million people worldwide. The clinical sequelae of this chronic disease include cirrhosis, functional failure and carcinoma of the liver. HCV induces autophagy, a fundamental cellular process for maintaining homeostasis and mediating innate immune response, and also inhibits autophagic protein degradation and suppresses antiviral immunity. In addition to this ploy, the HCV serine protease composed of the viral nonstructural proteins 3/4A (NS3/4A) can enzymatically digest two cellular proteins, mitochondria-associated antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adaptor inducing IFNβ (TRIF). Since these two proteins are the adaptor molecules in the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and TLR3 pathways, respectively, their cleavage has been suggested as a pivotal mechanism by which HCV blunts the IFNα/β signaling and antiviral responses. Thus far, how HCV perturbs autophagy and copes with IFNα/β in the liver remains unclear.
autophagy; hepatitis C virus; liver disease; NS3/4A protease; RIG-I; Type I interferon; TLR3; transgenic mouse
Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LF) in humans, a deadly disease endemic to West Africa that results in 5,000 to 10,000 deaths annually. Here we present results demonstrating that functional type I and type II interferon (IFN) signaling is required for efficient control of LASV dissemination and clearance.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease NS3/4A can cleave mitochondria-associated, anti-viral signaling protein (MAVS) and block retinoic acid-inducible gene I–mediated interferon (IFN) responses. Although this mechanism is thought to have an important role in HCV-mediated innate immunosuppression, its significance in viral persistence is not clear.
We generated transgenic mice that express the HCV NS3/4A proteins specifically in the liver and challenged the animals with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a synthetic HCV genome, IFN-α, or IFN-β. We evaluated the effects of HCV serine protease on the innate immune responses and their interactions.
Expression of HCV NS3/4A resulted in cleavage of intrahepatic MAVS; challenge of transgenic mice with VSV or a synthetic HCV genome induced strong, type I IFN-mediated responses that were not significantly lower than those of control mice. Different challenge agents induced production of different ratios of IFN-α and -β, resulting in different autophagic responses and vesicular trafficking patterns of endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated viral proteins. IFN-β promoted degradation of the viral proteins by the autolysosome. Variant isoforms of MAVS were associated with distinct, type I IFN-mediated autophagic responses; these responses have a role in trafficking of viral components to endosomal compartments that contain toll-like receptor -3.
IFN-β-mediates a distinct autophagic mechanism of anti-viral host defense. MAVS have an important role in type I IFN-induced autophagic trafficking of viral proteins.
Autophagy; TLR3; liver disease; RIG-I
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare clinical manifestation of leishmaniasis, characterized by an inefficient parasite-specific cellular response and heavily parasitized macrophages. In Brazil, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is the main species involved in DCL cases. In the experimental model, recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules exposed on the surface of amastigotes forms of L. amazonensis inhibits the inflammatory response of infected macrophages as a strategy to evade the host immune surveillance. In this study, we examined whether PS exposure on L. amazonensis isolates from DCL patients operated as a parasite pathogenic factor and as a putative suppression mechanism of immune response during the infection. Peritoneal macrophages from F1 mice (BALB/c×C57BL/6) were infected with different L. amazonensis isolates from patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) or DCL. DCL isolates showed higher PS exposure than their counterparts from LCL patients. In addition, PS exposure was positively correlated with clinical parameters of the human infection (number of lesions and time of disease) and with characteristics of the experimental infection (macrophage infection and anti-inflammatory cytokine induction). Furthermore, parasites isolated from DCL patients displayed an increased area in parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) when compared to those isolated from LCL patients. Thus, this study shows for the first time that a parasite factor (exposed PS) might be associated with parasite survival/persistence in macrophages and lesion exacerbation during the course of DCL, providing new insights regarding pathogenic mechanism in this rare chronic disease.
The healthy adult human liver expresses low levels of MHC II and undetectable levels of immune co-stimulatory molecules. However, high levels of MHC class II, CD40 and B7 family molecules are expressed in the activated Kupffer cells and hepatocytes of patients having viral hepatitis. The precise role of these molecules in viral clearance and immune-mediated liver injury is not well understood. We hypothesize that parenchymal CD40 expression enhances T-cell recruitment and effector functions, which may facilitate viral clearance and alleviate liver injury. To test this hypothesis, we generated novel, liver-specific, conditional CD40 transgenic mice, and challenged them i.v. with recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus carrying Cre recombinase (AdCre). Wild-type mice infected with AdCre developed a relatively mild course of viral hepatitis and recovered spontaneously. CD40 expression in the liver of transgenic animals, however, resulted in CD80 and CD86 expression. Dysregulation of population dynamics and effector functions of intrahepatic lymphocytes results in severe lymphocytic infiltration, apoptosis, necroinflammation, and serum alanine transferase (ALT) elevation in a dose-dependent fashion. To our surprise, an early expansion followed by a contraction of intrahepatic lymphocytes, especially CD8+ and NK cells, accompanied by increased granzyme B and IFN-γ production, did not lead to a faster viral clearance in CD40 transgenic mice. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that hepatic CD40 expression does not accelerate adenoviral clearance, but rather exacerbates liver injury. This study unveils a previously unknown deleterious effect of hepatic CD40 in adenovirus-induced liver inflammation.
liver; animal models; T lymphocytes and co-stimulation
Due to its strong immune stimulatory effects through TLR9, CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) have been tested in multiple clinical trials as vaccine adjuvant for infectious diseases and cancer. However, immune suppression induced by systemic administration of CpGs has been reported recently. In this study, we evaluated the impact of CpGs in an acute rickettsiosis model. We found that systemic treatment with type B CpG (CpG-B), but not type A CpG (CpG-A), at 2 days after sublethal R. australis infection induced mouse death. Although wild-type (WT) B6 and IDO−/− mice showed similar survival rates with three different doses of R. australis infection, treatment with CpG-B after sublethal infection consistently induced higher mortality with greater tissue bacterial loads in WT but not IDO−/− mice. Also, CpG-B treatment promoted the development of higher serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines through IDO. Furthermore, while T cell-mediated immune responses enhanced by CpG-B were independent of IDO, treatment with CpG-B promoted T cell activation, PD-1 expression and cell apoptosis partially through IDO. A depletion study using anti-mPDCA-1 mAb indicated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were not required for CpG-B-induced death of R. australis-infected mice. Additionally, the results in iNOS−/− mice suggested that nitric oxide (NO) was partially involved in CpG-B-induced death of R. australis-infected mice. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with CpG-B before administration of a lethal dose of R. australis provided effective immunity in WT, IDO−/− and iNOS−/− mice. Taken together, our study provides evidence that CpGs exert complex immunological effects by both IDO-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that systemic treatment with CpGs before or after infection has a significant and distinct impact on disease outcomes.
Leishmania parasites alternate between flagellated promastigotes in sand flies and nonflagellated amastigotes in mammals, causing a spectrum of serious diseases. To survive, they must resist the harsh conditions in phagocytes (including acidic pH, elevated temperature, and increased oxidative/nitrosative stress) and evade the immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of sphingolipid (SL) metabolism in Leishmania virulence. In particular, we have generated a Leishmania major iscl− mutant which is deficient in SL degradation but grows normally as promastigotes in culture. Importantly, iscl− mutants cannot induce pathology in either immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice yet are able to persist at low levels. In this study, we investigated how the degradation of SLs might contribute to Leishmania infection. First, unlike wild-type (WT) L. major, iscl− mutants do not trigger polarized T cell responses in mice. Second, like WT parasites, iscl− mutants possess the ability to downregulate macrophage activation by suppressing the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and nitric oxide. Third, during the stationary phase, iscl− promastigotes were extremely vulnerable to acidic pH but not to other adverse conditions, such as elevated temperature and oxidative/nitrosative stress. In addition, inhibition of phagosomal acidification significantly improved iscl− survival in murine macrophages. Together, these findings indicate that SL degradation by Leishmania is essential for its adaption to the acidic environment in phagolysosomes but is not required for the suppression of host cell activation. Finally, our studies with iscl− mutant-infected mice suggest that having viable, persistent parasites is not sufficient to provide immunity against virulent Leishmania challenge.
Infection with Leishmania amazonensis and other members of the Leishmania mexicana complex can lead to diverse clinical manifestations, some of which are relatively difficult to control, even with standard chemotherapy. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rare but severe form, and its clinical hallmark is excessive parasitic growth in infected cells accompanied by profound impairments in host immune responses to the parasites. Since these parasites also cause non-healing CL in most inbred strains of mice, these animals are valuable models for dissecting the mechanisms of persistent infection and disease pathogenesis. In comparison to other Leishmania species, L. amazonensis infections are most remarkable for their ability to repress the activation and effector functions of macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells, implying discrete mechanisms at work. In addition to this multilateral suppression of host innate and adaptive immunity, the activation of types I and II interferon-mediated responses and autophagic/lipid metabolic pathways actually promotes rather than restrains L. amazonensis infection. These seemingly contradictory findings reflect the remarkable adaptation of the parasites to the ancient defense machinery of the host, as well as the complex parasite–host interactions at different stages of infection, which collectively contribute to non-healing leishmaniasis in the New World. This review article highlights new evidence that reveals the strategies utilized by L. amazonensis parasites to subvert or modulate host innate defense machinery in neutrophils and macrophages, as well as the regulatory roles of host innate responses in promoting parasite survival and replication within the huge parasitophorous vacuoles. A better understanding of unique features in host responses to these parasites at early and late stages of infection is important for the rational design of control strategies for non-healing leishmaniasis.
Leishmania amazonensis; innate immunity; parasite adaptation; immunopathogenesis
Recent studies have shown that histone proteins can act as antimicrobial peptides in host defense against extracellular bacteria, fungi, and Leishmania promastigotes. In this study, we used human recombinant histone proteins to further study their leishmaniacidal effects and the underlying mechanisms. We found that the histones H2A and H2B (but not H10) could directly and efficiently kill promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, L. major, L. braziliensis, and L. mexicana in a treatment dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface disruption of histone-treated promastigotes. More importantly, the preexposure of promastigotes to histone proteins markedly decreased the infectivity of promastigotes to murine macrophages (Mφs) in vitro. However, axenic and lesion-derived amastigotes of L. amazonensis and L. mexicana were relatively resistant to histone treatment, which correlated with the low levels of intracellular H2A in treated amastigotes. To understand the mechanisms underlying these differential responses, we investigated the role of promastigote surface molecules in histone-mediated killing. Compared with the corresponding controls, transgenic L. amazonensis promastigotes expressing lower levels of surface gp63 proteins were more susceptible to histone H2A, while L. major and L. mexicana promastigotes with targeted deletion of the lipophosphoglycan 2 (lpg2) gene (but not the lpg1 gene) were more resistant to histone H2A. We discuss the influence of promastigote major surface molecules in the leishmaniacidal effect of histone proteins. This study provides new information on host innate immunity to different developmental stages of Leishmania parasites.