Both nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 1 (NR2F1) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical roles in the developing and functional inner ear. Based on previous studies suggesting interplay between NR2F1 and miRNAs, we investigated the coregulation between NR2F1 and miRNAs to better understand the regulatory mechanisms of inner ear development and functional maturation.
Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified 11 potential miRNAs that might coregulate target genes with NR2F1 and analyzed their targets and potential roles in physiology and disease. We selected 6 miRNAs to analyze using quantitative real-time (qRT) -PCR and found that miR-140 is significantly down-regulated by 4.5-fold (P=0.004) in the inner ear of NR2F1 knockout (Nr2f1–/–) mice compared to wild-type littermates but is unchanged in the brain. Based on this, we performed chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by qRT-PCR and confirmed that NR2F1 directly binds and regulates both miR-140 and Klf9
vivo. Furthermore, we performed luciferase reporter assay and showed that miR-140 mimic directly regulates KLF9-3’UTR, thereby establishing and validating an example coregulatory network involving NR2F1, miR-140, and Klf9.
We have described and experimentally validated a novel tissue-dependent coregulatory network for NR2F1, miR-140, and Klf9 in the inner ear and we propose the existence of many such coregulatory networks important for both inner ear development and function.
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Arrhythmias are associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Recent work illustrates that many cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by a pathologic imbalance between kinase and phosphatase activities in excitable cardiomyocytes.
We tested the relationship between myocyte kinase/phosphatase imbalance and cellular and whole animal arrhythmia phenotypes associated with ankyrin-B cardiac syndrome.
Using a combination of biochemical, electrophysiological, and in vivo approaches, we tested the ability of CaMKII inhibition to rescue imbalance in kinase/phosphatase pathways associated with human ankyrin-B-associated cardiac arrhythmia.
The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2), a validated target of kinase/phosphatase regulation in myocytes, displays abnormal CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation (pS2814 hyperphosphorylation) in ankyrin-B+/− heart. Notably, RyR2 dysregulation is rescued in myocytes from ankyrin-B+/− mice overexpressing a potent CaMKII-inhibitory peptide (AC3I) and aberrant RyR2 open probability observed in ankyrin-B+/− hearts is normalized by treatment with the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. CaMKII-inhibition is sufficient to rescue abnormalities in ankyrin-B+/− myocyte electrical dysfunction including cellular afterdepolarizations, and significantly blunts whole animal cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in response to elevated sympathetic tone.
These findings illustrate the complexity of the molecular components involved in human arrhythmia and define regulatory elements of the ankyrin-B pathway in pathophysiology. Furthermore, the findings illustrate the potential impact of CaMKII-inhibition in the treatment of a congenital form of human cardiac arrhythmia.
ankyrin; CaMKII; ryanodine receptor; spectrin; arrhythmia
In this study, we investigate whether pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) can target regions of lung injury associated with influenza infection.
Materials & methods
Fluorophore-conjugated pHLIP was injected intraperitoneally into mice infected with a sublethal dose of H1N1 influenza and visualized histologically.
pHLIP specifically targeted inflamed lung tissues of infected mice in the later stages of disease and at sites where alveolar type I and type II cells were depleted. Regions of pHLIP-targeted lung tissue were devoid of peroxiredoxin 6, the lung-abundant antioxidant enzyme, and were deficient in pneumocytes. Interestingly, a pHLIP variant possessing mutations that render it insensitive to pH changes was also able to target damaged lung tissue.
pHLIP holds potential for delivering therapeutics for lung injury during influenza infection. Furthermore, there may be more than one mechanism that enables pHLIP variants to target inflamed lung tissue.
delivery; inflammation; influenza; peptide; pHLIP
Human oncogene DEK has been shown to be upregulated in a number of neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to investigate DEK expression level in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), analyze the correlation between DEK expression and CLL prognostic markers, and characterize the role of DEK in the response to either chemotherapeutic drugs or nongenotoxic activators of the p53 pathway. DEK mRNA was evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and primary CLL samples were treated in vitro with either fludarabine or Nutlin-3 to explore the interaction of p53 status and DEK mRNA expression. The median expression levels of DEK mRNA were 6.792 × 10−2 (1.438 × 10−2−3.201 × 10−1) in 65 patients with CLL. A marked increase of DEK mRNA expression was observed in the CLL patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene (p = 0.025), CD38-positive (p = 0.047), del(17p13) (p = 0.006). Both fludarabine and Nutlin-3 significantly downregulated DEK in the primary CLL cells which were with normal function of p53, or without deletion or mutation of p53 (p = 0.042, p = 0.038; p = 0.021, p = 0.017; p = 0.037, p = 0.017). However, the downregulation of DEK was not observed in the primary CLL cells which were with dysfunction of p53, or with deletion or mutation of p53 (p = 0.834, p = 0.477; p = 0.111, p = 0.378; p = 0.263, p = 0.378). These data show that DEK might be applied for the assessment of prognosis in patients with CLL, and fludarabine and Nutlin-3 regulate DEK expression depended on p53 status.
chronic leukemia lymphoma; DEK; p53; fludarabine; Nutlin-3
MicroRNAs (miRNA), a class of ~22-nucleotide RNA molecules, are important gene regulators that bind to the target sites of mRNAs to inhibit the gene expressions either through translational inhibition or mRNA destabilization. There are growing evidences that miRNAs have played several regulatory roles in opioid pharmacology. Like other research fields such as cancer biology, the area where numerous miRNAs are found to be involved in gene regulation, we assume that in opioid studies including research fields of drug additions and opioid receptor regulation, there may be more miRNAs waiting to be discovered. This review will summarize our current knowledge of miRNA functions on opioids biology and briefly describe future research directions of miRNAs related to opioids.
miRNA; GPCR; opioid receptor; fentanyl; morphine; addiction
Lung disease (LD) due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL) has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide.
This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed.
There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM), 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis.
Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, with metastasis as the main reason for the mortality. CELF1 is an RNA-binding protein controlling the post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to cell survival. As yet, there is little knowledge of CELF1 expression and biological function in lung cancer. This study investigated the expression levels of CELF1 in lung cancer tissues and the biological function of CELF1 in lung cancer cells.
CELF1 mRNA expression was determined in lung cancer and normal tissues, and the relationship between the expression level of CELF1 and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. The biological function of CELF1 in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines growth was examined.
The expression of CELF1 was higher in human lung cancer tissues compared with the normal lung tissue. Lentiviral-mediated transfection of CELF1 siRNA effectively silenced the expression of CELF1 in both A549 and H1299 cells. Moreover, CELF1 knockdown markedly reduced the survival rate of lung cancer cells. Colony formation assays revealed a reduction in the number and size of lung cancer cell colonies from CELF1 knockdown.
These results indicated that CELF1 may have significant roles in the progression of lung cancer, and suggested that siRNA mediated silencing of CELF1 could be an effective tool in lung cancer treatment.
Lung cancer; CELF1 gene; Proliferation
As a critical member of the p53 family of transcription factors, p63 has been implicated a role in development than in tumor formation, because p63 is seldom mutated in human cancers, while p63 null mice exhibit severe developmental abnormalities without increasing cancer susceptibility. Notably, besides the major epithelial and cardiac defect, p63 deficient mice show severe limb and craniofacial abnormalities. In addition, humans with p63 mutations also show severe limb and digit defects, suggesting a putative role of p63 in skeletal development. There are eight p63 variants which encode for the TAp63 and ΔNp63 isoforms by alternative promoters. How these isoforms function during skeletal development is currently largely unknown. Our recent transgenic studies suggest a role of TAP63α, but not ΔNP63α, during embryonic long bone development. However, the moderate skeletal phenotypes in the TAP63α transgenic mice suggest requirement of additional p63 isoform(s) for the limb defects in p63 null mice. Here, we report analysis of mouse p63 variants in MCT and ATDC5 cells, two cell models undergo hypertrophic differentiation and mimic the process of endochondral bone formation upon growth arrest or induction. We detected increased level of p63 variants in hypertrophic MCT cells by regular RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis by qRT-PCR, we detected significantly upregulated level of γ variant (p<0.05), but not α or β variant (p>0.05), in hypertrophic MCT cells than in proliferative MCT cells. Moreover, we detected upregulated TAP63γ in ATDC5 cells undergoing hypertrophic differentiation. Our results suggest that TAp63γ plays a positive role during endochondral bone formation.
Mouse chondrocytes; p63 variants; TAp63γ; qRT-PCR
Adolescent smoking is a worldwide problem that is particularly severe in low- and middle-income countries. Many endogenous and environmental factors affect the intention to smoke, so a comprehensive model is needed to understand the significance and relationship of predictors. The study aimed to test the associations among information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model constructs as predictors of intention to smoke in junior high school students in Shanghai, China.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 16,500 junior high school students in Shanghai, China. Data on tobacco-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors were collected from students. Structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the IMB model.
The mean age of participants was 13.8 years old (standard deviation = 1.02; range 11–17). The experimental smoking rate among junior high school students was 6.6% and 8.7% of the participants expected that they would be smokers in 5 years. The IMB model provided acceptable fit to the data (comparative fit index = 0.984, root mean square error of approximation = 0.04). Intention to smoke was predicted by behavioral skills (β= 0.670, P < 0.001) and motivation (β= 0.095, P<0.001) among junior high school students.
The IMB model provides a good understanding of the predictors of intention to smoke and it suggests future interventions among junior high school students should focus on improving motivation and behavioral skills.
A newly selected anti-receptor (anti-EGFR) aptamer was conjugated to gold nanoparticles via a facile hybridization method and was found to specifically and quantitatively direct the delivery of gold nanoparticles to cells expressing EGFR through receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Epigenetic dysregulation has emerged as a major contributor to tumorigenesis. Histone methylation is a well-established mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is dynamically modulated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases. The pathogenic role of histone methylation modifiers in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) demethylase KDM2A (also called FBXL11 and JHDM1A) is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC tumors and cell lines. KDM2A and its catalytic activity were required for in vitro proliferation and invasion of KDM2A-overexpressing NSCLC cells. KDM2A overexpression in NSCLC cells with low KDM2A levels increased cell proliferation and invasiveness. KDM2A knockdown abrogated tumor growth and invasive abilities of NSCLC cells in mouse xenograft models. We identified dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) as a key KDM2A target gene and found that DUSP3 dephosphorylates ERK1/2 in NSCLC cells. KDM2A activated ERK1/2 through epigenetic repression of DUSP3 expression via demethylation of dimethylated H3K36 at the DUSP3 locus. High KDM2A levels correlated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. These findings uncover an unexpected role for a histone methylation modifier in activating ERK1/2 in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis, suggesting that KDM2A may be a promising therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Except for the most organized mature hepatocytes, liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) can differentiate into many other types of cells in the liver including cholangiocytes. In addition, LSPCs are demonstrated to be able to give birth to other kinds of extra-hepatic cell types such as insulin-producing cells. Even more, under some bad conditions, these LSPCs could generate liver cancer stem like cells (LCSCs) through malignant transformation. In this review, we mainly concentrate on the molecular mechanisms for controlling cell fates of LSPCs, especially differentiation of cholangiocytes, insulin-producing cells and LCSCs. First of all, to certificate the cell fates of LSPCs, the following three features need to be taken into account to perform accurate phenotyping: (1) morphological properties; (2) specific markers; and (3) functional assessment including in vivo transplantation. Secondly, to promote LSPCs differentiation, systematical attention should be paid to inductive materials (such as growth factors and chemical stimulators), progressive materials including intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways, and implementary materials (such as liver enriched transcriptive factors). Accordingly, some recommendations were proposed to standardize, optimize, and enrich the effective production of cholangiocyte-like cells out of LSPCs. At the end, the potential regulating mechanisms for generation of cholangiocytes by LSPCs were carefully analyzed. The differentiation of LSPCs is a gradually progressing process, which consists of three main steps: initiation, progression and accomplishment. It’s the unbalanced distribution of affecting materials in each step decides the cell fates of LSPCs.
Liver stem/progenitor cells; Cholangiocytes; Biliary differentiation; Unbalanced distribution of materials; Cell therapy
Effective post-infarction repair requires timely suppression of innate immune signals to prevent the catastrophic consequences of uncontrolled inflammation on cardiac geometry and function. In macrophages, Interleukin Receptor-Associated Kinase (IRAK)-M acts as a functional decoy preventing uncontrolled TLR/Interleukin-1-mediated responses. Our study investigates the role of IRAK-M as a negative regulator of the post-infarction inflammatory response and as a modulator of cardiac remodeling.
Methods and results
In WT mouse infarcts IRAK-M was upregulated in infiltrating macrophages and fibroblasts exhibiting a biphasic response. When compared to wildtype animals, infarcted IRAK-M −/− mice had enhanced adverse remodeling and worse systolic dysfunction; however, acute infarct size was comparable between groups. Adverse remodeling in IRAK-M −/− animals was associated with enhanced myocardial inflammation and protease activation. The protective actions of IRAK-M involved phenotypic modulation of macrophages and fibroblasts. IRAK-M −/− infarcts showed increased infiltration with pro-inflammatory CD11b+/Ly6Chi monocytes; leukocytes harvested from IRAK-M null infarcts exhibited accentuated cytokine expression. In vitro, IRAK-M expression was upregulated in cytokine-stimulated murine cardiac fibroblasts and suppressed their matrix-degrading properties without affecting their inflammatory activity.
Endogenous IRAK-M attenuates adverse post-infarction remodeling suppressing leukocyte inflammatory activity, while inhibiting fibroblast-mediated matrix degradation.
cardiac remodeling; cytokines; macrophages; metalloproteinases; immune system
The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61–vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
pseudorabies virus; virus variant; virulent; immune evasion; viruses; pigs; Bartha-K61 vaccine strain; China
Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral (Arboviral) illness in humans. The genetic features concerning the codon usage of dengue virus (DENV) were analyzed by the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons and the codon adaptation index. The evolutionary distance between DENV and the natural hosts (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) was estimated by a novel formula. Finally, the synonymous codon usage preference for the translation initiation region of this virus was also analyzed. The result indicates that the general trend of the 59 synonymous codon usage of the four genotypes of DENV are similar to each other, and this pattern has no link with the geographic distribution of the virus. The effect of codon usage pattern of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti on the formation of codon usage of DENV is stronger than that of the two primates. Turning to the codon usage preference of the translation initiation region of this virus, some codons pairing to low tRNA copy numbers in the two primates have a stronger tendency to exist in the translation initiation region than those in the open reading frame of DENV. Although DENV, like other RNA viruses, has a high mutation to adapt its hosts, the regulatory features about the synonymous codon usage have been ‘branded’ on the translation initiation region of this virus in order to hijack the translational mechanisms of the hosts.
Neurons excited by stimulation of one ear and suppressed by the other, called EI neurons, are sensitive to interaural intensity disparities (IIDs), the cues animals use to localize high frequencies. EI neurons are first formed in lateral superior olive (LSO), which then sends excitatory projections to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) and the inferior colliculus (IC), both of which contain large populations of EI cells. We evaluate the inputs that innervate EI cells in the IC of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasilensis mexicana, with in vivo whole cell recordings from which we derived excitatory and inhibitory conductances. We show that the basic EI property in the majority of IC cells is inherited from LSO, but each type of EI cell is also innervated by the ipsi- or contralateral DNLL, as well as additional excitatory and inhibitory inputs from monaural nuclei. We identify three EI types, where each type receives a set of projections that are different from the other types. To evaluate the role that the various projections played in generating binaural responses, we used modeling to compute a predicted response from the conductances. We then omitted one of the conductances from the computation to evaluate the degree to which that input contributed to the binaural response. We show that formation of the EI property in the various types is complex, and that some projections exert such subtle influences that they could not have been detected with extracellular recordings or even from intracellular recordings of post-synaptic potentials.
Binaural processing; excitatory-inhibitory neurons; IC; in vivo whole-cell recordings
Dry eye (DE) is a common eye disease, and appropriate animal models are essential to explore the pathogenesis and therapy of DE. In this study, we aimed to establish rabbit models by three methods.
In group A, the lacrimal gland, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane of the left eyes were surgically removed. In group B, the bulbar conjunctiva of the left eyes was burned with 50% trichloroacetic acid. In group C, both methods above were used. The right eyes served as normal controls. The Schirmer I test (SIt), fluorescein staining, and impression cytology were evaluated at baseline and on days 28, 42, and 56.
Both the SIt and goblet cell density were significantly lower in operated eyes compared to the control eyes, while the corneal fluorescein staining scores in the operated eyes were significantly higher than in the control eyes on days 28, 42, and 56 (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). The SIt and goblet cell densities in groups B and C were significantly lower than group A on days 28, 42, and 56 (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). In addition, the corneal fluorescein staining scores in group C were significantly higher than either group A or group B on days 28, 42, and 56, while fluorescein staining scores were higher in group B than group A on days 42 and 56 days (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001), with mean score 3.8 ± 1.30 (group A), 7.4 ± 1.14 (group B) and 10.8 ± 1.30 (group C) on day 56.
Results suggest that three separate DE models, with mild, moderate, and severe manifestations of DE, could be stably established, in which conjunctival goblet cells took an important role.
Dry eye; Rabbit model; Conjunctival impression cytology; Corneal fluorescein staining; Schirmer I test
Background and Aims
Previous studies have shown impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) in carotid and middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion. Little is known about CA in patients with basilar artery (BA) stenosis. We therefore investigated dynamic CA patterns in BA stenosis using transfer function analysis (TFA).
We measured spontaneous oscillations of blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and left MCA and mean arterial pressure (ABP) continuously in 25 patients with BA stenosis (moderate n=16 with 50-69% occlusion and severe n=9 with ≥70% occlusion) and 22 healthy volunteers in supine position during 6 circles per minute deep breath. Analysis was based on the ‘black-box’ model of transfer function deriving phase and gain in both PCA and MCA.
Though changes of phase shift and gain between the patients and healthy controls were observed in MCA, the differences are however not significant. Phase shift in PCA was significantly decreased in severe stenosis when comparing with healthy controls and moderate stenosis (4.2±34.2° VS 41.1±40.4°, 4.2±34.2° VS 34.2±27.2°, both p<0.05), whilst the gain in PCA is increased for moderate BA stenosis and decreased for severe BA stenosis. Furthermore, we found that phase shift were almost abolished in patients with ischemic stroke who developed unfavorable clinical outcome (mRs>2) on the 90 days after stroke onset.
Dynamic CA in PCA reduces in patients with severe BA stenosis and those with ischemic stroke who present poor outcome in 90 days after stroke onset. Phase shift might be a sensitive index prompting impaired CA in posterior circulation.
Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog that is currently the best available single-agent chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. However, efficacy is limited by our inability to deliver sufficient active metabolite into cancer cells without toxic effects on normal tissues. Targeted delivery of gemcitabine into cancer cells could maximize effectiveness and concurrently minimize toxic side effects by reducing uptake into normal cells. Most pancreatic cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase. We utilized a nuclease resistant RNA aptamer that binds and is internalized by EGFR on pancreatic cancer cells to deliver gemcitabine-containing polymers into EGFR-expressing cells and inhibit cell proliferation in vitro. This approach to cell type–specific therapy can be adapted to other targets and to other types of therapeutic cargo.
Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.
Cryptosporidium hominis; genetic recombination; subtype; virulence; molecular epidemiology; cryptosporidiosis; population genetics; parasites; subtype IbA10G2
Regenerative strategies in treatment of stroke have great potential. The goal of the current study was to investigate safety of intrathecal administration of autologous CD34 positive cells in treatment of patients with poststroke. A total of eight male patients with a history of stroke were enrolled. The patients were treated subcutaneously with 5 μg/kg body weight rhG-CSF for 5 consecutive days, and then leukapheresis was performed to concentrate cells for CD34 positive immunoselection. All patients underwent intrathecal administration of CD34 positive cells via lumbar puncture. The primary outcome was safety evaluation for 12-month followup. In addition, behavioral function was evaluated with NIH stroke scale and Barthel index 1, 6, and 12 months after the last treatment, respectively. There were no major adverse events, and abnormal changes of blood tests during the whole treatment process included intrathecal administration and 12-month followup. The main message from the current study was that administration of G-CSF-mobilized autologous CD34 positive cells in patients with poststroke was safe. Future studies with larger population and control group are needed to confirm the safety and investigate the efficacy.
TP63 is required for preservation of epithelial regenerative stasis and regulates the activity of diverse genetic pathways; however, specific effector pathways are poorly understood. Data presented here indicate that reciprocal regulatory interactions between hedgehog signaling and TP63 mediate stage-specific effects on proliferation and clonigenicity of separable enriched mammary stem and progenitor fractions. Analysis of ΔN-p63 and TA-p63 indicates segregated expression in mammary stem and progenitor fractions, respectively, demonstrating that differential TP63 promoter selection occurs during elaboration of mammary progenitors by mammary stem cells. This segregation underlies mammary progenitor-specific expression of Indian Hedgehog, identifying it as a binary transcriptional target of TP63. Hedgehog activation in vivo enhances elaboration of mammary progenitors and decreases label retention within mammary stem cell-enriched fractions, suggesting that hedgehog exerts a mitogenic effect on mammary stem cells. Hedgehog signaling promotes differential TP63 promoter usage via disruption of Gli3 or Gli3R accumulation, and shRNA-mediated disruption of Gli3 expression was sufficient to alter TP63 promoter usage and enhance clonigenicity of mammary stem cells. Finally, hedgehog signaling is enhanced during pregnancy, where it contributes to expansion of the mammary progenitor compartment. These studies support a model in which hedgehog activates elaboration and differentiation of mammary progenitors via differential TP63 promoter selection and forfeiture of self-renewing capacity.
Mammary stem cells; Mammary progenitors; Quiescence; TP63; Hedgehog; Gli3
T lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) is a potential modifier of tumor development and progression. Our previous study in vitro and in nude mice suggested a promotion role of Tiam1 on invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice to investigate the tumorigenetic, invasive and metastatic alterations in the colon and rectum of wild-type and Tiam1 transgenic mice under 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treatment.
Transgenic mice were produced by the method of pronuclear microinlectlon. Whole-body fluorescence imaging (Lighttools, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada), PCR, and immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) were applied sequentially to identify the transgenic mice. The carcinogen DMH (20 mg/kg) was used to induce colorectal tumors though intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections once a week for 24 weeks from the age of 4 weeks on Tiam1 transgenic or non-transgenic mice.
We successfully generated Tiam1/C1199-CopGFP transgenic mice and induced primary tumors in the intestine of both wild type and Tiam1 transgenic mice by DMH treatment. In addition, Tiam1 transgenic mice developed larger and more aggressive neoplasm than wild-type mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining revealed that upregulation of Tiam1 was correlated with increased expression of β-Catenin and Vimentin, and downregulation of E-Cadherin in these mice.
Our study has provided in vivo evidence supporting that Tiam1 promotes invasion and metastasis of CRC, most probably through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in a Tiam1 transgenic mouse model.
Almost all of the processing that occurs in the various lower auditory nuclei converges upon a common target in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) thus making the ICc the nexus of the auditory system. A variety of new response properties are formed in the ICc through the interactions among the excitatory and inhibitory inputs that converge upon it. Here we review studies that illustrate the dominant role inhibition plays in the ICc. We begin by reviewing studies of tuning curves and show how inhibition shapes the variety of tuning curves in the ICc through sideband inhibition. We then show how inhibition shapes selective response properties for complex signals, focusing on selectivity for the sweep direction of frequency modulations (FM). In the final section we consider results from in vivo whole-cell recordings that show how parameters of the incoming excitation and inhibition interact to shape directional selectivity. We show that post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked by different signals can be similar but evoke markedly different spike-counts. In these cases, spike threshold acts as a non-linear amplifier that converts small differences in PSPs into large differences in spike output. Such differences between the inputs to a cell compared to the outputs from the same cell suggest that highly selective discharge properties can be created by only minor adjustments in the synaptic strengths evoked by one or both signals. These findings also suggest that plasticity of response features may be achieved with far less modifications in circuitry than previously supposed.