Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic lung infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Psl is an extracellular polysaccharide expressed by non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strains, which are believed to be initial colonizers. We hypothesized that Psl protects P. aeruginosa from host defences within the CF lung prior to their conversion to the mucoid phenotype. We discovered that serum opsonization significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils exposed to a psl-deficient mutant, compared with wild-type (WT) and Psl overexpressing strains (Psl++). Psl-deficient P. aeruginosa were internalized and killed by neutrophils and macrophages more efficiently than WT and Psl++ variants. Deposition of complement components C3, C5 and C7 was significantly higher on psl-deficient strains compared with WT and Psl++ bacteria. In an in vivo pulmonary competition assay, there was a 4.5-fold fitness advantage for WT over psl-deficient P. aeruginosa. Together, these data show that Psl inhibits efficient opsonization, resulting in reduced neutrophil ROS production, and decreased killing by phagocytes. This provides a survival advantage in vivo. Since phagocytes are critical in early recognition and control of infection, therapies aimed at Psl could improve the quality of life for patients colonized with P. aeruginosa.
As we age, there is an increased risk for the development of pulmonary diseases, including infections, but few studies have considered changes in lung surfactant and components of the innate immune system as contributing factors to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to succumb to infections. We and others have demonstrated that human alveolar lining fluid (ALF) components, such as surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, complement protein C3, and alveolar hydrolases, play a significant innate immune role in controlling microbial infections. However, there is a lack of information regarding the effect of increasing age on the level and function of ALF components in the lung. Here we addressed this gap in knowledge by determining the levels of ALF components in the aging lung that are important in controlling infection. Our findings demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines, surfactant proteins and lipids, and complement components are significantly altered in the aged lung in both mice and humans. Further, we show that the aging lung is a relatively oxidized environment. Our study provides new information on how the pulmonary environment in old age can potentially modify mucosal immune responses, thereby impacting pulmonary infections and other pulmonary diseases in the elderly population.
Inflammation; Aging; Alveolar lining fluid; Surfactant; Complement
Granulomas sit at the center of tuberculosis (TB) immunopathogenesis. Progress in biomarkers and treatment specific to the human granuloma environment is hindered by the lack of a relevant and tractable infection model that better accounts for the complexity of the host immune response as well as pathogen counterresponses that subvert host immunity in granulomas. Here we developed and characterized an in vitro granuloma model derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and autologous serum. Importantly, we interrogated this model for its ability to discriminate between host and bacterial determinants in individuals with and without latent TB infection (LTBI). By the use of this model, we provide the first evidence that granuloma formation, bacterial survival, lymphocyte proliferation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and lipid body accumulation are significantly altered in LTBI individuals. Moreover, we show a specific transcriptional signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with survival within human granuloma structures depending on the host immune status. Our report provides fundamentally new information on how the human host immune status and bacterial transcriptional signature may dictate early granuloma formation and outcome and provides evidence for the validity of the granuloma model and its potential applications.
In 2012, approximately 1.3 million people died from tuberculosis (TB), the highest rate for any single bacterial pathogen. The long-term control of TB requires a better understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis in appropriate research models. Granulomas represent the characteristic host tissue response to TB, controlling the bacilli while concentrating the immune response to a limited area. However, complete eradication of bacteria does not occur, since M. tuberculosis has its own strategies to adapt and persist. Thus, the M. tuberculosis-containing granuloma represents a unique environment for dictating both the host immune response and the bacterial response. Here we developed and characterized an in vitro granuloma model derived from blood cells of individuals with latent TB infection that more accurately defines the human immune response and metabolic profiles of M. tuberculosis within this uniquely regulated immune environment. This model may also prove beneficial for understanding other granulomatous diseases.
The yeast polysaccharide, β-glucan, has been shown to promote both anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities through its interaction with macrophages. Here we analyzed the effects of an insoluble whole glucan particle (WGP), a 1,3/1,6-β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a soluble poly-1-6-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1-3-β-d-glucopyranose (PGG), a hydrolytic product of WGP, on the anti-microbial response of human macrophages against mycobacterial infection. Treatment of macrophages with WGP and PGG significantly decreased cell association and intracellular growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) when compared to untreated controls. We characterized the influence of β-glucans on the generation of macrophage oxidative products and pro-inflammatory cytokines, two important anti-microbial defense mechanisms. WGP but not PGG treatment enhanced the oxidative response of macrophages as determined by the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin (DCF) assay. WGP treatment also induced macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. The β-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, was found to be involved in the WGP-induced macrophage oxidative burst and intracellular growth inhibition of M. bovis BCG. This report indicates that although some forms of β-glucan are able to stimulate the respiratory burst and cytokine production in human macrophages, and exhibit antimicrobial properties against M. bovis BCG, the β-glucans tested here did not inhibit growth of M.tb within human macrophages.
β-glucan; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis BCG; Macrophages; Dectin-1; Oxidative burst
Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec) Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI) in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011) and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013) were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1) development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2) skilled-personnel capacity building, (3) accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4) improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in key zoonotic disease areas and the One Health capacity needs.
Palmitoylation is a 16-carbon lipid post-translational modification that increases protein hydrophobicity. This form of protein fatty acylation is emerging as a critical regulatory modification for multiple aspects of cellular interactions and signaling. Despite recent advances in the development of chemical tools for the rapid identification and visualization of palmitoylated proteins, the palmitoyl proteome has not been fully defined. Here we sought to identify and compare the palmitoylated proteins in murine fibroblasts and dendritic cells.
A total of 563 putative palmitoylation substrates were identified, more than 200 of which have not been previously suggested to be palmitoylated in past proteomic studies. Here we validate the palmitoylation of several new proteins including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 5 and 10, CD80, CD86, and NEDD4. Palmitoylation of TLR2, which was uniquely identified in dendritic cells, was mapped to a transmembrane domain-proximal cysteine. Inhibition of TLR2 S-palmitoylation pharmacologically or by cysteine mutagenesis led to decreased cell surface expression and a decreased inflammatory response to microbial ligands.
This work identifies many fatty acylated proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes as well as cell type-specific functions, highlighting the value of examining the palmitoyl proteomes of multiple cell types. S-palmitoylation of TLR2 is a previously unknown immunoregulatory mechanism that represents an entirely novel avenue for modulation of TLR2 inflammatory activity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12915-014-0091-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Palmitoylation; Post-translational modification; Click chemistry; Toll-like receptor; TLR2; Fatty acylation; Proteomics
Pulmonary surfactant contains homeostatic and antimicrobial hydrolases. When Mycobacterium tuberculosis is initially deposited in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli, as well as following release from lysed macrophages, bacilli are in intimate contact with these lung surfactant hydrolases. We identified and measured several hydrolases in human alveolar lining fluid and lung tissue that, at their physiological concentrations, dramatically modified the M. tuberculosis cell envelope. Independent of their action time (15 min to 12 h), the effects of the hydrolases on the M. tuberculosis cell envelope resulted in a significant decrease (60–80%) in M. tuberculosis association with, and intracellular growth of the bacteria within, human macrophages. The cell envelope-modifying effects of the hydrolases also led to altered M. tuberculosis intracellular trafficking and induced a protective proin-flammatory response to infection. These findings add a new concept to our understanding of M. tuberculosis–macrophage inter-actions (i.e., the impact of lung surfactant hydrolases on M. tuberculosis infection).
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely human-adapted and a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages (AMs) being the primary conduit of infection and disease. The outcome of primary infection is most often a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response. Such individuals can develop active TB later in life with impairment in the immune system. In contrast, in a minority of infected individuals, the host immune response fails to control the growth of bacilli, and progressive granulomatous disease develops, facilitating spread of the bacilli via infectious aerosols coughed out into the environment and inhaled by new hosts. The molecular details of the Mtb-macrophage interaction continue to be elucidated. However, it is clear that a number of complex processes are involved at the different stages of infection that may benefit either the bacterium or the host. Macrophages demonstrate tremendous phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity which, depending on the site and stage of infection, facilitate the diverse outcomes. Moreover, host responses vary depending on the specific characteristics of the infecting Mtb strain. In this chapter, we describe a contemporary view of the behavior of AMs and their interaction with various Mtb strains in generating unique immunologic lung specific responses.
Alveolar macrophage; tissue microenvironment; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; granuloma
One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which causes tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope components such as glycolipids, lipoglycans and polysaccharides play important roles in bacteria–host cell interactions that dictate the host immune response. However, little is known about the changes in the amounts and types of these cell envelope components as the bacillus divides during in vitro culture. To shed light on these phenomena, we examined growth-dependent changes over time in major cell envelope components of virulent M.tb by using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. Our studies provide evidence that major mannosylated glycoconjugates on the M.tb cell envelope change as M.tb grows in vitro on the widely used Middlebrook 7H11 agar. In particular, our compositional analyses show that from Day 9 to 28 the amounts of mannose-containing molecules, such as mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides, change continuously in both the cell envelope and outer cell surface. Along with these changes, mannan levels on the outer cell surface also increase significantly over time. The implications of these differences in terms of how M.tb is grown for studies performed in vitro and in vivo for assessing M.tb-host recognition and establishment of infection are discussed.
cell envelope components; LAM; LM; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; PIMs
Intracellular pathogens present a major health risk because of their innate ability to evade clearance. Their location within host cells and ability to react to the host environment by mutation or transcriptional changes often enables survival mechanisms to resist standard therapies. Host-directed drugs do not target the pathogen, minimizing the potential development of drug resistance; however, they can be difficult to deliver efficiently to intracellular sites. Vehicle delivery of host-mediated response drugs not only improves drug distribution and toxicity profiles, but can reduce the total amount of drug necessary to clear infection. In this article, we will review some host-directed drugs and current drug delivery techniques that can be used to efficiently clear intracellular infections.
Ac-DEX; autophagy; dose sparing; drug delivery; druggable target; host-mediated response; inflammatory cytokines; innate immunity; intracellular pathogens; macrophages; multiple-resistant strains; Toll-like receptors
Acquiring iron (Fe) is critical to the metabolism and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Disruption of Fe metabolism is a potential approach for novel antituberculous therapy. Gallium (Ga) has many similarities to Fe. Biological systems are often unable to distinguish Ga3+ from Fe3+. Unlike Fe3+, Ga3+ cannot be physiologically reduced to Ga2+. Thus, substituting Ga for Fe in the active site of enzymes may render them nonfunctional. We previously showed that Ga inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis in broth and within cultured human macrophages. We now report that Ga(NO3)3 shows efficacy in murine tuberculosis models. BALB/c SCID mice were infected intratracheally with M. tuberculosis, following which they received daily intraperitoneal saline, Ga(NO3)3, or NaNO3. All mice receiving saline or NaNO3 died. All Ga(NO3)3-treated mice survived. M. tuberculosis CFU in the lungs, liver, and spleen of the NaNO3-treated or saline-treated mice were significantly higher than those in Ga-treated mice. When BALB/c mice were substituted for BALB/c SCID mice as a chronic (nonlethal) infection model, Ga(NO3)3 treatment significantly decreased lung CFU. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby Ga inhibits bacterial growth, the effect of Ga on M. tuberculosis ribonucleotide reductase (RR) (a key enzyme in DNA replication) and aconitase activities was assessed. Ga decreased M. tuberculosis RR activity by 50 to 60%, but no additional decrease in RR activity was seen at Ga concentrations that completely inhibited mycobacterial growth. Ga decreased aconitase activity by 90%. Ga(NO3)3 shows efficacy in murine M. tuberculosis infection and leads to a decrease in activity of Fe-dependent enzymes. Additional work is warranted to further define Ga's mechanism of action and to optimize delivery forms for possible therapeutic uses in humans.
The expression of monocyte surface markers was compared between tuberculosis patients with and without type 2 diabetes (DM2). DM2 was associated with increased CCR2 expression, which may restrain monocyte traffic to the lung. Other host factors associated with baseline monocyte changes were older age (associated with lower CD11b) and obesity (associated with higher RAGE). Given that DM2 patients are more likely to be older and obese, their monocytes are predicted to be altered in function in ways that affect their interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis; Diabetes; Monocyte; Innate immunity; CCR2; CD11b; RAGE
Tuberculosis (TB) is known to be fueled by HIV as well as social and economic factors. With progression of the diabetes mellitus (DM) pandemic in countries where TB is also endemic, focus is increasing on the potential links between DM and TB. Despite the magnitude of the DM-TB association woldwide, it is striking how little we know about the underlying biology that promotes this association which is a major concern to public health. In this review we summarize current findings regarding the alterations in the innate and adaptive immune responses of DM patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Current findings suggest underperforming innate immunity followed by a hyper-reactive cellular response to Mtb, but the contribution of these altered responses to TB susceptibility or to the more adverse clinical outcomes of TB patients with DM remains unclear. Elucidating the basic mechanisms underlying the higher susceptibility of DM patients to TB should lead to a strategy for stratification of the millions of DM patients worldwide into those with the highest TB risk for targeted TB prevention.
Tuberculosis; Diabetes; Innate immunity; Adaptive immunity; Review; Hyperglycemia
Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is an intracellular bacterium of human alveolar macrophages that causes Legionnaires' disease. In contrast to humans, most inbred mouse strains are restrictive to L. pneumophila replication. We demonstrate that autophagy targets L. pneumophila vacuoles to lysosomes and that this process requires ubiquitination of L. pneumophila vacuoles and the subsequent binding of the autophagic adaptor p62/SQSTM1 to ubiquitinated vacuoles. The L. pneumophila legA9 encodes for an ankyrin-containing protein with unknown role. We show that the legA9 mutant is the first L. pneumophila mutant to replicate in wild-type (WT) mice and their bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Less legA9 mutant- containing vacuoles acquired ubiquitin labeling and p62/SQSTM1 staining, evading autophagy uptake and avoiding lysosomal fusion. Thus, we describe a bacterial protein that targets the L. pneumophila -containing vacuole for autophagy uptake.
Autophagy; Ubiquitination; Lysosomes; Trafficking; Macrophage
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic, inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by significant gender bias. Previous studies have established a role for hormones in SLE pathogenesis, including the sex hormone estrogen. Estrogen regulates gene expression by translocating estrogen receptors (ER) α and β into the nucleus where they induce transcription by binding to estrogen response elements (EREs) of target genes. The ZAS3 locus encodes a signaling and transcriptional molecule involved in regulating inflammatory responses. We show that ZAS3 is significantly up-regulated in SLE patients at both the protein and mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, estrogen stimulates the expression of ZAS3 in vitro in several leukocyte and breast cancer cell lines of both human and murine origin. In vivo estrogen treatment mediates induction of tissue specific ZAS3 expression in several lymphoid organs in mice. Estrogen stimulation also significantly up-regulates ZAS3 expression in primary PBMCs, while treatment with testosterone has no effect. Mechanistically, estrogen induces differential ERα binding to putative EREs within the ZAS3 gene and ERα knockdown with siRNA prevents estrogen induced ZAS3 up-regulation. In contrast, siRNA targeting IFNα has no effect. These data demonstrate that ZAS3 expression is directly regulated by estrogen and that ZAS3 is overexpressed in lupus. Since ZAS3 has been shown to regulate inflammatory pathways, its up-regulation by estrogen could play a critical role in female-biased autoimmune disorders.
Systemic lupus erythematosus; estrogen; ZAS3; autoimmunity
Type 2 diabetes patients (DM2) have a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB) that may be attributed to functional defects in their mononuclear phagocytes given the critical role of these cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis containment. Our previous findings suggest that monocytes from DM2 have reduced association with serum-opsonized M. tuberculosis. To determine if this alteration is due to defects in phagocytosis via complement or Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs), in this study we evaluated the uptake of sheep red blood cells coated with IgG or complement, respectively, by monocytes from individuals with and without DM2. We found that chronic hyperglycemia was significantly associated with reduced phagocytosis via either receptor by univariable and multivariable analyses. This defect was independent of host serum opsonins and flow cytometry data indicated this was not attributed to reduced expression of these phagocytic receptors on DM2 monocytes. The positive correlation between both pathways (R = 0.64; p = 0.003) indicate that monocytes from individuals with chronic hyperglycemia have a defect in the two predominant phagocytic pathways of these cells. Given that phagocytosis is linked to activation of effector mechanisms for bacterial killing, it is likely that this defect is one factor contributing to the higher susceptibility of DM2 patients to pathogens like M. tuberculosis.
The macrophage mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is a C-type lectin expressed predominantly by most tissue macrophages, dendritic cells and specific lymphatic or endothelial cells. It functions in endocytosis and phagocytosis, and plays an important role in immune homeostasis by scavenging unwanted mannoglycoproteins. More attention is being paid to its particularly high expression in tissue pathology sites during disease such the tumor microenvironment. The MR recognizes a variety of microorganisms by their mannan-coated cell wall, which is exploited by adapted intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for their own survival. Despite the continued development of drug delivery technologies, the targeting of agents to immune cells, especially macrophages, for effective diagnosis and treatment of chronic infectious diseases has not been addressed adequately. In this regard, strategies that optimize MR-mediated uptake by macrophages in target tissues during infection are becoming an attractive approach. We review important progress in this area.
The re-emerging importance of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) to tuberculosis (TB) control is of growing concern, but the basis for this relationship is poorly understood. Given the importance of mononuclear phagocytes for TB control and the reported alterations in monocytes of DM patients, we evaluated whether the initial interaction between both was affected in diabetics. M. tuberculosis-naïve individuals with and without DM were group matched by age and gender and the efficiency of M. tuberculosis association (attachment and ingestion) with their monocytes was assessed in the presence of autologous serum. The association of M. tuberculosis with monocytes was significantly lower in diabetics (19.2±6.1) than non-diabetics (27.5±7.9; p=0.02). Multivariate analysis controlling for host sociodemographics, DM characteristics and serum lipids indicated that male gender (p=0.04) and poorly-controlled DM (high HbA1c and hyperglycemia; p=0.01) were significantly associated with the lower interaction of M. tuberculosis with monocytes. Serum heat-inactivation reduced the association of M. tuberculosis to similar levels in both study groups (p=0.69) suggesting alterations in the complement pathway of DM patients. These findings suggest an altered route of entry of the pathogen in DM patients that may influence the downstream activation of signaling pathways in the monocyte and the survival of mycobacteria.
tuberculosis; diabetes; complement; monocyte; mycobacterium
Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection.
Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes.
F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process.
Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity.
Francisella; monocytes; cytokines; signal transduction; innate immunity
Genetic variation in C-type lectins influences infectious disease susceptibility but remains poorly understood. We employed allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI) technology for SP-A1, SP-A2, SP-D, DC-SIGN, MRC1, and Dectin-1, expressed in human macrophages and/or lung tissues. Frequent AEI, an indicator of regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in SP-A2, SP-D, and DC-SIGN. AEI was measured for SP-A2 in 38 lung tissues using four marker SNPs and was confirmed by next generation sequencing of one lung RNA sample. Genomic DNA at the SP-A2 DNA locus was sequenced by Ion Torrent technology in 16 samples. Correlation analysis of genotypes with AEI identified a haplotype block, and, specifically, the intronic SNP rs1650232 (30% MAF); the only variant consistently associated with an approximately two-fold change in mRNA allelic expression. Previously shown to alter a NAGNAG splice acceptor site with likely effects on SP-A2 expression, rs1650232 generates an alternative splice variant with three additional bases at the start of exon 3. Validated as a regulatory variant, rs1650232 is in partial LD with known SP-A2 marker SNPs previously associated with risk for respiratory diseases including tuberculosis. Applying functional DNA variants in clinical association studies, rather than marker SNPs, will advance our understanding of genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases.
C-type lectin; marker SNP; regulatory variant; SP-A2; allelic expression imbalance
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that include members of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family and caspase-1. Once bacterial molecules are sensed within the macrophage, the inflammasome is assembled mediating the activation of caspase-1. Caspase-11 mediates caspase-1 activation in response to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial toxins. Yet, its role during bacterial infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that caspase-11 was dispensable for caspase-1 activation in response to Legionella, Salmonella, Francisella and Listeria. We also determined that active mouse caspase-11 was required for restriction of L. pneumophila infection. Similarly, human caspase-4 and 5, homologs of mouse caspase-11, cooperated to restrict L. pneumophila infection in human macrophages. Caspase-11 promoted the fusion of the L. pneumophila- vacuole with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization through cofilin. However, caspase-11 was dispensable for the fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing non-pathogenic bacteria, uncovering a fundamental difference in the trafficking of phagosomes according to their cargo.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause worldwide of human mortality attributable to a single infectious agent. Recent studies targeting candidate genes and “case-control” association have revealed numerous polymorphisms implicated in host susceptibility to TB. Here, we review current progress in the understanding of causative polymorphisms in host innate immune genes associated with TB pathogenesis. We discuss genes encoding several types of proteins: macrophage receptors, such as the mannose receptor (MR, CD206), dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, CD209), Dectin-1, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18), nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, CD14, P2X7, and the vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR); soluble C-type lectins, such as surfactant protein-A (SP-A), SP-D, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL); phagocyte cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-18; chemokines, such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), RANTES, and CXCL10; and other important innate immune molecules, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and solute carrier protein 11A1 (SLC11A1). Polymorphisms in these genes have been variably associated with susceptibility to TB among different populations. This apparent variability is probably accounted for by evolutionary selection pressure as a result of long-term host-pathogen interactions in certain regions or populations and, in part, by lack of proper study design and limited knowledge of molecular and functional effects of the implicated genetic variants. Finally, we discuss genomic technologies that hold promise for resolving questions regarding the evolutionary paths of the human genome, functional effects of polymorphisms, and corollary impacts of adaptation on human health, ultimately leading to novel approaches to controlling TB.
Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation, and increased MKP-1, which limits TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. These data indicate that while the highly virulent F. tularensis uses CR3 for efficient uptake, optimal engagement of this receptor down-regulates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting MAPK activation through outside-in signaling. CR3-linked immune suppression is an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of F. tularensis infection.
The highly virulent Francisella tularensis can cause respiratory disease in humans with less than 10 bacteria. In vivo, it replicates mainly within macrophages. Evasion and/or suppression of the host protective immune response is essential to Francisella's virulence in mammals. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms for this immune suppression are not clear. Here we demonstrate that this pathogen manipulates the crosstalk between two important receptor-mediated pathways during entry in human macrophages: CR3-mediated phagocytosis and TLR2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. By optimally engaging CR3, Francisella not only gains efficient access to macrophages but also dampens TLR2-mediated immune responses, leading to a relatively “silent” entry that allows it to replicate intracellularly to high numbers early on. Thus, we have identified an important mechanism that is critical for the success of F. tularensis as a human pathogen during primary infection.