The protein biochemistry supporting autophagosome growth on the cup-like isolation membrane is likely different from the biochemistry on the closed and maturing autophagosome. Thus, the highly curved rim of the cup may serve as a functionally-required surface for transiently-associated components of the early-acting autophagic machinery. Here we demonstrate that the E2-like enzyme, Atg3, facilitates LC3/GABARAPlipidation only on membranes exhibiting local lipid-packing defects. This activity requires an amino-terminal amphipathic helix similar to motifs found on proteins targeting highly curved intracellular membranes. By tuning the hydrophobicity of this motif, we can promote or inhibit lipidation in vitro and in rescue experiments in Atg3 knockout cells, implying a physiologic role for this stress detection. The need for extensive lipid-packing defects suggests that Atg3 is designed to work at highly-curved membranes perhaps including the limiting edge of the growing phagophore.
LC3; GABARAP-L1; Atg3; Curvature
Macroautophagy mediates the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles via the de novo formation of double-membrane autophagosomes that sequester cytoplasm and deliver it to the vacuole/lysosome; however, relatively little is known about autophagosome biogenesis. Atg8, a phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated protein, was previously proposed to function in autophagosome membrane expansion, based on the observation that it mediates liposome tethering and hemifusion in vitro. We show here that with physiological concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamine, Atg8 does not act as a fusogen. Rather, we provide evidence for the involvement of exocytic Q/t-SNAREs in autophagosome formation, acting in the recruitment of key autophagy components to the site of autophagosome formation, and in regulating the organization of Atg9 into tubulovesicular clusters. Additionally, we found that the endosomal Q/t-SNARE Tlg2 and the R/v-SNAREs Sec22 and Ykt6 interact with Sso1-Sec9, and are required for normal Atg9 transport. Thus, multiple SNARE-mediated fusion events are likely to be involved in autophagosome biogenesis.
Atg9; fusion; lysosome; membrane biogenesis; protein targeting; secretory pathway; stress; tubulovesicular clusters; vacuole; yeast
Neurotransmitters are released thru nascent fusion pores, which ordinarily dilate after bilayer fusion, preventing consistent biochemical studies. Here, we employ lipid bilayer nanodiscs as fusion partners, whose rigid protein framework prevents dilation and reveals properties of the SNARE-induced fusion pore. While only one SNARE per nanodisc is required for maximum rates of bilayer fusion, efficient release of content on the physiologically-relevant time scale of synaptic transmission requires ~3 or more SNAREpins and the native VAMP2 transmembrane domain. We suggest that several SNAREpins simultaneously zippering their SNARE transmembrane helices within the freshly fused bilayers provide a radial force that prevents the nascent pore from resealing during synchronous neurotransmitter release.
Membrane fusion between vesicles and target membranes involves the zippering of a four-helix bundle generated by constituent helices derived from t- and v-SNAREs found on the target and vesicular membranes. In neurons the protein complexin clamps otherwise spontaneous fusion by SNARE proteins, allowing neurotransmitters and other mediators to be secreted when and where they are needed as this clamp is released. The membrane-proximal accessory helix of complexin is necessary for clamping, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we present experiments using a reconstituted fusion system that suggest a simple model in which the complexin accessory helix forms an alternative four-helix bundle with the t-SNARE near the membrane, preventing the v-SNARE from completing its zippering.
Over this past decade, macroautophagy has gained prominence in the field of adult-onset neurodegeneration: from sporadic disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, to genetic disorders such as Huntington's disease and frontotemporal dementia, the influence of this fundamental pathway has become an important topic of discussion. While there has been particular emphasis on the potential benefits of macroautophagy, there is growing literature that also suggests that macroautophagy contributes towards neurotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of macroautophagy and the currently available pharmacological tools, with special emphasis on mammalian macroautophagy in adult brain. Studies indicate that neuronal context strongly influences the role macroautophagy plays in maintaining cellular health, reflecting an ongoing need for better understanding of how macroautophagic regulation is achieved in the heavily differentiated and polarized neurons if we are to effectively manipulate it to treat neurodegenerative disease.
Eukaryotic cells can use the autophagy pathway to defend against microbes that gain access to the cytosol or reside in pathogen-modified vacuoles. It remains unclear if pathogens have evolved specific mechanisms to manipulate autophagy. Here we find that the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila could interfere with autophagy using the bacterial effector protein RavZ to directly uncouple Atg8 proteins attached to phosphatidylethanolamine on autophagosome membranes. RavZ hydrolyzed the amide bond between the carboxyl-terminal glycine residue and an adjacent aromatic residue in Atg8 proteins, producing an Atg8 protein that could not be reconjugated by Atg7 and Atg3. Thus, intracellular pathogens can inhibit autophagy by irreversibly inactivating Atg8 proteins during infection.
The Munc18 central cavity plays a major role in trafficking syntaxin 1 (Stx 1) to the plasma membrane and in activating SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. This paper provides critical insight into the mechanisms of how the Stx1A H3 domain can compete with the SNARE complex for binding the Munc18 central cavity, first inhibiting, and later assisting, SNARE-complex assembly.
Sec1/Munc18 proteins play a fundamental role in multiple steps of intracellular membrane trafficking. Dual functions have been attributed to Munc18-1: it can act as a chaperone when it interacts with monomeric syntaxin 1A, and it can activate soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) for membrane fusion when it binds to SNARE complexes. Although both modes of binding involve the central cavity of Munc18-1, their precise molecular mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In this paper, we describe a novel Munc18-1 mutant in the central cavity that showed a reduced interaction with syntaxin 1A and impaired chaperone function, but still bound to assembled SNARE complexes and promoted liposome fusion and secretion in neuroendocrine cells. Soluble syntaxin 1A H3 domain partially blocks Munc18-1 activation of liposome fusion by occupying the Munc18-1 central cavity. Our findings lead us to propose a transition model between the two distinct binding modes by which Munc18 can control and assist in SNARE-complex assembly during neurotransmitter release.
The study of autophagy is rapidly expanding, and our knowledge of the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. The vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. In fact, it is difficult for readers—even those who work in the field—to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, and the roles of accessory components and structures that are associated with autophagy.
autophagy; lysosome; mitophagy; pexophagy; stress; vacuole
There is growing evidence that macroautophagic cargo is not limited to bulk cytosol in response to starvation, and can occur selectively for substrates including aggregated proteins. It remains unclear, however, if starvation-induced and selective macroautophagy share identical adapter molecules to capture their cargo. Here we report that Alfy, a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding protein, is central to the selective elimination of aggregated proteins. We report that the loss of Alfy inhibits the clearance of inclusions, with little to no effect on the starvation response. Alfy is recruited to intracellular inclusions and scaffolds a complex between p62(SQSTM1)-positive proteins and the autophagic effectors Atg5, Atg12, Atg16L and LC3. Alfy overexpression leads to elimination of aggregates in an Atg5-dependent manner, and likewise, to protection in a neuronal and Drosophila model of polyglutamine toxicity. We propose that Alfy plays a key role in selective macroautophagy, by bridging cargo to the molecular machinery that builds autophagosomes.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by neuronal accumulation of the mutant protein huntingtin. Improving clearance of the mutant protein is expected to prevent cellular dysfunction and neurodegeneration in HD. We report here that such clearance can be achieved by posttranslational modification of the mutant Huntingtin (Htt) by acetylation at lysine residue 444 (K444). Increased acetylation at K444 facilitates trafficking of mutant Htt into autophagosomes, significantly improves clearance of the mutant protein by macroautophagy, and reverses the toxic effects of mutant huntingtin in primary striatal and cortical neurons and in a transgenic C. elegans model of HD. In contrast, mutant Htt that is rendered resistant to acetylation dramatically accumulates and leads to neurodegeneration in cultured neurons and in mouse brain. These studies identify acetylation as a mechanism for removing accumulated protein in HD, and more broadly for actively targeting proteins for degradation by autophagy.
Using a cell fusion assay, we show here that in addition to complete fusion SNAREs also promote hemifusion as an alternative outcome. Approximately 65% of events resulted in full fusion, and the remaining 35% in hemifusion; of those, approximately two thirds were permanent and approximately one third were reversible. We predict that this relatively close balance among outcomes could be tipped by binding of regulatory proteins to the SNAREs, allowing for dynamic physiological regulation between full fusion and reversible kiss-and-run–like events.
We utilize structurally targeted peptides to identify a “tC fusion switch” inherent to the coil domains of the neuronal t-SNARE that pairs with the cognate v-SNARE. The tC fusion switch is located in the membrane-proximal portion of the t-SNARE and controls the rate at which the helical bundle that forms the SNAREpin can zip up to drive bilayer fusion. When the fusion switch is “off” (the intrinsic state of the t-SNARE), zippering of the helices from their membrane-distal ends is impeded and fusion is slow. When the tC fusion switch is “on,” fusion is much faster. The tC fusion switch can be thrown by a peptide that corresponds to the membrane-proximal half of the cognate v-SNARE, and binds reversibly to the cognate region of the t-SNARE. This structures the coil in the membrane-proximal domain of the t-SNARE and accelerates fusion, implying that the intrinsically unstable coil in that region is a natural impediment to the completion of zippering, and thus, fusion. Proteins that stabilize or destabilize one or the other state of the tC fusion switch would exert fine temporal control over the rate of fusion after SNAREs have already partly zippered up.
SNAP-25; liposome; syntaxin; vesicle; VAMP
Is membrane fusion an essentially passive or an active process? It could be that fusion proteins simply need to pin two bilayers together long enough, and the bilayers could do the rest spontaneously. Or, it could be that the fusion proteins play an active role after pinning two bilayers, exerting force in the bilayer in one or another way to direct the fusion process. To distinguish these alternatives, we replaced one or both of the peptidic membrane anchors of exocytic vesicle (v)- and target membrane (t)-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor) with covalently attached lipids. Replacing either anchor with a phospholipid prevented fusion of liposomes by the isolated SNAREs, but still allowed assembly of trans-SNARE complexes docking vesicles. This result implies an active mechanism; if fusion occurred passively, simply holding the bilayers together long enough would have been sufficient. Studies using polyisoprenoid anchors ranging from 15–55 carbons and multiple phospholipid-containing anchors reveal distinct requirements for anchors of v- and t-SNAREs to function: v-SNAREs require anchors capable of spanning both leaflets, whereas t-SNAREs do not, so long as the anchor is sufficiently hydrophobic. These data, together with previous results showing fusion is inhibited as the length of the linker connecting the helical bundle-containing rod of the SNARE complex to the anchors is increased (McNew, J.A., T. Weber, D.M. Engelman, T.H. Sollner, and J.E. Rothman, 1999. Mol. Cell. 4:415–421), suggests a model in which one activity of the SNARE complex promoting fusion is to exert force on the anchors by pulling on the linkers. This motion would lead to the simultaneous inward movement of lipids from both bilayers, and in the case of the v-SNARE, from both leaflets.
lipid mixing; isoprene; liposome; lipid anchor; vesicular transport