The AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP following stresses such as nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. In the past five years, work from a large number of laboratories has revealed that one of the major downstream signaling pathways regulated by AMPK is the mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR pathway). Interestingly, like AMPK, the mTOR serine/threonine kinase plays key roles not only in growth control and cell proliferation but also in metabolism. Recent work has revealed that across eukaryotes mTOR orthologs are found in two biochemically distinct complexes and only one of those complexes (mTORC1 in mammals) is acutely sensitive to rapamycin and regulated by nutrients and AMPK. Many details of the molecular mechanism by which AMPK inhibits mTORC1 signaling have also been decoded in the past 5 years. AMPK directly phosphorylates at least two proteins to induce rapid suppression of mTORC1 activity, the TSC2 tumor suppressor and the critical mTORC1 binding subunit raptor. Here we explore the molecular connections between AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways and examine the physiological processes in which AMPK regulation of mTOR is critical for growth or metabolic control. The functional conservation of AMPK and TOR in all eukaryotes, and the sequence conservation around the AMPK phosphorylation sites in raptor across all eukaryotes examined suggest that this represents a fundamental cell growth module connecting nutrient status to the cell growth machinery. These findings have broad implications for the control of cell growth by nutrients in a number of cellular and organismal contexts.
LKB1; AMPK; mTOR; raptor; TSC2; metabolism; checkpoint
In the past decade, studies of the human tumor suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signaling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose, a function that has made it a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumor suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway with established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer.
AMPK is a highly conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP. AMPK responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, in part through its inhibition of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR (mTORC1) pathway. AMPK phosphorylation of the TSC2 tumor suppressor contributes to suppression of mTORC1, however TSC2-deficient cells remain responsive to energy stress. Using a proteomic and bioinformatics approach, we sought to identify additional substrates of AMPK that mediate its effects on growth control. We report here that AMPK directly phosphorylates the mTOR binding partner raptor on two well-conserved serine residues, and this phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 binding to raptor. The phosphorylation of raptor by AMPK is required for the inhibition of mTORC1 and cell cycle arrest induced by energy stress. These findings uncover a novel conserved effector of AMPK that mediates its role as a metabolic checkpoint coordinating cell growth with energy status.
Lung cancer is one of the leading cancer malignancies with a five-year survival rate of only ~15%. We have developed a lentiviral vector mediated mouse model which allows generation of non-small cell lung cancer from less than one hundred alveolar epithelial cells, and investigated the role of IKK2 and NF-κB in lung cancer development. IKK2 depletion in tumour cells significantly attenuated tumour proliferation and significantly prolonged mouse survival. We identified Timp-1, one of the NF-κB target genes, as a key mediator for tumour growth. Activation of Erk signalling pathway and cell proliferation requires Timp-1 and its receptor CD63. Knockdown of either IKK2 or Timp-1 by shRNAs reduced tumour growth in both xenograft and lentiviral models. Our results, thus suggest the possible application of IKK2 and Timp-1 inhibitors in treating lung cancer.
The serine/threonine kinase ULK1 is a mammalian homolog of Atg1, part of the Atg1 kinase complex, which is the most upstream component of the core autophagy machinery conserved from yeast to mammals. In budding yeast, activity of the Atg1 kinase complex is inhibited by TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1), but how the counterpart ULK1 complex in mammalian cells is regulated has been unknown. Our laboratories recently discovered that AMPK associates with, and directly phosphorylates, ULK1 on several sites and this modification is required for ULK1 activation after glucose deprivation. In contrast, when nutrients are plentiful, the mTORC1 complex phosphorylates ULK1, preventing its association and activation by AMPK. These studies have revealed a molecular mechanism of ULK1 regulation by nutrient signals via the actions of AMPK and mTORC1.
autophagy; ULK1; AMPK; mTOR; 14-3-3
Under fasting conditions, metazoans maintain energy balance by shifting from glucose to fat burning. In the fasted state, SIRT1 promotes catabolic gene expression by deacetylating the forkhead factor FOXO in response to stress and nutrient deprivation. The mechanisms by which hormonal signals regulate FOXO deacetylation remain unclear, however. We identified a hormone-dependent module, consisting of the Ser/Thr kinase SIK3 and the class IIa deacetylase HDAC4, which regulates FOXO activity in Drosophila. During feeding, HDAC4 is phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm by SIK3, whose activity is upregulated in response to insulin. SIK3 is inactivated during fasting, leading to the de-phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of HDAC4, and to FOXO deacetylation. SIK3 mutant flies are starvation-sensitive, reflecting FOXO-dependent increases in lipolysis that deplete triglyceride stores; reducing HDAC4 expression restored lipid accumulation. Our results reveal a hormone-regulated pathway that functions in parallel with the nutrient-sensing SIRT1 pathway to maintain energy balance.
AMPK has emerged as a critical mechanism for salutary effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolic disorders in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We demonstrate that AMPK interacts with and directly phosphorylates sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP-1c and −2). Ser372 phosphorylation of SREBP-1c by AMPK is sufficient and necessary for inhibition of proteolytic processing and transcriptional activity of SREBP-1c in response to polyphenols and metformin. AMPK stimulates Ser372 phosphorylation, suppresses SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation, and represses SREBP-1c target gene expression in hepatocytes exposed to high glucose, leading to reduced lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Hepatic activation of AMPK by the synthetic polyphenol S17834 protects against hepatic steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and accelerated atherosclerosis in diet-induced insulin resistant LDL receptor deficient mice in part through phosphorylation of SREBP-1c Ser372 and suppression of SREBP-1c and −2-dependent lipogenesis. AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of SREBP may offer novel therapeutic strategies to combat insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis.
One of the central regulators of cellular and organismal metabolism in eukaryotes is the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated when intracellular ATP levels lower. AMPK plays critical roles in regulating growth and reprogramming metabolism, and recently has been connected to cellular processes including autophagy and cell polarity. We review here a number of recent breakthroughs in the mechanistic understanding of AMPK function, focusing on a number of new identified downstream effectors of AMPK.
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.
In the past 5 years, a convergence of studies has resulted in a broad
appreciation in the cancer research community that reprogramming of cellular
metabolism may be more central to cancer than appreciated in the past 30 years.
The re-emergence of cancer metabolism stems in part from discoveries that a
number of common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes more directly control cell
metabolism than previously thought. In addition, a number of what would
previously have been called “card-carrying” metabolic enzymes have
been identified as human tumor suppressors or oncogenes, causally mutated in a
variety of human cancers. This growing appreciation of the role of altered cell
metabolism has led to further investigation into the rate-limiting proteins
involved in different aspects of the unique metabolism of tumor cells. Targeting
cancer metabolism with drugs requires a therapeutic window in which tumor cells,
compared to normal tissues, have a greater dependence on specific metabolic
enzymes. Themes that have emerged in the past decade of developing
oncogene-targeted cancer therapeutics suggest that tumors with distinct
oncogenic lesions are likely to require drugs that target distinct metabolic
pathways. Ultimately, the hope is that detailed knowledge of oncogene and tumor
suppressor gene functions and their effects on metabolism will lead to drug
combinations that will be far more effective in treating cancers.
Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are signal-dependent modulators of transcription with established roles in muscle differentiation and neuronal survival. We show here that in liver, Class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, and 7) are phosphorylated and excluded from the nucleus by AMPK family kinases. In response to the fasting hormone glucagon, Class IIa HDACs are rapidly dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus where they associate with the promoters of gluconeogenic enzymes such as G6Pase. In turn, HDAC4/5 recruit HDAC3, which results in the acute transcriptional induction of these genes via deacetylation and activation of Foxo family transcription factors. Loss of Class IIa HDACs in murine liver results in inhibition of FOXO target genes and lowers blood glucose, resulting in increased glycogen storage. Finally, suppression of Class IIa HDACs in mouse models of Type 2 Diabetes ameliorates hyperglycemia, suggesting that inhibitors of Class I/II HDACs may be potential therapeutics for metabolic syndrome.
Activating AMPK or inactivating calcineurin slows ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans1,2 and both have been implicated as therapeutic targets for age-related pathology in mammals3–5. However, the direct targets that mediate their effects on longevity remain unclear. In mammals, CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)6 are a family of cofactors involved in diverse physiological processes including energy homeostasis7–9, cancer10 and endoplasmic reticulum stress11. Here we show that both AMPK and calcineurin modulate longevity exclusively through post-translational modification of CRTC-1, the sole C. elegans CRTC. We demonstrate that CRTC-1 is a direct AMPK target, and interacts with the CREB homologue-1 (CRH-1) transcription factor in vivo. The pro-longevity effects of activating AMPK or deactivating calcineurin decrease CRTC-1 and CRH-1 activity and induce transcriptional responses similar to those of CRH-1 null worms. Downregulation of crtc-1 increases lifespan in a crh-1-dependent manner and directly reducing crh-1 expression increases longevity, substantiating a role for CRTCs and CREB in ageing. Together, these findings indicate a novel role for CRTCs and CREB in determining lifespan downstream of AMPK and calcineurin, and illustrate the molecular mechanisms by which an evolutionarily conserved pathway responds to low energy to increase longevity.
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved sensor of intracellular energy activated in response to low nutrient availability and environmental stress. In a screen for conserved substrates of AMPK, we identified ULK1 and ULK2, mammalian orthologs of the yeast protein kinase Atg1, which is required for autophagy. Genetic analysis of AMPK or ULK1 in mammalian liver and C. elegans revealed a requirement for these kinases in autophagy. In mammals, loss of AMPK or ULK1 resulted in aberrant accumulation of the autophagy adaptor p62 and defective mitophagy. Reconstitution of ULK1-deficient cells with a mutant ULK1 that cannot be phosphorylated by AMPK revealed that such phosphorylation is required for mitochondrial homeostasis and cell survival following starvation. These findings uncover a conserved biochemical mechanism coupling nutrient status with autophagy and cell survival.
The Peutz-Jegher syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase]. The deletion of LKB1 in the liver of adult mice resulted in a nearly complete loss of AMPK activity. Loss of LKB1 function resulted in hyperglycemia with increased gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression. In LKB1-deficient livers, TORC2, a transcriptional coactivator of CREB (cAMP response element–binding protein), was dephosphorylated and entered the nucleus, driving the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), which in turn drives gluconeogenesis. Adenoviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TORC2 reduced PGC-1α expression and normalized blood glucose levels in mice with deleted liver LKB1, indicating that TORC2 is a critical target of LKB1/AMPK signals in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Finally, we show that metformin, one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes therapeutics, requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels.
The appropriate control of mitotic entry and exit is reliant on a series of interlocking signaling events that coordinately drive the biological processes required for accurate cell division. Overlaid onto these signals that promote orchestrated cell division are checkpoints that ensure appropriate mitotic spindle formation, a lack of DNA damage, kinetochore attachment, and that each daughter cell has the appropriate complement of DNA. We recently discovered that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulates the G2/M phase of cell cycle progression in part through its suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. AMPK directly phosphorylates the critical mTOR binding partner raptor inhibiting mTORC1 (mTOR-raptor rapamycin sensitive mTOR kinase complex 1). As mTOR has been previously tied to mitotic control, we examined further how raptor may contribute to this process.
We have discovered that raptor becomes highly phosphorylated in cells in mitosis. Utilizing tandem mass spectrometry, we identified a number of novel phosphorylation sites in raptor, and using phospho-specific antibodies demonstrated that raptor becomes phosphorylated on phospho-serine/threonine-proline sites in mitosis. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis in a tagged raptor cDNA and analysis with a series of new phospho-specific antibodies generated against different sites in raptor revealed that Serine 696 and Threonine 706 represent two key sites in raptor phosphorylated in mitosis. We demonstrate that the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2/CDK1 is the kinase responsible for phosphorylating these sites, and its mitotic partner Cyclin B efficiently coimmunoprecipitates with raptor in mitotic cells.
This study demonstrates that the key mTOR binding partner raptor is directly phosphorylated during mitosis by cdc2. This reinforces previous studies suggesting that mTOR activity is highly regulated and important for mitotic progression, and points to a direct modulation of the mTORC1 complex during mitosis.
Circadian clocks coordinate behavioral and physiological processes with daily light-dark cycles by driving rhythmic transcription of thousands of genes. Whereas the master clock in the brain is set by light, pacemakers in peripheral organs, such as the liver, are reset by food availability, although the setting, or “entrainment,” mechanisms remain mysterious. Studying mouse fibroblasts, we demonstrated that the nutrient-responsive adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates and destabilizes the clock component cryptochrome 1 (CRY1). In mouse livers, AMPK activity and nuclear localization were rhythmic and inversely correlated with CRY1 nuclear protein abundance. Stimulation of AMPK destabilized cryptochromes and altered circadian rhythms, and mice in which the AMPK pathway was genetically disrupted showed alterations in peripheral clocks. Thus, phosphorylation by AMPK enables cryptochrome to transduce nutrient signals to circadian clocks in mammalian peripheral organs.
mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a highly conserved nutrient-responsive regulator of cell growth that is found in all eukaryotes. The mechanism by which amino acids signal to mTOR has remained one of the largest outstanding questions in the field. Two recent complimentary studies provide compelling evidence that the Rag family of small GTPases is both necessary and sufficient to transmit a positive signal from amino acids to mTOR.
The LKB1 serine/threonine kinase is a tumor suppressor responsible for the inherited familial cancer disorder Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and is inactivated in a large percentage of human lung cancers. LKB1 acts a master kinase, directly phosphorylating and activating a family of 14 AMPK-related kinases which control cell metabolism, cell growth, and cell polarity. In this issue of Biochemical Journal, Hardie and colleagues discover an alternative splice form of LKB1 that alters the C-terminus of the protein containing a few known sites of post-translational regulation. Though widely expressed, the short isoform (LKB1s) is the sole splice isoform expressed in testes and its expression peaks at the time of spermatid maturation. Male mice lacking the LKB1s isoform have dramatic defects in spermatozoa resulting in sterility.
LKB1; AMPK; kinase; alternative splicing; spermatogenesis
Dietary restriction (DR) increases mammalian lifespan and decreases susceptibility to many age-related diseases. Lifespan extension due to DR is conserved across a wide range of species. Recent research has focused upon genetically tractable model organisms such as C. elegans to uncover the genetic mechanisms that regulate the response to DR, in the hope that this information will provide insight into the mammalian response and yield potential therapeutic targets. However, no consensus exists as to the best protocol to apply DR to C. elegans and potential key regulators of DR are protocol-specific. Here we define a DR method that better fulfills criteria required for an invertebrate DR protocol to mirror mammalian studies. The food intake that maximizes longevity varies for different genotypes and informative epistasis analysis with another intervention is only achievable at this ‘optimal DR’ level. Importantly therefore, the degree of restriction imposed using our method can easily be adjusted to determine the genotype-specific optimum DR level. We used this protocol to test two previously identified master regulators of DR in the worm. In contrast to previous reports, we find that DR can robustly extend the lifespan of worms lacking the AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit AAK2 or the histone deacetylase SIR-2.1, highlighting the importance of first optimizing DR to identify universal regulators of DR mediated longevity.
The ERM proteins (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) are a group of band 4.1-related proteins that are proposed to function as membrane/cytoskeletal linkers. Previous biochemical studies have implicated RhoA in regulating the association of ERM proteins with their membrane targets. However, the specific effect and mechanism of action of this regulation is unclear. We show that lysophosphatidic acid stimulation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells resulted in relocalization of radixin into apical membrane/actin protrusions, which was blocked by inactivation of Rho by C3 transferase. An activated allele of RhoA, but not Rac or CDC42Hs, was sufficient to induce apical membrane/actin protrusions and localize radixin or moesin into these structures in both Rat1 and NIH3T3 cells. Lysophosphatidic acid treatment led to phosphorylation of radixin preceding its redistribution into apical protrusions. Significantly, cotransfection of RhoAV14 or C3 transferase with radixin and moesin revealed that RhoA activity is necessary and sufficient for their phosphorylation. These findings reveal a novel function of RhoA in reorganizing the apical actin cytoskeleton and suggest that this function may be mediated through phosphorylation of ERM proteins.