Previous studies have shown that ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) polymorphisms associated with increased ABCA1 expression result in increased small HDL (high density lipoprotein) subclass particle concentration. The present study examines the effect of treatment with fenofibrate, a drug known to bind peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) which increases the expression of ABCA1 gene, on lipoprotein subclass profiles of individuals stratified by ABCA1 genotypes.
Participants of Genetics of Lipid-lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) were treated with fenofibrate over a three week period. We analyzed six ABCA1 polymorphisms in 287 GOLDN participants with triglyceride concentrations ≥ 150 mg/dL and studied their associations with HDL subclass particle concentrations, as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, before and after treatment.
Fenofibrate treatment did not result in significant changes in small HDL subclass particle concentration. When changes in HDL subclasses were stratified by ABCA1 polymorphism genotypes, there were no statistically significant associations between ABCA1 genotypes and small HDL subclasses before fenofibrate treatment. However, after fenofibrate treatment the KK genotype of R1587K (mean 4.40 μmol/L; p = 0.004) and the RK genotype of R219K (mean 1.60 μmol/L; p = 0.02) polymorphisms were associated with significantly increased small HDL. The R1587K KK genotype (mean 4.80 μmol/L; p = 0.0002) and the R219K KK genotype (mean 2.50 μmol/L; p = 0.02) were also associated with increased HDL particle concentrations.
There is a synergistic effect between ABCA1 polymorphisms and fenofibrate. Thus our study indirectly confirms the role of fenofibrate and genotype in increasing cholesterol efflux, as evidenced by increased small HDL particles.
ABCA1; cardiovascular disease; fenofibrate; lipoprotein; lipoprotein particle size
Mechanical ventilation has been documented to paradoxically cause lung injury. As a commonly used volatile anesthetic, sevoflurane has been proven to possess antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of sevoflurane on inflammation and ventilator-induced lung injury during mechanical ventilation in healthy mice.
The adult healthy mice were divided into four groups, each consisting of ten subjects: mice in group Con-LVT and group Sev-LVT were ventilated with tidal volumes of 8 mL/kg for 4 hours, while those in group Con-HVT and group Sev-HVT were ventilated with tidal volumes of 16 mL/kg instead. Control mice (group Con-LVT and Con-HVT) were subjected to fresh air, while sevoflurane-treated mice (groups Sev- LVT and Sev-HVT) were subjected to air mixed with 1 vol% sevoflurane. After 4 hours of ventilation, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected and analyzed for the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. Lung homogenates were harvested to detect the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Lung damage was evaluated using the modified Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury histological scoring system.
Compared to group Con-LVT, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in BAL fluid, mRNA expressions of NF-κB and HO-1 in lung tissue, and lung injury scores were significantly increased in group Con-HVT; compared to group Con-HVT, group Sev-HVT BAL samples showed decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6; they also showed increased levels of IL-10, the downregulation of NF-κB mRNA, and HO-1 mRNA upregulation; the lung injury scores were significantly lower in group Sev-HVT than group Con-HVT.
Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume might lead to lung injury, which could be significantly, but not completely, attenuated by sevoflurane inhalation by inhibiting the NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokine generation and upregulating HO-1 expression.
mechanical ventilation; sevoflurane; inflammation; lung injury
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of most contagious animal diseases. It affects millions of cloven-hoofed animals and causes huge economic losses in many countries of the world. There are seven serotypes of which three (O, A and Asia 1) are endemic in China. Efficient control of FMD in China is crucial for the prevention and control of FMD in Asia and throughout the world. For the control of FMD, a powerful veterinary administration, a well-trained veterinary staff, a system of rapid and accurate diagnostic procedures and, in many countries, compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals are indispensable. This article strives to outline the Chinese animal disease control and prevention system, in particular for FMD, with the emphasis on diagnostic procedures applied in Chinese laboratories. In addition, new technologies for FMD diagnosis, which are currently in the phase of development or in the process of validation in Chinese laboratories, are described, such as lateral flow devices (LFD), Mab-based ELISAs, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and gold nanopariticle immuno-PCR (GNP-IPCR).
Foot-and-mouth disease; Control strategy; Chinese veterinary administrative system for FMD; Diagnostic technique
There is paucity of risk factors on lung function decline among patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary disease in literature.
Patients with NTM pulmonary disease between January 2000 and April 2011 were retrospectively selected. Sixty-eight patients had at least two pulmonary function tests within a mean follow-up period of 47 months.
Sixty-eight patients were included. They had a median age of 65 years and 65% had impaired lung function (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <80% of predicted value). The mean FEV1 decline was 48 ml/year. By linear regression, younger age (beta: 0.472, p<0.001), initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.349, p = 0.002), male sex (beta: 0.295, p = 0.018), bronchiectasis pattern (beta: 0.232, p = 0.035), and radiographic score >3 (beta: 0.217, p = 0.049) were associated with greater FEV1 decline. Initial FEV1>50% of predicted value (beta: 0.263, p = 0.032) was also associated with greater FVC annual decline, whereas M. kansasii pulmonary disease was marginally associated with greater annual FVC decline (beta: 0.227, p = 0.062).
NTM pulmonary disease is associated with greater decline in lung function in patients who are young, male, with bronchiectasis, and with a high radiographic score. Special attention should be given to patients with these risk factors.
Long-lived mutant mice, both Ames dwarf and growth hormone receptor gene disrupted or knockout (GHRKO) strains, exhibit heightened cognitive robustness and altered IGF1 signaling in the brain. Here we report, in both these long-lived mice, that three up-regulated lead microRNAs, miR-470, −669b, and −681, are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes pertinent to growth hormone (GH)/IGF1 signaling. All three are most prominently localized in the hippocampus, and correspond to reduced expression of key IGF1 signaling genes: IGF1, IGF1R, and PI3 kinase. The decline in these genes’ expression translates into decreased phosphorylation of downstream molecules AKT and FoxO3a. Cultures transfected with either miR-470, −669b, or −681 show repressed endogenous expression of all three genes of the IGF1 signaling axis, most significantly IGF1R, while other similarly up-regulated microRNAs, including let-7g and miR-509, do not induce the same levels of repression. Transduction study in IGF1-responsive cell cultures shows significantly reduced IGF1R expression, and AKT to some extent, most notably by miR-681. This is accompanied by decreased levels of downstream phosphorylated forms of AKT and FoxO3a upon IGF1 stimulation. Suppression of IGF1R by the three microRNAs is further validated by IGF1R 3′UTR reporter assays. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-470, miR-669b, and miR-681 are all functionally able to suppress IGF1R and AKT, two upstream genes controlling FoxO3a phosphorylation status. Their up-regulation in GH signaling-deficient mutant mouse brain suggests reduced IGF1 signaling at the post-transcriptional level, for numerous gains of neuronal function in these long-lived mice.
microRNA; aging; IGF1; IGF1R; growth hormone; Ames dwarf mice and GHRKO mice; miR-470; miR-669b; miR-681; cognitive robustness and longevity
AIM: To examine the clinical features and analyze prognostic factors in a prospective study of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients.
METHODS: From 1995 to 2010, PBC patients without hepatic decompensation seen at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled. Clinical signs and manifestations (pruritus, persistent fatigue, jaundice and pain in the right hypochondrium), laboratory parameters (auto-antibodies for autoimmune hepatic disease, biliary and hepatic enzymes, immunoglobulin, bilirubin, and albumin) and imaging findings were recorded at entry and at specific time points during follow-up. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively, assessed the risk factors for hepatic decompensation and survival.
RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-two PBC patients were enrolled with a median follow-up of 75.2 mo (range, 21-201 mo). The 240 patients were aged 51.5 ± 10.2 years at diagnosis and 91.6% were female. Two hundred and forty-five (93.5%) were seropositive for anti-mitochondrial antibodies. At presentation, 170 patients (64.9%) were symptomatic, while 96 patients (36.6%) had extra-hepatic autoimmune disease. During the follow-up period, 62 (23.7%) patients developed hepatic decompensation of whom four underwent liver transplantation and 17 died. The cumulative survival rate and median survival time were 83.9% and 181.7 mo, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that an incomplete ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) response or inconsistent treatment [P < 0.001; hazard risk (HR) 95%CI = 2.423-7.541], anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) positivity (P < 0.001; HR 95%CI = 2.516-7.137), alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) elevations (P < 0.001; HR 95%CI = 1.357-2.678), and histological advanced liver disease (P = 0.006; HR 95%CI = 1.481-10.847) were predictors of hepatic decompensation. The clinical features and survival of PBC in China are consistent with those described in Western countries.
CONCLUSION: Incomplete UDCA response or inconsistent treatment, ACA positivity, AAR elevations, and advanced histological stage are predictors of decompensation.
Primary biliary cirrhosis; Risk factor; Hepatic decompensation; Survival; Ursodeoxycholic acid response; Anti-centromere antibodies; Histological stage
Detection of a small number of circulating tumor cells is important, especially at the early stages of cancer. The small number of CTCs is hard to detect as very few approaches are sensitive enough to differentiate these from the pool of other cells. Improving the affinity of a selective surface-functionalized molecule is important given the sparsity of CTCs in vivo. There are a number of proteins and aptamers that provide such a high affinity but using a surface nano-texturing increases this affinity even further.
This work reports an approach to improve affinity of tumor cell capture by using novel aptamers against cell-membrane over-expressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR) on a nano-textured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Surface immobilized aptamers are used to specifically capture tumor cells from physiological samples.
The nano-texturing of PDMS increased surface roughness at the nanoscale. This increased the effective surface area and resulted in a significantly higher degree of surface functionalization. The phenomenon resulted in increased density of immobilized EGFR specific RNA aptamer molecules and provided significantly higher efficiency to capture cancer cells from a mixture. The data showed that CTCs could be captured and enriched leading to higher yield, yet higher background.
The comparison of glass slides, plain PDMS and nano-textured PDMS functionalized with aptamers show that a two-fold approach of using aptamers on nano-textured PDMS can be an important factor for cancer cytology devices especially for the idea of lab-on-chip towards higher yield in capture efficiency.
RNA Aptamers; CTC; Human Glioblastoma; Polydimethylsiloxane; Lab-on-Chip; Nano-textured Materials; Microscopy; Basement Membrane
Combining targeted therapy has been extensively investigated in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but it is still unclear whether combining targeted therapy might offer any benefits against standard monotherapy with erlotinib. We thus performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the efficacy and safety of combining targeted therapy versus erlotinib alone as second-line treatment for advanced NSCLC.
Several databases were searched, including Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases. The endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR) and grade 3 or 4 adverse event (AEs). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials.
Eight eligible trials involved 2417 patients were ultimately identified. The intention to treatment (ITT) analysis demonstrated that combining targeted therapy significantly improved OS (HR 0.90, 95%CI: 0.82–0.99, p = 0.024), PFS (HR 0.83, 95%CI: 0.72–0.97, p = 0.018), and ORR (OR 1.35, 95%CI 1.01–1.80, P = 0.04). Sub-group analysis based on phases of trials, EGFR-status and KRAS status also showed that there was a tendency to improve PFS and OS in combining targeted therapy, except that PFS for patients with EGFR-mutation or wild type KRAS favored erlotinib monotherapy. Additionally, more incidence of grade 3 or 4 rash, fatigue and hypertension were observed in combining targeted therapy.
With the available evidence, combining targeted therapy seems superior over erlotinib monotherapy as second-line treatment for advanced NSCLC. More studies are still needed to identify patients who will most likely benefit from the appropriate combining targeted therapy.
Abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is considered an important trigger of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whereas increased CaMKII activity has been proposed to contribute to SR leak and AF-induction, downstream targets of CaMKII remain controversial.
To test the hypothesis that inhibition of CaMKII-phosphorylated type-2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2) prevents AF initiation in FKBP12.6-deficient (−/−) mice.
Methods and Results
Mice lacking RyR2-stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 had a higher incidence of spontaneous and pacing-induced AF compared to wildtype mice. Atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6−/− mice exhibited spontaneous Ca2+ waves (SCaWs) leading to Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) activation and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Mutation S2814A in RyR2, which inhibits CaMKII phosphorylation, reduced Ca2+ spark frequency, SR Ca2+ leak and DADs in atrial myocytes from FKBP12.6−/−:S2814A mice compared with FKBP12.6−/− mice. Moreover, FKBP12.6−/−:S2814A mice exhibited a reduced susceptibility to inducible AF, whereas FKBP12.6−/−:S2808A mice were not protected from AF.
FKBP12.6 mice exhibit AF caused by SR Ca2+ leak, NCX activation and DADs, which promote triggered activity. Genetic inhibition of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation prevents AF induction in FKBP12.6−/− mice by suppressing SR Ca2+ leak and DADs. These results suggest that suppression of RyR2-S2814 phosphorylation as a potential anti-AF therapeutic target.
Atrial fibrillation; CaMKII; delayed afterdepolarization; FKBP12.6; ryanodine receptor
Fluoride-releasing restorative materials are available for remineralization of enamel and root caries. However, dentin remineralization is more difficult than enamel remineralization due to the paucity of apatite seed crystallites along the lesion surface for heterogeneous crystal growth. Extracellular matrix proteins play critical roles in controlling apatite nucleation/growth in collagenous tissues. This study examined the remineralization efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in phosphate-containing simulated body fluid (SBF) by incorporating polyacrylic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate as biomimetic analogs of matrix proteins for remineralizing caries-like dentin. Artificial caries-like dentin lesions incubated in SBF were remineralized over a 6-week period using MTA or MTA containing biomimetic analogs in the absence or presence of dentin adhesive application. Lesion depths and integrated mineral loss were monitored with micro-computed tomography. Ultrastructure of baseline and remineralized lesions were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Dentin remineralization was best achieved using MTA containing biomimetic analogs regardless of whether an adhesive was applied; dentinal tubules within the remineralized dentin were occluded by apatite. It is concluded that the MTA version employed in the study may be doped with biomimetic analogs for remineralization of unbonded and bonded artificial caries-like lesions in the presence of SBF.
biomimetics; caries; micro-computed tomography; mineral trioxide aggregate; tubular occlusion
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the main pathogen causing respiratory tract infection in susceptible populations, particularly in children and the elderly. Specimens were collected from hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI), and the hMPV was detected by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full-length G gene of hMPV was amplified by RT-PCR. A total of 1,410 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected from April 2008 to March 2011, and 114 (10.2%) were positive for hMPV. Most hMPV-positive children were <5 years of age. The hMPV infection rate peaked in the spring-summer season of 2008 to 2009 and 2009 to 2010, while hMPV circulated predominantly during the winter-spring season of 2010 to 2011. The full-length G gene of 23 hMPV strains was amplified, and group A and B viruses accounted for 95.7% (22/23) and 4.3% (1/23), respectively. Genotype A2b of hMPV appeared to be predominant during the study period. Three genotypes (A2b, A1, and B1) were prevalent in the epidemic season of 2008 to 2009, and only genotype A2b was identified in the other two seasons (2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011). The G gene of hMPV was predicted to encode proteins with four different lengths, in which one with 210 amino acids was first identified in China. These findings suggest that hMPV was an important pathogen of ALRTI in pediatric patients, especially those <5 years of age. Genotype A2b of hMPV likely predominates in Southwest China, where other genotypes also circulate.
Apoptosis-associated biomarkers are rarely studied, especially their role in predicting the development of tuberculosis (TB) from latent TB infection and in prognostication.
Patients with TB and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive and IGRA-negative family contacts were evaluated to analyze changes in apoptosis-associated serum biomarkers, which included decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), prostaglandin 2 (PGE2), and lipoxin. The prognostic implications of these serum biomarkers were also analyzed.
One hundred TB patients and 92 IGRA-negative and 91 IGRA-positive family contacts were recruited. The DcR3 and PGE2 levels decreased from the IGRA-negative group to the IGRA-positive group, and peaked in the TB group. Lipoxin decreased to trough in the TB group. The three apoptosis serum markers and age were independent factors discriminating active TB from latent TB infection. In active TB, older age, co-morbidity, and higher serum DcR3 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were independently associated with poorer six-month survival.
Apoptosis-associated serum biomarkers change along with the status of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In close contacts with positive IGRA, high DcR3 and PGE2 and low lipoxin may increase the probability of active TB. Older age, co-morbidity, and high DcR3 and MCP-1 levels might be important prognostic factors that warrant further investigation.
Apoptosis; Decoy receptor 3; Latent tuberculosis infection; Lipoxin; Prostaglandin E2; Tuberculosis
Human brain transcriptome analysis revealed widespread age-related splicing changes in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. While most of the splicing changes take place in development, approximately one-third of them extends into aging.
More than one-third of genes expressed in the human brain change splicing with age.Approximately 30% of observed splicing changes occur in aging.Age-related splicing patterns are largely conserved between the human and macaque brains.High frequency of intron retention events suggests the role of nonsense-mediated decay in age-related gene expression regulation.
While splicing differences between tissues, sexes and species are well documented, little is known about the extent and the nature of splicing changes that take place during human or mammalian development and aging. Here, using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we have characterized splicing changes that take place during whole human lifespan in two brain regions: prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Identified changes were confirmed using independent human and rhesus macaque RNA-seq data sets, exon arrays and PCR, and were detected at the protein level using mass spectrometry. Splicing changes across lifespan were abundant in both of the brain regions studied, affecting more than a third of the genes expressed in the human brain. Approximately 15% of these changes differed between the two brain regions. Across lifespan, splicing changes followed discrete patterns that could be linked to neural functions, and associated with the expression profiles of the corresponding splicing factors. More than 60% of all splicing changes represented a single splicing pattern reflecting preferential inclusion of gene segments potentially targeting transcripts for nonsense-mediated decay in infants and elderly.
alternative splicing; brain; development; human; RNA-seq
Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy.
A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms.
Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.
Diarrhea; Edema; Hypoproteinemia; Intestinal lymphangiectasia; Medium-chain triglyceride diet
Cartilage degradation is a typical characteristic of arthritis. This study examined whether there was a subset of phagocytic chondrocytes that expressed the specific macrophage marker, CD163, and investigated their role in cartilage degradation.
Cartilage from the knee and temporomandibular joints of Sprague-Dawley rats was harvested. Cartilage degradation was experimentally-induced in rat temporomandibular joints, using published biomechanical dental methods. The expression levels of CD163 and inflammatory factors within cartilage, and the ability of CD163+ chondrocytes to conduct phagocytosis were investigated. Cartilage from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis and normal cartilage from knee amputations was also investigated.
In the experimentally-induced degrading cartilage from temporomandibular joints, phagocytes were capable of engulfing neighboring apoptotic and necrotic cells, and the levels of CD163, TNF-α and MMPs were all increased (P<0.05). However, the levels of ACP-1, NO and ROS, which relate to cellular digestion capability were unchanged (P>0.05). CD163+ chondrocytes were found in the cartilage mid-zone of temporomandibular joints and knee from healthy, three-week old rats. Furthermore, an increased number of CD163+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were present in Col-II+ chondrocytes isolated from the degraded cartilage of temporomandibular joints in the eight-week experimental group compared with their age-matched controls. Increased number with enhanced phagocytic activity of CD163+ chondrocytes were also found in isolated Col-II+ chondrocytes stimulated with TNF-α (P<0.05). Mid-zone distribution of CD163+ cells accompanied with increased expression of CD163 and TNF-α were further confirmed in the isolated Col-II+ chondrocytes from the knee cartilage of human patients with osteoarthritis, in contrast to the controls (both P<0.05).
An increased number of CD163+ chondrocytes with enhanced phagocytic activity were discovered within degraded joint cartilage, indicating a role in eliminating degraded tissues. Targeting these cells provides a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis.
Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway.
Retinoic acid (RA) acts by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate a broad spectrum of downstream target genes in most cell types examined. In cytoplasm, RA binds specifically to cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I (CRABPI), and II. Although the function of CRABPI in animals remains the subject of debate, it is believed that CRABPI binding facilitates RA metabolism, thereby modulating the concentration of RA and the type of RA metabolites in cells. The basal promoter of the CrabpI gene is a housekeeping promoter that can be regulated by thyroid hormones (T3), DNA methylation, sphinganine, and ethanol acting on its upstream regulatory region. T3 regulation of CrabpI is mediated by the binding of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) to a TR response element (TRE) approximately 1 kb upstream of the basal promoter. Specifically, in the adipocyte differentiation process, T3 regulation is bimodal and closely associated with the cellular differentiation status: T3 activates CrabpI in predifferentiated cells (e.g., mesenchymal precursors or fibroblasts), but suppresses this gene once cells are committed to adipocyte differentiation. These disparate effects are functions of T3-triggered differential recruitment of coregulatory complexes in conjunction with chromatin looping/folding that alters the configuration of this genomic locus along adipocyte differentiation. Subsequent sliding, disassembly and reassembly of nucleosomes occur, resulting in specific changes in the conformation of the basal promoter chromatin at different stages of differentiation. This chapter summarizes studies illustrating the epigenetic regulation of CrabpI expression during adipocyte differentiation. Understanding the pathways regulating CrabpI in this specific context might help to illuminate the physiological role of CRABPI in vivo.
CRABPI; retinoic acid; thyroid hormone; RIP140; TRAP220; chromatin remodeling
RIP140 (Receptor-interacting protein 140) is highly expressed in mature adipocytes and functions as a co-repressor for gene expression involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. In adipocytes, activated PKCε (Protein kinase C epsilon) phosphorylates nuclear RIP140 which is then subsequently arginine methylated and exported to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, RI140 can elicit additional activities. Here we report a new functional role for cytoplasmic RIP140 in adipocyte in regulating adiponectin secretion. Targeting cytoplasmic RIP140 by knocking down RIP140 itself or its nuclear export trigger, PKCε, promotes the secretion of adiponectin without affecting the production or oligomerization of adiponectin. Consequentially, conditioned media from either RIP140- or PKCε-silenced adipocytes, which contain higher levels of adiponectin, enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and reduce gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Further, these effects can be inhibited by an adiponectin-neutralizing antibody. The effect of cytoplasmic RIP140 in regulating adiponectin secretion is via interacting with AS160, a known RIP140-interacting protein. This study reveals a new functional role for cytoplasmic RIP140 in modulating adiponectin vesicle secretion, and suggests that targeting cytoplasmic RIP140 may be a potentially effective therapeutic strategy to improve adiponectin secretion and possibly to manage metabolic disorders.
RIP140; cytoplasmic; Adiponectin; Insulin sensitivity; Glucose uptake; Gluconeogenesis
AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of itopride vs other drugs (placebo, domperidone, mosapride) for functional dyspepsia (FD).
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of itopride for FD were retrieved from databases. Relevant information was extracted and analyzed, using the relative risk (RR) and weighted mean deviation, as appropriate. A random or fixed effect model was used, based on the heterogeneity of the included articles, and visual inspection of funnel plots was used to evaluate publication bias.
RESULTS: Nine RCTs enrolling 2620 FD cases were included; 1372 cases received itopride treatment and 1248 cases received placebo or other drugs (control groups). Compared with control groups, itopride had superior RR values of 1.11 [95%CI: (1.03, 1.19), P = 0.006], 1.21 [95%CI: (1.03, 1.44), P = 0.02], and 1.24 [95%CI: (1.01, 1.53), P = 0.04] for global patient assessment, postprandial fullness, and early satiety, respectively. For the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire score, the weighted mean deviation was -1.38 [95%CI: (-1.75, -1.01), P < 0.01]. The incidence of adverse effects was similar in the itopride and control groups. The funnel plots for all indicators showed no evidence of publication bias.
CONCLUSION: Itopride has good efficacy in terms of global patients assessment, postprandial fullness, and early satiety in the treatment of patients with FD and shows a low rate of adverse reactions. Itopride can greatly improve FD syndromes-score.
Itopride; Functional dyspepsia; Meta-analysis; Randomized controlled trials; Prokinetic agents
Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics.
In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data.
Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting.
This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.
Adolescent; Internet addiction; Risk factors; China
The association between polymorphisms of α-adducin (ADD1) gene and essential hypertension is still unclear. Thus, we carried out a case-control study and an interaction analysis to test whether ADD1 is a common candidate gene for hypertension in the Chinese population. Blood samples and information including body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, and alcohol abuse were collected. Meanwhile, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride were measured by automatic biochemistry analyzer. All 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) within ADD1 gene were genotyped by SNPstream genotyping system. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify the interactions among the SNPs and the non-genetic factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and BMI were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Result from genotyping indicated that rs4963 was significantly associated with essential hypertension. After stratification by gender, rs4963 was associated with essential hypertension only in males. MDR analysis indicated that interaction among BMI, rs4963, and rs16843452 were involved in susceptibility of hypertension. The present study indicated that rs4963 within ADD1 gene was associated with essential hypertension in Chinese population, which might be related to altered exonic splicing and disrupted gene regulation.
To evaluate the effect of corneal graft diameter on therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for fungal keratitis.
A total of 116 patients (116 eyes) suffered from fungal keratitis underwent PKP at the Affiliated Hospital of Medical College Qingdao University from May 2006 to May 2010. They were divided into two groups according to the corneal graft diameter. 64 eyes' corneal graft diameter was 8.00mm or larger and 52 eyes' graft diameter was smaller than 8.00mm. The follow-up time was 2 years. The postoperative visual acuity and complications were documented and compared.
Sixty-two (96.88%) eyes and fifty (96.15%) eyes preserved eyeballs respectively in two groups. There was no statistical difference in postoperative visual acuity (P=0.961), corneal graft clear rate (P=0.132) or the incidence of recurred fungal infection (P=0.770) between two groups. But there was a higher incidence of graft rejection (P=0.020) and secondary glaucoma (P=0.039) in group with corneal graft diameter 8.00mm or larger.
PKP is an effective treatment approach for fungal keratitis. There is a higher incidence of complications in large-diameter PKP for fungal keratitis. Effective, preventive and therapeutic measures can improve the prognosis.
keratoplasty; penetrating; eye infection; fungal; corneal graft
Raw and processed Radix Polygoni Multiflori have been used in the prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hyperlipidemia, and related diseases in Asian counties for centuries. The lipid regulation ability of raw and processed Poligoni Multiflori Radix were compared in high-fat diet fed rats in this research. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood and liver tissue were all significantly higher in model rats. However, triglyceride (TG) contents increased only in liver tissue, not in the blood samples. The rats fed the high-fat diets were considered the model of type IIa hyperlipidemia and early-stage nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Both Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) revealed TC-lowing effects, and middling doses of RPMP displayed the most significant TC-lowing effects, as indicated by blood samples. Neither RPM nor RPMP was found to reduce LDL-C in rats' blood. Nevertheless, RPM showed dose-dependent TC- and TG-lowing effects in the liver tissue samples. In conclusion, RPM showed more pronounced effects on lipid regulation in liver samples in the treatment of early-stage NAFLD. RPMP, however, displayed better effects in regulating lipids in circulating blood for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
The objective of this study was to quantify soil methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions when converting from minimum and no-tillage systems to subsoiling (tilled soil to a depth of 40 cm to 45 cm) in the North China Plain. The relationships between CH4 and N2O flux and soil temperature, moisture, NH4+-N, organic carbon (SOC) and pH were investigated over 18 months using a split-plot design. The soil absorption of CH4 appeared to increase after conversion from no-tillage (NT) to subsoiling (NTS), from harrow tillage (HT) to subsoiling (HTS) and from rotary tillage (RT) to subsoiling (RTS). N2O emissions also increased after conversion. Furthermore, after conversion to subsoiling, the combined global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O increased by approximately 0.05 kg CO2 ha−1 for HTS, 0.02 kg CO2 ha−1 for RTS and 0.23 kg CO2 ha−1 for NTS. Soil temperature, moisture, SOC, NH4+-N and pH also changed after conversion to subsoiling. These changes were correlated with CH4 uptake and N2O emissions. However, there was no significant correlation between N2O emissions and soil temperature in this study. The grain yields of wheat improved after conversion to subsoiling. Under HTS, RTS and NTS, the average grain yield was elevated by approximately 42.5%, 27.8% and 60.3% respectively. Our findings indicate that RTS and HTS would be ideal rotation tillage systems to balance GWP decreases and grain yield improvements in the North China Plain region.
Evidence is building steadily on the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy in pain relief and repeated acupuncture-induced pain relief is accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neural synaptic plasticity. To further test the cellular and molecular changes underlying analgesic effect of acupuncture, the global change of acupuncture associated protein profiles in the hippocampus under neuropathic pain condition was profiled.
The chronic constrictive injury (CCI) model was established by ligature of the unilateral sciatic nerve in adult Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into normal control (NC) group, CCI group, and CCI with electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation group. EA was applied to bilateral Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) in the EA group. Differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus in the three groups were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The functional clustering of the identified proteins was analyzed by Mascot software.
After CCI, the thermal pain threshold of the affected hind footpad was decreased and was reversed gradually by 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. Following EA, there were 19 hippocampal proteins identified with significant changes in expression (>2-fold), which are involved in metabolic, physiological, and cellular processes. The top three canonical pathways identified were “cysteine metabolism”, “valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation” and “mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling”.
These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA is mediated by regulation of hippocampal proteins related to amino acid metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway.
Acupuncture analgesia; Cumulative effect; Hippocampus; Chronic constrictive injury