Autophagy is a catabolic process that functions in recycling and degrading cellular proteins, and is also induced as an adaptive response to the increased metabolic demand upon nutrient starvation. However, the prosurvival role of autophagy in response to metabolic stress due to deprivation of glutamine, the most abundant nutrient for mammalian cells, is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated that when extracellular glutamine was withdrawn, autophagy provided cells with sub-mM concentrations of glutamine, which played a critical role in fostering cell metabolism. Moreover, we uncovered a previously unknown connection between metabolic responses to ATG5 deficiency and glutamine deprivation, and revealed that WT and atg5−/− MEFs utilized both common and distinct metabolic pathways over time during glutamine deprivation. Although the early response of WT MEFs to glutamine deficiency was similar in many respects to the baseline metabolism of atg5−/− MEFs, there was a concomitant decrease in the levels of essential amino acids and branched chain amino acid catabolites in WT MEFs after 6 h of glutamine withdrawal that distinguished them from the atg5−/− MEFs. Metabolomic profiling, oxygen consumption and pathway focused quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that autophagy and glutamine utilization were reciprocally regulated to couple metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming. These findings provide key insights into the critical prosurvival role of autophagy in maintaining mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cell growth during metabolic stress caused by glutamine deprivation.
ATG5; autophagy; glutamine; ATP; transcriptional reprogramming; altered metabolism
Autophagy is a rapidly expanding field in the sense that our knowledge about the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. Similarly, the vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. This fact makes it difficult for readers, even those who work in the field, to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors or chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, or the role of accessory machinery or structures that are associated with autophagy.
autophagy; definitions; glossary; lexicon; terms
The study of autophagy is rapidly expanding, and our knowledge of the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. The vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. In fact, it is difficult for readers—even those who work in the field—to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, and the roles of accessory components and structures that are associated with autophagy.
autophagy; lysosome; mitophagy; pexophagy; stress; vacuole
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). The familial form of PD, PARK2, is caused by mutations in the parkin gene. parkin-knockout mouse models show some abnormalities, but they do not fully recapitulate the pathophysiology of human PARK2.
Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two PARK2 patients. PARK2 iPSC-derived neurons showed increased oxidative stress and enhanced activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. iPSC-derived neurons, but not fibroblasts or iPSCs, exhibited abnormal mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial homeostasis. Although PARK2 patients rarely exhibit Lewy body (LB) formation with an accumulation of α-synuclein, α-synuclein accumulation was observed in the postmortem brain of one of the donor patients. This accumulation was also seen in the iPSC-derived neurons in the same patient.
Thus, pathogenic changes in the brain of a PARK2 patient were recapitulated using iPSC technology. These novel findings reveal mechanistic insights into the onset of PARK2 and identify novel targets for drug screening and potential modified therapies for PD.
Induced pluripotent stem cells; Parkinson’s disease; Parkin; Oxidative stress; Mitochondria; α-synuclein
Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process, which is governed by sequential functions of Atg proteins. Although Atg proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes, protozoa possess only a partial set of Atg proteins. Nonetheless, almost all protozoa have the complete factors belonging to the Atg8 conjugation system, namely, Atg3, Atg4, Atg7, and Atg8. Here, we report the biochemical properties and subcellular localization of the Atg8 protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfAtg8). PfAtg8 is expressed during intra-erythrocytic development and associates with membranes likely as a lipid-conjugated form. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy show that PfAtg8 localizes to the apicoplast, a four membrane-bound non-photosynthetic plastid. Autophagosome-like structures are not observed in the erythrocytic stages. These data suggest that, although Plasmodium parasites have lost most Atg proteins during evolution, they use the Atg8 conjugation system for the unique organelle, the apicoplast.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that is mediated by autophagosomes. Mammalian Atg2 proteins Atg2A and Atg2B are identified and characterized as essential for autophagy. They are also present on lipid droplets and are involved in regulation of lipid droplet volume and distribution.
Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system by which cytoplasmic materials are enclosed by the autophagosome and delivered to the lysosome. Autophagosome formation is considered to take place on the endoplasmic reticulum and involves functions of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Here, we report the identification and characterization of mammalian Atg2 homologues Atg2A and Atg2B. Simultaneous silencing of Atg2A and Atg2B causes a block in autophagic flux and accumulation of unclosed autophagic structures containing most Atg proteins. Atg2A localizes on the autophagic membrane, as well as on the surface of lipid droplets. The Atg2A region containing amino acids 1723–1829, which shows relatively high conservation among species, is required for localization to both the autophagic membrane and lipid droplet and is also essential for autophagy. Depletion of both Atg2A and Atg2B causes clustering of enlarged lipid droplets in an autophagy-independent manner. These data suggest that mammalian Atg2 proteins function both in autophagosome formation and regulation of lipid droplet morphology and dispersion.
The role of autophagy, a catabolic lysosome-dependent pathway, has recently been recognized in a variety of disorders, including Pompe disease, which results from a deficiency of the glycogen-degrading lysosomal hydrolase acid-alpha glucosidase (GAA). Skeletal and cardiac muscle are most severely affected by the progressive expansion of glycogen-filled lysosomes. In both humans and an animal model of the disease (GAA KO), skeletal muscle pathology also involves massive accumulation of autophagic vesicles and autophagic buildup in the core of myofibers, suggesting an induction of autophagy. Only when we suppressed autophagy in the skeletal muscle of the GAA KO mice did we realize that the excess of autophagy manifests as a functional deficiency. This failure of productive autophagy is responsible for the accumulation of potentially toxic aggregate-prone ubiquitinated proteins, which likely cause profound muscle damage in Pompe mice. Also, by generating muscle-specific autophagy-deficient wild-type mice, we were able to analyze the role of autophagy in healthy skeletal muscle.
Pompe disease; lysosome; muscle-specific autophagy deficiency; protein inclusions
Ferritin is a cytosolic protein that stores excess iron, thereby protecting cells from iron toxicity. Ferritin-stored iron is believed to be utilized when cells become iron deficient; however, the mechanisms underlying the extraction of iron from ferritin have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that ferritin is degraded in the lysosome under iron-depleted conditions and that the acidic environment of the lysosome is crucial for iron extraction from ferritin and utilization by cells. Ferritin was targeted for degradation in the lysosome even under iron-replete conditions in primary cells; however, the mechanisms underlying lysosomal targeting of ferritin were distinct under depleted and replete conditions. In iron-depleted cells, ferritin was targeted to the lysosome via a mechanism that involved autophagy. In contrast, lysosomal targeting of ferritin in iron-replete cells did not involve autophagy. The autophagy-independent pathway of ferritin delivery to lysosomes was deficient in several cancer-derived cells, and cancer-derived cell lines are more resistant to iron toxicity than primary cells. Collectively, these results suggest that ferritin trafficking may be differentially regulated by cell type and that loss of ferritin delivery to the lysosome under iron-replete conditions may be related to oncogenic cellular transformation.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process, through which cytosolic materials are delivered to the lysosome. Despite recent identification of many autophagy-related genes, how autophagosomes are generated remains unclear. Here, we examined the hierarchical relationships among mammalian Atg proteins. Under starvation conditions, ULK1, Atg14, WIPI-1, LC3 and Atg16L1 target to the same compartment, whereas DFCP1 localizes adjacently to these Atg proteins. In terms of puncta formation, the protein complex including ULK1 and FIP200 is the most upstream unit and is required for puncta formation of the Atg14-containing PI3-kinase complex. Puncta formation of both DFCP1 and WIPI-1 requires FIP200 and Atg14. The Atg12-Atg5-Atg16L1 complex and LC3 are downstream units among these factors. The punctate structures containing upstream Atg proteins such as ULK1 and Atg14 tightly associate with the ER, where the ER protein vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) also transiently localizes. These structures are formed even when cells are treated with wortmannin to suppress autophagosome formation. These hierarchical analyses suggest that ULK1, Atg14 and VMP1 localize to the ER-associated autophagosome formation sites in a PI3-kinase activity-independent manner.
autophagosome; PI3-kinase; isolation membrane; endoplasmic reticulum; ULK
Autophagy is an essential, homeostatic process by which cells break down their own components. Perhaps the most primordial function of this lysosomal degradation pathway is adaptation to nutrient deprivation. However, in complex multicellular organisms, the core molecular machinery of autophagy — the ‘autophagy proteins’ — orchestrates diverse aspects of cellular and organismal responses to other dangerous stimuli such as infection. Recent developments reveal a crucial role for the autophagy pathway and proteins in immunity and inflammation. They balance the beneficial and detrimental effects of immunity and inflammation, and thereby may protect against infectious, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
p62 is recruited to the ER at an early-stage autophagosome formation independently of most Atg proteins.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process by which cytoplasmic contents are degraded in the lysosome. In addition to nonselective engulfment of cytoplasmic materials, the autophagosomal membrane can selectively recognize specific proteins and organelles. It is generally believed that the major selective substrate (or cargo receptor) p62 is recruited to the autophagosomal membrane through interaction with LC3. In this study, we analyzed loading of p62 and its related protein NBR1 and found that they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–associated autophagosome formation site independently of LC3 localization to membranes. p62 colocalizes with upstream autophagy factors such as ULK1 and VMP1 even when autophagosome formation is blocked by wortmannin or FIP200 knockout. Self-oligomerization of p62 is essential for its localization to the autophagosome formation site. These results suggest that p62 localizes to the autophagosome formation site on the ER, where autophagosomes are nucleated. This process is similar to the yeast cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway.
It has been known for many decades that autophagy, a conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, is highly active during differentiation and development. However, until the discovery of the autophagy-related (ATG) genes in the 1990s, the functional significance of this activity was unknown. Initially, genetic knockout studies of ATG genes in lower eukaryotes revealed an essential role for the autophagy pathway in differentiation and development. In recent years, the analyses of systemic and tissue-specific knockout models of ATG genes in mice has led to an explosion of knowledge about the functions of autophagy in mammalian development and differentiation. Here we review the main advances in our understanding of these functions.
Inactivation of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 results in selective accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins independently of substrate ubiquitination.
Genetic ablation of autophagy in mice leads to liver and brain degeneration accompanied by the appearance of ubiquitin (Ub) inclusions, which has been considered to support the hypothesis that ubiquitination serves as a cis-acting signal for selective autophagy. We show that tissue-specific disruption of the essential autophagy genes Atg5 and Atg7 leads to the accumulation of all detectable Ub–Ub topologies, arguing against the hypothesis that any particular Ub linkage serves as a specific autophagy signal. The increase in Ub conjugates in Atg7−/− liver and brain is completely suppressed by simultaneous knockout of either p62 or Nrf2. We exploit a novel assay for selective autophagy in cell culture, which shows that inactivation of Atg5 leads to the selective accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins, and this does not correlate with an increase in substrate ubiquitination. We propose that protein oligomerization drives autophagic substrate selection and that the accumulation of poly-Ub chains in autophagy-deficient circumstances is an indirect consequence of activation of Nrf2-dependent stress response pathways.
Autophagy is known to be important in presentation of cytosolic antigens on MHC class II (MHC II). However, the role of autophagic process in antigen presentation in vivo is unclear. Mice with dendritic cell (DC)-conditional deletion in Atg5, a key autophagy gene, showed impaired CD4+ T cell priming after herpes simplex virus infection and succumbed to rapid disease. The most pronounced defect of Atg5−/− DCs was the processing and presentation of phagocytosed antigens containing Toll-like receptor stimuli for MHC class II. In contrast, cross-presentation of peptides on MHC I was intact in the absence of Atg5. Although induction of metabolic autophagy did not enhance MHC II presentation, autophagic machinery was required for optimal phagosome-to-lysosome fusion and subsequent processing of antigen for MHC II loading. Thus, our study revealed that DCs utilize autophagic machinery to optimally process and present extracellular microbial antigens for MHC II presentation.
Autophagy has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. Accordingly, there is a growing scientific need to accurately identify, quantify, and manipulate the process of autophagy in cells. However, as autophagy involves dynamic and complicated processes, it is often analyzed incorrectly. In this Primer, we discuss methods to monitor autophagy and to modulate autophagic activity, with a primary focus on mammalian macroautophagy.
Autophagy is implicated in many functions of mammalian cells such as organelle recycling, survival and differentiation, and is essential for the maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Here, we demonstrate that autophagy is a constitutive process during T cell development. Deletion of the essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Atg7 in T cells resulted in decreased thymocyte and peripheral T cell numbers, and Atg5-deficient T cells had a decrease in cell survival. We employed functional-genetic and integrative computational analyses to elucidate specific functions of the autophagic process in developing T-lineage lymphocytes. Our whole-genome transcriptional profiling identified a set of 699 genes differentially expressed in Atg5-deficient and Atg5-sufficient thymocytes (Atg5-dependent gene set). Strikingly, the Atg5-dependent gene set was dramatically enriched in genes encoding proteins associated with the mitochondrion. In support of a role for autophagy in mitochondrial maintenance in T lineage cells, the deletion of Atg5 led to increased mitochondrial mass in peripheral T cells. We also observed a correlation between mitochondrial mass and Annexin-V staining in peripheral T cells. We propose that autophagy is critical for mitochondrial maintenance and T cell survival. We speculate that, similar to its role in yeast or mammalian liver cells, autophagy is required in T cells for the removal of damaged or aging mitochondria and that this contributes to the cell death of autophagy-deficient T cells.
T cells; cell differentiation and development; transgenic/knockout mice; ATG5; mitochondria
Injury and loss of podocytes are leading factors of glomerular disease and renal failure. The postmitotic podocyte is the primary glomerular target for toxic, immune, metabolic, and oxidant stress, but little is known about how this cell type copes with stress. Recently, autophagy has been identified as a major pathway that delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here we report that podocytes exhibit an unusually high level of constitutive autophagy. Podocyte-specific deletion of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) led to a glomerulopathy in aging mice that was accompanied by an accumulation of oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins, ER stress, and proteinuria. These changes resulted ultimately in podocyte loss and late-onset glomerulosclerosis. Analysis of pathophysiological conditions indicated that autophagy was substantially increased in glomeruli from mice with induced proteinuria and in glomeruli from patients with acquired proteinuric diseases. Further, mice lacking Atg5 in podocytes exhibited strongly increased susceptibility to models of glomerular disease. These findings highlight the importance of induced autophagy as a key homeostatic mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity. We postulate that constitutive and induced autophagy is a major protective mechanism against podocyte aging and glomerular injury, representing a putative target to ameliorate human glomerular disease and aging-related loss of renal function.
The role of autophagy, a catabolic lysosome-dependent pathway, has recently been recognized in a variety of disorders, including Pompe disease, the genetic deficiency of the glycogen-degrading lysosomal enzyme acid-alpha glucosidase. Accumulation of lysosomal glycogen, presumably transported from the cytoplasm by the autophagic pathway, occurs in multiple tissues, but pathology is most severe in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Skeletal muscle pathology also involves massive autophagic buildup in the core of myofibers. To determine if glycogen reaches the lysosome via autophagy and to ascertain whether autophagic buildup in Pompe disease is a consequence of induction of autophagy and/or reduced turnover due to defective fusion with lysosomes, we generated muscle-specific autophagy-deficient Pompe mice. We have demonstrated that autophagy is not required for glycogen transport to lysosomes in skeletal muscle. We have also found that Pompe disease involves induction of autophagy but manifests as a functional deficiency of autophagy because of impaired autophagosomal–lysosomal fusion. As a result, autophagic substrates, including potentially toxic aggregate-prone ubiquitinated proteins, accumulate in Pompe myofibers and may cause profound muscle damage.
Susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD), a complex inflammatory disease involving the small intestine, is controlled by up to 32 loci1. One CD risk allele is in ATG16L1, a gene homologous to the essential yeast autophagy gene ATG162. It is not known how Atg16L1 or autophagy contributes to intestinal biology or CD pathogenesis. To address these questions we generated and characterized mice that are hypomorphic for Atg16L1 protein expression, and validated conclusions based on studies in these mice by analyzing intestinal tissues that we collected from CD patients carrying the CD risk allele of ATG16L1. We show that Atg16L1 is a bona fide autophagy protein. Within the ileal epithelium, both Atg16L1 and a second essential autophagy protein Atg5 are selectively important for the biology of the Paneth cell, a specialized epithelial cell which functions in part by secretion of granule contents containing antimicrobial peptides and other proteins that alter the intestinal environment3. Atg16L1 and Atg5-deficient Paneth cells exhibited striking abnormalities in the granule exocytosis pathway. In addition, transcriptional analysis revealed an unexpected gain of function specific to Atg16L1-deficient Paneth cells including increased expression of genes involved in PPAR signaling and lipid metabolism, acute phase reactants, as well as two adipocytokines, leptin and adiponectin, known to directly influence intestinal injury responses. Importantly, CD patients homozygous for the ATG16L1 CD risk allele displayed Paneth cell granule abnormalities similar to those observed in autophagy protein-deficient mice and expressed increased levels of leptin protein. Thus, Atg16L1, and likely the process of autophagy, play their role within the intestinal epithelium of mice and CD patients by selective effects on the cell biology and specialized regulatory properties of Paneth cells.
The physiologic importance of autophagy proteins for control of mammalian bacterial and parasitic infection in vivo is unknown. We show that expression of the essential autophagy protein Atg5 in granulocytes and macrophages is required for in vivo resistance to infection with L. monocytogenes and T. gondii. In primary macrophages, Atg5 was not required for IFNγ/LPS-mediated transcription, induction of nitric oxide, or inhibition of T. gondii replication. However, Atg5 was required for IFNγ/LPS-induced damage to the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane and parasite clearance. While we did not detect autophagosomes enveloping T. gondii, Atg5 was required for recruitment of the IFNγ-inducible p47 GTPase IIGP1 (Irga6) to the vacuole membrane. This work shows that Atg5 expression in phagocytic cells is essential for cellular immunity to intracellular pathogens in vivo and that an autophagy protein can participate in immunity and intracellular killing of pathogens via autophagosome-independent processes such as GTPase trafficking.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system, by which cytoplasmic contents are degraded in lysosomes. Autophagy is dynamically induced by nutrient depletion to provide necessary amino acids within cells, thus helping them adapt to starvation. Although it has been suggested that mTOR is a major negative regulator of autophagy, how it controls autophagy has not yet been determined. Here, we report a novel mammalian autophagy factor, Atg13, which forms a stable ∼3-MDa protein complex with ULK1 and FIP200. Atg13 localizes on the autophagic isolation membrane and is essential for autophagosome formation. In contrast to yeast counterparts, formation of the ULK1–Atg13–FIP200 complex is not altered by nutrient conditions. Importantly, mTORC1 is incorporated into the ULK1–Atg13–FIP200 complex through ULK1 in a nutrient-dependent manner and mTOR phosphorylates ULK1 and Atg13. ULK1 is dephosphorylated by rapamycin treatment or starvation. These data suggest that mTORC1 suppresses autophagy through direct regulation of the ∼3-MDa ULK1–Atg13–FIP200 complex.
Autophagy, or cellular self-digestion, is a cellular pathway involved in protein and organelle degradation, with an astonishing number of connections to human disease and physiology. For example, autophagic dysfunction is associated with cancer, neurodegeneration, microbial infection and ageing. Paradoxically, although autophagy is primarily a protective process for the cell, it can also play a role in cell death. Understanding autophagy may ultimately allow scientists and clinicians to harness this process for the purpose of improving human health.
Human Atg4B and LC3 were expressed, purified and crystallized as a complex. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å.
The reversible modification of Atg8 with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is crucial for autophagy, the bulk degradation process of cytoplasmic components by the vacuolar/lysosomal system. Atg4 is a cysteine protease that is responsible for the processing and deconjugation of Atg8. Human Atg4B (HsAtg4B; a mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg4) and LC3 (a mammalian orthologue of yeast Atg8) were expressed and purified and two complexes, one consisting of HsAtg4B(1–354) and LC3(1–120) (complex I; the product complex) and the other consisting of HsAtg4B(1–354) and LC3(1–124) (complex II; the substrate complex), were crystallized using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. In both complexes His280 of HsAtg4B was mutated to alanine. The crystals belong to the same space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.5, b = 91.8, c = 102.6 Å for complex I and a = 46.9, b = 90.9, c = 102.5 Å for complex II. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.9 Å from both crystals.
Atg8; autophagy; LC3
Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) regulates multiple membrane trafficking. In yeast, two distinct PI3-kinase complexes are known: complex I (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Atg14) is involved in autophagy, and complex II (Vps34, Vps15, Vps30/Atg6, and Vps38) functions in the vacuolar protein sorting pathway. Atg14 and Vps38 are important in inducing both complexes to exert distinct functions. In mammals, the counterparts of Vps34, Vps15, and Vps30/Atg6 have been identified as Vps34, p150, and Beclin 1, respectively. However, orthologues of Atg14 and Vps38 remain unknown. We identified putative mammalian homologues of Atg14 and Vps38. The Vps38 candidate is identical to UV irradiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), which has been reported as a Beclin 1-interacting protein. Although both human Atg14 and UVRAG interact with Beclin 1 and Vps34, Atg14, and UVRAG are not present in the same complex. Although Atg14 is present on autophagic isolation membranes, UVRAG primarily associates with Rab9-positive endosomes. Silencing of human Atg14 in HeLa cells suppresses autophagosome formation. The coiled-coil region of Atg14 required for binding with Vps34 and Beclin 1 is essential for autophagy. These results suggest that mammalian cells have at least two distinct class III PI3-kinase complexes, which may function in different membrane trafficking pathways.
Autophagy is mostly a nonselective bulk degradation system within cells. Recent reports indicate that autophagy can act both as a protector and killer of the cell depending on the stage of the disease or the surrounding cellular environment (for review see Cuervo, A.M. 2004. Trends Cell Biol. 14:70–77). We found that cytoplasmic vacuoles induced in pancreatic acinar cells by experimental pancreatitis were autophagic in origin, as demonstrated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 expression and electron microscopy experiments. To analyze the role of macroautophagy in acute pancreatitis, we produced conditional knockout mice lacking the autophagy-related 5 gene in acinar cells. Acute pancreatitis was not observed, except for very mild edema in a restricted area, in conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, trypsinogen activation was greatly reduced in the absence of autophagy. These results suggest that autophagy exerts devastating effects in pancreatic acinar cells by activation of trypsinogen to trypsin in the early stage of acute pancreatitis through delivering trypsinogen to the lysosome.