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1.  Serum microRNA 143 and microRNA 215 as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:135.
Background
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is regarded as one of the most common malignancies and among the leading causes of cancer death among the whole world. The most urgent needs are to find sensitive markers for early diagnosis or monitor postoperative recurrence and to give adequate treatment for HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as a group of small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous RNA interference to regulate expression of the targeted genes. This study was conducted to detect the application of miR-143 and miR-215 in the diagnosis of HCC.
Methods
A total of 340 serum samples (127 samples from controls, 118 samples from hepatitis and 95 samples from HCC patients) were collected. The levels of the two mature miRNAs (miR-143 and miR-215) were detected by probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) in controls, hepatitis and HCC patients. Besides, the relationship between miR-143 and miR-215 levels and clinical and pathological factors was explored.
Results
We found that the expression of serum miR-215 was distinctly increased in chronic hepatitis compared with controls (mean ± SD: 6.79 ± 0.72 vs. 3.46 ± 0.37, P < 0.001 and mean ± SD: 8.38 ± 0.87 vs. 3.46 ± 0.37, P < 0.001). In addition, we conduct ROC analyses to detect the potential application of miR-143 and miR-215 in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis and HCC. Our results showed that miR-143 and miR-215 might be a potential biomarker for the hepatitis and HCC.
Conclusions
In conclusion, the expression of miR-143 and miR-215 in serum were significantly up-regulated in patients with chronic hepatitis and HCC. Due to its reasonable sensitivity and specificity for both diseases, miR-143 and miR-215 could be as potential circulating biomarkers.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1048932281272754
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-135
PMCID: PMC4226970  PMID: 24993656
2.  Effects of three blood purification methods on serum fibroblast growth factor-23 clearance in patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing maintenance hemodialysis 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of three blood purification methods on fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) clearance in patients with hyperphosphatemia undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). In addition, the correlation between serum FGF-23 and phosphorus (Pi) levels and the clinical implications were identified. Sixty-five MHD patients with hyperphosphatemia were randomly divided into three groups: Hemodialysis, HD (n=23); hemodiafiltration, HDF (n=21); and hemodialysis+hemoperfusion, HD+HP (n=21) groups. Serum Pi, FGF-23, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and associated bio-marker levels were measured prior to and following treatment. The expression level of serum FGF-23 was observed to be positively correlated with Pi (r=0.45, P<0.01). The three blood purification methods that were adopted for the present study exhibited significant and effective clearance of serum Pi (P<0.05). The post-treatment serum FGF-23 levels were significantly decreased in the HDF and HD+HP groups (P<0.05). Therefore, HDF may be an effective method for clearing serum FGF-23 in MHD patients exhibiting hyperphosphatemia.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1543
PMCID: PMC3964936  PMID: 24669256
hyperphosphatemia; fibroblast growth factor-23; hemodialysis; hemodiafiltration; hemoperfusion
6.  Concurrent paclitaxel-based chemo-radiotherapy for post-surgical microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial margin (R1 resection) in non-small-cell lung cancer 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:36.
Background
The microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial margin after radical surgery (R1 resection) affects prognosis negatively in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. For patients with good performance status, a potential cure still exists. Here, we report the outcomes of concurrent paclitaxel-based chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for NSCLC patients with microscopically positive bronchial margins or peribronchial infiltration.
Methods
A retrospective search in the clinical database was conducted in three hospitals. Patients were identified and evaluated if treated with radiotherapy combined with paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. The objects analyzed were local control time, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity.
Results
Sixty-one patients with microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial stump following pulmonary lobectomy were identified. Forty-six patients who had received concurrent paclitaxel-based CRT were analyzed. The median follow-up was 40 months (range: 15.0–77.5 months). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 97.8%, 60.9% and 36.9%, respectively. The local recurrences were recorded in 19.6% (9/46) patients. Median PFS and OS for the evaluated cohort were 23.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 21.3–24.7] and 32.0 (95% CI: 23.7–40.3) months, respectively. The most common side effects were hematological toxicity (neutropenia, 93.5%; anemia, 89.1%; and thrombocytopenia, 89.1%) and no treatment-related deaths. Grade ≥2 acute radiation-induced pneumonitis and esophagitis were recorded in 43.5% (20/46) and 26.1% (12/46) patients, respectively. By univariate analysis, non-squamous cell lung cancer was associated with a significantly longer survival time (45.1 vs 26.4 months, p = 0.013).
Conclusions
For NSCLC patients with post-surgical microscopic residual tumor at the bronchial stump, concurrent paclitaxel-based chemo-radiotherapy achieved promising outcomes with accepted treatment-related toxicity.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1036-0
PMCID: PMC4324030  PMID: 25655307
7.  Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and superior paraolivary nucleus create directional selectivity of frequency modulations in the inferior colliculus: A comparison of bats with other mammals 
Hearing research  2010;273(0):134-144.
This review considers four auditory brainstem nuclear groups and shows how studies of both bats and other mammals have provided insights into their response properties and the impact of their convergence in the inferior colliculus (IC). The four groups are octopus cells in the cochlear nucleus, their connections with the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), and the connections of the VNLL and SPON with the IC. The theme is that the response properties of neurons in the SPON and VNLL map closely onto the synaptic response features of a unique subpopulation of cells in the IC of bats whose inputs are dominated by inhibition. We propose that the convergence of VNLL and SPON inputs generates the tuning of these IC cells, their unique temporal responses to tones, and their directional selectivities for frequency modulated (FM) sweeps. Other IC neurons form directional properties in other ways, showing that selective response properties are formed in multiple ways. In the final section we discuss why multiple formations of common response properties could amplify differences in population activity patterns evoked by signals that have similar spectrotemporal features.
doi:10.1016/j.heares.2010.03.083
PMCID: PMC4317268  PMID: 20451594
8.  Variant RONΔ160 of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase promotes the growth and invasion in vitro and in vivo in gastric cancer cell lines 
Background
Recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose overexpression has been observed in human gastric cancers. This study aimed to determine whether overexpression of the variant RONΔ160 could induce tumorigenicity of gastric cancer cells in vitro or in vivo, and whether its specific small molecule inhibitor (Compound I) could inhibit the effect of RONΔ160.
Methods
We constructed human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 that was stably transfected with a recombinant plasmid expressing RONΔ160, and the effect of RONΔ160 overexpression and macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) activation on proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of MGC-803 cells were evaluated. Tumor-bearing mice with gastric cancer cells were used to analyze the effects of RONΔ160 overexpression and Compound I on implanted tumor growth.
Results
In vitro, overexpression of RONΔ160 in MGC-803 cells resulted changes to their cell morphology, and promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, overexpression of RONΔ160 increased the proportion of cells in the S phase. The effect of RONΔ160 was significantly enhanced by induction of MSP inducing (p < 0.05). In vivo, RONΔ160 promoted the growth of MGC-803 cells in nude mice, including increased tumor size and weight, and lower tumor incubation period. The Compound I inhibited the tumorigenic abilities of RONΔ160 (p <0.05).
Conclusions
The results indicate that overexpression of the variant RONΔ160 altered the phenotype and tumorigenicity of MGC-803 cells. Its specific small molecule inhibitor could inhibit the effect of RONΔ160. Therefore, the variant RONΔ160 may become a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
doi:10.1186/s12935-015-0157-5
PMCID: PMC4326440
Gastric cancer; RON; RONΔ160; MSP; Tumorigenicity
9.  Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times 
The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2α, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future.
doi:10.1155/2015/367379
PMCID: PMC4332465
10.  Receptor interacting protein 140 attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons and protects against cell death 
Nature communications  2014;5:4487.
Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers many physiological responses in neurons and when uncontrolled can cause ER stress that contributes to neurological disease. Here we show that the unfolded protein response (UPR) in neurons induces rapid translocation of nuclear receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) to the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, RIP140 localizes to the ER by binding to the IP3R. The carboxyl-terminal RD4 domain of RIP140 interacts with the carboxyl-terminal gate-keeping domain of the IP3R. This molecular interaction disrupts the IP3R's “head-tail” interaction, thereby suppressing channel opening and attenuating IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release. This contributes to a rapid suppression of the ER stress response and provides protection from apoptosis in both hippocampal neurons in vitro and in an animal model of ER stress. Thus, RIP140 translocation to the cytoplasm is an early response to ER stress and provides protection against neuronal death.
doi:10.1038/ncomms5487
PMCID: PMC4200015  PMID: 25066731
IP3R; RIP140; ER stress; hippocampal neuron; calcium homeostasis
11.  Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:617861.
Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.
doi:10.1155/2015/617861
PMCID: PMC4317585
12.  An Innovative Anion Regulation Strategy for Energy Bands of Semiconductors: A Case from Bi2O3 to Bi2O(OH)2SO4 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:7770.
How to develop a new, efficient photo catalyst is still a big challenge to us. A suitable band gap is the key for light absorption of semiconductor. Herein, an innovative anion intercalation strategy is, for the first time, developed to regulate the energy band of semiconductor. Typically, we introduce a layered sulfate compound (Bi2O(OH)2SO4) as a new photo catalyst, which has not been known before. Both partial density of states (PDOS) and total density of states (TDOS) have demonstrated that compared with Bi2O3 (2.85 eV), the band gap of Bi2O(OH)2SO4 has been widened to 4.18 eV by the intercalation of sulfate anion. Moreover, the band gap width of oxyacid salt compound is mainly predominated by the number of the outmost electrons (NOE) of central atom of anion. This study suggests that new photo catalysts can be developed by grouping anions with the existing oxides or sulfides.
doi:10.1038/srep07770
PMCID: PMC4297957  PMID: 25597769
13.  Biomimetic remineralization of dentin 
Objectives
Remineralization of demineralized dentin is important for improving dentin bonding stability and controlling primary and secondary caries. Nevertheless, conventional dentin remineralization strategy is not suitable for remineralizing completely-demineralized dentin within hybrid layers created by etch-and-rinse and moderately aggressive self-etch adhesive systems, or the superficial part of a caries-affected dentin lesion left behind after minimally invasive caries removal. Biomimetic remineralization represents a different approach to this problem by attempting to backfill the demineralized dentin collagen with liquid-like amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursor particles that are stabilized by biomimetic analogs of noncollagenous proteins.
Methods
This paper reviewed the changing concepts in calcium phosphate mineralization of fibrillar collagen, including the recently discovered, non-classical particle-based crystallization concept, formation of polymer-induced liquid- precursors (PILP), experimental collagen models for mineralization, and the need for using phosphate-containing biomimetic analogs for biomimetic mineralization of collagen. Published work on the remineralization of resin-dentin bonds and artificial caries-like lesions by various research groups was then reviewed. Finally, the problems and progress associated with the translation of a scientifically-sound concept into a clinically-applicable approach are discussed.
Results and Significance
The particle-based biomimetic remineralization strategy based on the PILP process demonstrates great potential in remineralizing faulty hybrid layers or caries-like dentin. Based on this concept, research in the development of more clinically feasible dentin remineralization strategy, such as incorporating poly(anionic) acid-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursor-containing mesoporous silica nanofillers in dentin adhesives, may provide a promising strategy for increasing of the durability of resin-dentin bonding and remineralizing caries-affected dentin.
doi:10.1016/j.dental.2013.07.013
PMCID: PMC3867526  PMID: 23927881
Biomimetic; Mineralization; Dentin
14.  Unravelling Genes and Pathways Implicated in Working Memory of Schizophrenia in Han Chinese 
Working memory deficit is the core neurocognitive disorder in schizophrenia patients. To identify the factors underlying working memory deficit in schizophrenia patients and to explore the implication of possible genes in the working memory using genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia, computerized delay-matching-to-sample (DMS) and whole genome genotyping data were obtained from 100 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls from the Mental Health Centre of the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. A composite score, delay-matching-to-sample total correct numbers (DMS-TC), was found to be significantly different between the patients and control. On associating quantitative DMS-TC with interactive variables of groups × genotype, one SNP (rs1411832), located downstream of YWHAZP5 in chromosome 10, was found to be associated with the working memory deficit in schizophrenia patients with lowest p-value (p = 2.02 × 10−7). ConsensusPathDB identified that genes with SNPs for which p values below the threshold of 5 × 10−5 were significantly enriched in GO:0007155 (cell adhesion, p < 0.001). This study indicates that working memory, as an endophenotype of schizophrenia, could improve the efficacy of GWAS in schizophrenia. However, further study is required to replicate the results from our study.
doi:10.3390/ijms16012145
PMCID: PMC4307354  PMID: 25608650
working memory; delayed-matching-to-sample test; schizophrenia; genome-wide association study; pathway
15.  Common causes of geriatric medical emergencies in China 
doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2015.01.012
PMCID: PMC4308464
China; Comorbidity; Emergency medicine; The elderly
16.  A Single Hot Event Stimulates Adult Performance but Reduces Egg Survival in the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholitha molesta 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e116339.
Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116339
PMCID: PMC4281249  PMID: 25551751
17.  Clinical observation of the therapeutic effects of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with concurrent chemoradiotherapy-induced grade IV neutropenia 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and side-effects of preventive treatment with pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) on concurrent chemoradiotherapy-induced grade IV neutropenia and to provide a rational basis for its clinical application. A total of 114 patients with concurrent chemoradiotherapy-induced grade IV neutropenia were enrolled. A randomized approach was used to divide the patients into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group included three subgroups, namely a P-50 group, P-100 group and P + R group. The P-50 group had 42 cases, which were given a single 50-μg/kg subcutaneous injection of PEG-rhG-CSF. The P-100 group had 30 cases, which received a single 100-μg/kg subcutaneous injection of PEG-rhG-CSF. The P + R group comprised 22 cases, which were given a single 50-μg/kg subcutaneous injection of PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF 5 μg/kg/day; when the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was ≥2.0×109/l, the administration of rhG-CSF was stopped. The control group (RC group) comprised 20 patients, who received rhG-CSF 5 μg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection until the ANC was ≥2.0×109/l. Changes in the neutrophil proliferation rate and ANC values over time, the neutropenic symptom remission time and incidence of adverse drug reactions were analyzed statistically in each group of patients. In the experimental group, the neutrophil proliferation rate and ANC values were significantly higher than those in the control group; the clinical effects began 12–24 h after treatment in the experimental group, and indicated that the treatment improved neutropenia in ~48 h after treatment. There was no significant difference in the neutrophil proliferation rate and ANC values between the P-50 and P+R groups. In the experimental group, the remission time of neutropenia-induced fever and muscle pain after administration was significantly shorter than that in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The adverse drug reaction rates showed no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group. PEG-rhG-CSF had good efficacy and safety in the treatment of concurrent chemotherapy-induced grade IV neutropenia. For the treatment of concurrent chemotherapy-induced grade IV neutropenia, a single subcutaneous injection of 50 μg/kg PEG-rhG-CSF is the recommended dose. The effects begin at 12–24 h; if the ANC values are not significantly improved during this time, no supplementary administration of rhG-CSF is necessary.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2160
PMCID: PMC4316958  PMID: 25667625
pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; concurrent chemoradiotherapy; grade IV neutropenia
18.  Molecular identification of Trichinella spiralis nudix hydrolase and its induced protective immunity against trichinellosis in BALB/c mice 
Parasites & Vectors  2014;7(1):600.
Background
Nudix hydrolases (Nd) is a widespread superfamily, which is found in all classes of organism, hydrolyse a wide range of organic pyrophosphates and has a ‘housecleaning’ function. The previous study showed that Trichinella spiralis Nd (TsNd) bound to intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), and the vaccination of mice with T7 phage-displayed TsNd polypeptides produced protective immunity. The aim of this study was to clone, express and identify the full-length TsNd and to investigate its immune protection against T. spiralis infection.
Methods
The full-length cDNA sequence of TsNd gene encoding a 46 kDa protein from T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL) was cloned and identified. The antigenicity of rTsNd was analyzed by Western blot. Transcription and expression of TsNd at T. spiralis different stages were observed by RT-PCR and IFT. The levels of the specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies to rTsNd were determined by ELISA. The immune protection of rTsNd against T. spiralis infection was investigated.
Results
Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsNd had a nudix motif located at 226-244aa, which had high homology and the closest evolutionary status with T. pseudospiralis. The rTsNd was obtained after expression and purification. Western blot analysis showed that anti-rTsNd serum recognized the native TsNd protein in crude antigens of muscle larvae (ML), IIL, adult worms (AW) and newborn larvae (NBL), and ES antigens of ML. Transcription and expression of TsNd gene was observed in all developmental stages of T. spiralis (ML, IIL, AW and NBL), with high level expression in IIL. An immunolocalization analysis identified TsNd in the cuticle, stichocytes and reproductive organs of the parasite. Following immunization, anti-rTsNd IgG levels were increased, and the levels of IgG1 were more significantly higher than that of IgG2a. After a challenge infection with T. spiralis, mice immunized with the rTsNd displayed a 57.7% reduction in adult worms and a 56.9% reduction in muscle larval burden.
Conclusions
TsNd induced a partial protective immunity in mice and could be considered as a novel candidate vaccine antigen against trichinellosis.
doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0600-9
PMCID: PMC4287505  PMID: 25522912
Trichinella spiralis; Nudix hydrolases; Protective immunity; Vaccine
19.  Effects of different concentrations of tetramethylpyrazine, an active constituent of Chinese herb, on human corneal epithelial cell damaged by hydrogen peroxide 
AIM
To discuss the effects of different concentrations of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active constituent of Chinese herb, on damaged Shandong human corneal epithelial cell (SDHCEC) induced by hydrogen peroxide.
METHODS
We detected the combined effects of TMP with concentrations ranging from 4 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL and 800 µM hydrogen peroxide on SDHCEC. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was processed at 3, 6 and 12h separately while the detection of cell apoptosis at 6h only by flow cytometry.
RESULTS
The viability of SDHCEC with 0.5 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, 0.125 mg/mL and 0.06 mg/mL TMP joint with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide at 3h and 6h was significantly higher than that with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide only, P<0.05. However, except 0.25 mg/mL, TMP with other concentrations joint with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide at 12h could not significantly inhibit decreased SDHCEC viability induced by 800 µM hydrogen peroxide. At 12h, TMP of 0.5 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, 0.125 mg/mL and 0.06 mg/mL could significantly inhibit SDHCEC early apoptosis induced by 800 µM hydrogen peroxide, most remarkable at 0.25 mg/mL TMP, P<0.05.
CONCLUSION
Our results suggested that hydrogen peroxide can induce apoptosis related damage to SDHCEC. TMP can protect SDHCEC from the damage, and the protective effects may be associated with its anti-apoptosis mechanism.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.06.06
PMCID: PMC4270986  PMID: 25540744
human corneal epithelial cell; cell viability; apoptosis; hydrogen peroxide
20.  Clinical Features and Expressions of Foxp3 and IL-17 in Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis in China 
Background
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct type of pancreatitis associated with a presumed autoimmune mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and expressions of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in type 1 AIP in China and to identify factors for differentiation of AIP from non-AIP chronic pancreatitis (CP).
Material/Methods
We retrospectively reviewed pancreatic specimens with diagnosis of type 1 AIP and non-AIP CP at Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital in China from January 2000 to December 2013. The clinical symptoms, serological data, imaging findings, histopathology, and immunohistochemical findings of Foxp3 and IL-17 in the 2 groups were analyzed.
Results
Twenty-nine patients with type 1 AIP and 20 patients with non-AIP CP were enrolled. Obstructive jaundice was more common in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP (62.1% vs. 30.0%, P=0.042). The diffuse or segmental enlargement of the pancreas was more frequent in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP (72.4% vs. 40.0%, P=0.038). Histopathology of type 1 AIP presented dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, “snowstorm-like” fibrosis and abundant immunoglobulin (Ig) G4+ cells. Foxp3+ cells were more frequently observed in type 1 AIP than in non-AIP CP. IL-17+ cell infiltration was similar between the 2 groups. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between Foxp3+ and IgG4+ cell counts in the pancreas of patients with type 1 AIP.
Conclusions
Type 1 AIP has distinctive symptoms, image, and pathological characteristics, which could be used for differentiation from non-AIP CP. Foxp3+ cells might be helpful to distinguish type 1 AIP from non-AIP CP.
doi:10.12659/MSM.891221
PMCID: PMC4278699  PMID: 25553723
Forkhead Transcription Factors; Immunoglobulin G; Interleukin-17; Pancreatitis; Pancreatitis, Chronic
21.  Reduced mir-29b-3p expression up-regulate CDK6 and contributes to IgA nephropathy 
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis and the etiology of which is complex and multiple, and the pathological damage of IgAN is diversified. MicroRNA is a kind of gene expression suppressor and recently, researchers have found that microRNAs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Herein, we found that miR-29b-3p not miR-29a or miR-29c was significantly down regulated in IgAN patients’ renal tissues. Predicted by bioinformatics tools and confirmed by dual luciferase assay and western blot, we found that the expression of CDK6 was repressed by miR-29b-3p directly. Subsequently, we found that miR-29b-3p down-regulation caused CDK6 overexpression can promote NF-κB signal by phosphorylating p65 which may enhance inflammation during IgAN pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC4307478  PMID: 25664031
MicroRNA; IgA nephropathy; CDK6; p65; phosphorylation
22.  Role of the prostaglandin E2/E-prostanoid 2 receptor signalling pathway in TGFβ-induced mice mesangial cell damage 
Bioscience Reports  2014;34(6):e00159.
The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2 (E-prostanoid 2), plays an important role in mice glomerular MCs (mesangial cells) damage induced by TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1); however, the molecular mechanisms for this remain unknown. The present study examined the role of the EP2 signalling pathway in TGFβ1-induced MCs proliferation, ECM (extracellular matrix) accumulation and expression of PGES (prostaglandin E2 synthase). We generated primary mice MCs. Results showed MCs proliferation promoted by TGFβ1 were increased; however, the production of cAMP and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) was decreased. EP2 deficiency in these MCs augmented FN (fibronectin), Col I (collagen type I), COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2), mPGES-1 (membrane-associated prostaglandin E1), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor) and CyclinD1 expression stimulated by TGFβ1. Silencing of EP2 also strengthened TGFβ1-induced p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and CREB1 (cAMP responsive element-binding protein 1) phosphorylation. In contrast, Adenovirus-mediated EP2 overexpression reversed the effects of EP2-siRNA (small interfering RNA). Collectively, the investigation indicates that EP2 may block p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and CREB1 phosphorylation via activation of cAMP production and stimulation of PGE2 through EP2 receptors which prevent TGFβ1-induced MCs damage. Our findings also suggest that pharmacological targeting of EP2 receptors may provide new inroads to antagonize the damage induced by TGFβ1.
doi:10.1042/BSR20140130
PMCID: PMC4266927  PMID: 25327961
adenovirus; EP2; ERK1/2; PGE2; siRNA; TGFβ1; BP, blood pressure; CCK, cholecystokinin; CKD, chronic kidney disease; Col I, collagen type I; COX2, cyclooxygenase-2; CRE, CREB, cAMP responsive element binding protein; CTGF, connective tissue growth factor; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; ECM, extracellular matrix; EP2, E-prostanoid 2; ERK, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase; FBS, fetal bovine serum; FN, fibronectin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MC, mesangial cell; MOI, multiplicity of infection; mPGES-1, membrane associated prostaglandin E1; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PGES, prostaglandin E2 synthase; PKA, protein kinase A; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; siRNA, small interfering RNA; TGFβ1, transforming growth factor-β1
23.  Serum Gamma - Glutamyltransferase Is Associated with Albuminuria: A Population-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114970.
Background
Serum γ - glutamyltransferase (GGT) is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Albuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and correlated with structural and functional integrity of the vasculature. Our objective was to evaluate the association between serum GGT level and prevalence of albuminuria in a Chinese population.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 9,702 subjects aged 40 years or older. Increased urinary albumin excretion was defined according to the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ranges greater or equal than 30 mg/g. Low-grade albuminuria was defined according to the highest quartile of ACR in participants without increased urinary albumin excretion.
Results
The prevalence of low-grade albuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion were respectively 23.4% and 6.6% in this population and gradually increased across the sex-specific serum GGT quartiles (all P for trend <0.05). In logistic regression analysis, compared with subjects in the lowest quartile of serum GGT level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile was 1.22 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.43] for low-grade albuminuria and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.18–2.04) for increased urinary albumin excretion. In subgroup analysis, significant relationship of serum GGT level with both low-grade albuminuria and increased urinary albumin excretion were detected in women, younger subjects, overweight subjects and in those with hypertension or glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 (all P <0.05).
Conclusion
Serum GGT level is associated with urinary albumin excretion in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114970
PMCID: PMC4263709  PMID: 25500578
24.  Inhibitory effects of dobutamine on human gastric adenocarcinoma 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(45):17092-17099.
AIM: To explore the inhibitory effects of dobutamine on gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: Dobutamine was used to treat gastric adenocarcinoma cells (SGC-7901) and cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of dobutamine combined with cisplatin on cell viability were also analyzed. Cell migration was studied using the wound healing assay, and cell proliferation was analyzed using the colony formation assay. A cell invasion assay was carried out using Transwell cell culture chambers. The cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot and immunocytochemistry were performed to determine the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP) in treated cells.
RESULTS: Dobutamine significantly inhibited cell growth, migration, cell colony formation, and cell invasion into Matrigel. Dobutamine also arrested the cell cycle at G1/S phase, and increased the rate of apoptosis of gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The expression of YAP was detected mainly in the nucleus in the absence of dobutamine. However, reduced expression of phosphorylated YAP was mainly found in the cytosol following treatment with dobutamine.
CONCLUSION: Dobutamine has significant inhibitory effects on gastric adenocarcinoma cells and may be used in neoadjuvant therapy not only for gastric cancer, but also for other tumors.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.17092
PMCID: PMC4258577  PMID: 25493021
Dobutamine; Gastric adenocarcinoma cells; Yes-associated protein; Hippo pathway; Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901; Therapy
25.  Alterations in Ryanodine Receptors and Related Proteins in Heart Failure 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2013;1832(12):10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.06.008.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release plays an essential role in mediating cardiac myocyte contraction. Depolarization of the plasma membrane results in influx of Ca2+ through L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) that in turn triggers efflux of Ca2+ from the SR through ryanodine receptor type-2 channels (RyR2). This process known as Ca2+-induced Ca2+release (CICR) occurs within the dyadic region, where the adjacent transverse (T)-tubules and SR membranes allow RyR2 clusters to release SR Ca2+ following Ca2+ influx through adjacent LTCCs. SR Ca2+ released during systole binds to troponin-C and initiates actin-myosin cross-bridging, leading to muscle contraction. During diastole, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is restored by the resequestration of Ca2+ into the SR by SR/ER Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and by the extrusion of Ca2+ via the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX1). This whole process, entitled excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, is highly coordinated and determines the force of contraction, providing a link between the electrical and mechanical activities of cardiac muscle. In response to heart failure (HF), the heart undergoes maladaptive changes that result in depressed intracellular Ca2+ cycling and decreased SR Ca2+ concentrations. As a result, the amplitude of CICR is reduced resulting in less force production during EC coupling. In this review, we discuss the specific proteins that alter the regulation of Ca2+ during HF. In particular, we will focus on defects in RyR2-mediated SR Ca2+ release.
doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.06.008
PMCID: PMC3800473  PMID: 23770282

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