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1.  Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Accelerates Resolution of Inflammation via Unique Pro-Resolving Mediator--Heme Oxygenase-1 Circuits1 
Resolution of acute inflammation is an active event accompanied by biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM). We employed a systems approach to determine the impact of carbon monoxide (CO) in resolution active programs during self-limited inflammation in mice. Compared to ambient air, inhaled CO gas (250 ppm) significantly limited PMN infiltration (~44%, 6h) into peritoneum and shortened resolution interval from 4 to 2 hours. We profiled exudate lipid mediators (LM) via metabololipidomics, CO reduced leukotriene B4 (21±11 vs. 59±24 pg/mouse, 6h) and elevated SPM including resolvin (Rv) D1 (27±4 vs. 16±5 pg/mouse) and maresin 1 (26±9 vs. 15±3 pg/mouse). With human macrophages, SPM (10 pM–10 nM) elevated heme oxygenase (HO)-1 (~50%, 8h). CO also enhanced HO-1 expression and accumulation of RvD1 and RvD5, an action reversed by blockage of a key SPM biosynthesis enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) type 1. Compared to normoxia, CO increased ~30% phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan with human macrophage, that was further enhanced by SPM (~100%). This CO increased phagocytosis was blocked by 15-LOX inhibition and SPM stimulated phagocytosis was diminished by HO-1 inhibition. In murine peritonitis, both pre-and post-treatment with CO inhalation significantly increased macrophages carrying ingested apoptotic PMN in exudates and enhanced PMN apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that CO accelerates resolution of acute inflammation, shortens resolution intervals, enhances macrophage efferocytosis, and temporally regulates local levels of LM/SPM. Moreover, they provide pro-resolving mechanisms for HO-1/CO that is part of the SPM-initiated resolution circuit.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1202969
PMCID: PMC3679316  PMID: 23650615
macrophages; phagocytosis; resolvin; protectin; maresin
2.  Regulation and Functional Significance of Autophagy in Respiratory Cell Biology and Disease 
Autophagy is a homeostatic process common to all eukaryotic cells that serves to degrade intracellular components. Among three classes of autophagy, macroautophagy is best understood, and is the subject of this Review. The function of autophagy is multifaceted, and includes removal of long-lived proteins and damaged or unneeded organelles, recycling of intracellular components for nutrients, and defense against pathogens. This process has been extensively studied in yeast, and understanding of its functional significance in human disease is also increasing. This Review explores the basic machinery and regulation of autophagy in mammalian systems, methods employed to measure autophagic activity, and then focuses on recent discoveries about the functional significance of autophagy in respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, acute lung injury, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0282TR
PMCID: PMC3547078  PMID: 22984088
autophagy; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; epithelial cells; fibroblasts
3.  Circulating Mitochondrial DNA in Patients in the ICU as a Marker of Mortality: Derivation and Validation 
PLoS Medicine  2013;10(12):e1001577.
In this paper, Choi and colleagues analyzed levels of mitochondrial DNA in two prospective observational cohort studies and found that increased mtDNA levels are associated with ICU mortality, and improve risk prediction in medical ICU patients. The data suggests that mtDNA could serve as a viable plasma biomarker in MICU patients.
Background
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a critical activator of inflammation and the innate immune system. However, mtDNA level has not been tested for its role as a biomarker in the intensive care unit (ICU). We hypothesized that circulating cell-free mtDNA levels would be associated with mortality and improve risk prediction in ICU patients.
Methods and Findings
Analyses of mtDNA levels were performed on blood samples obtained from two prospective observational cohort studies of ICU patients (the Brigham and Women's Hospital Registry of Critical Illness [BWH RoCI, n = 200] and Molecular Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ME ARDS, n = 243]). mtDNA levels in plasma were assessed by measuring the copy number of the NADH dehydrogenase 1 gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Medical ICU patients with an elevated mtDNA level (≥3,200 copies/µl plasma) had increased odds of dying within 28 d of ICU admission in both the BWH RoCI (odds ratio [OR] 7.5, 95% CI 3.6–15.8, p = 1×10−7) and ME ARDS (OR 8.4, 95% CI 2.9–24.2, p = 9×10−5) cohorts, while no evidence for association was noted in non-medical ICU patients. The addition of an elevated mtDNA level improved the net reclassification index (NRI) of 28-d mortality among medical ICU patients when added to clinical models in both the BWH RoCI (NRI 79%, standard error 14%, p<1×10−4) and ME ARDS (NRI 55%, standard error 20%, p = 0.007) cohorts. In the BWH RoCI cohort, those with an elevated mtDNA level had an increased risk of death, even in analyses limited to patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Study limitations include the lack of data elucidating the concise pathological roles of mtDNA in the patients, and the limited numbers of measurements for some of biomarkers.
Conclusions
Increased mtDNA levels are associated with ICU mortality, and inclusion of mtDNA level improves risk prediction in medical ICU patients. Our data suggest that mtDNA could serve as a viable plasma biomarker in medical ICU patients.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Intensive care units (ICUs, also known as critical care units) are specialist hospital wards that provide care for people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. In the US alone, more than 5 million people are admitted to ICUs every year. Different types of ICUs treat different types of problems. Medical ICUs treat patients who, for example, have been poisoned or who have a serious infection such as sepsis (blood poisoning) or severe pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs); trauma ICUs treat patients who have sustained a major injury; cardiac ICUs treat patients who have heart problems; and surgical ICUs treat complications arising from operations. Patients admitted to ICUs require constant medical attention and support from a team of specially trained nurses and physicians to prevent organ injury and to keep their bodies functioning. Monitors, intravenous tubes (to supply essential fluids, nutrients, and drugs), breathing machines, catheters (to drain urine), and other equipment also help to keep ICU patients alive.
Why Was This Study Done?
Although many patients admitted to ICUs recover, others do not. ICU specialists use scoring systems (algorithms) based on clinical signs and physiological measurements to predict their patients' likely outcomes. For example, the APACHE II scoring system uses information on heart and breathing rates, temperature, levels of salts in the blood, and other signs and physiological measurements collected during the first 24 hours in the ICU to predict the patient's risk of death. Existing scoring systems are not perfect, however, and “biomarkers” (molecules in bodily fluids that provide information about a disease state) are needed to improve risk prediction for ICU patients. Here, the researchers investigate whether levels of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with ICU deaths and whether these levels can be used as a biomarker to improve risk prediction in ICU patients. Mitochondria are cellular structures that produce energy. Levels of mtDNA in the plasma (the liquid part of blood) increase in response to trauma and infection. Moreover, mtDNA activates molecular processes that lead to inflammation and organ injury.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers measured mtDNA levels in the plasma of patients enrolled in two prospective observational cohort studies that monitored the outcomes of ICU patients. In the Brigham and Women's Hospital Registry of Critical Illness study, blood was taken from 200 patients within 24 hours of admission into the hospital's medical ICU. In the Molecular Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome study (acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening inflammatory reaction to lung damage or infection), blood was taken from 243 patients within 48 hours of admission into medical and non-medical ICUs at two other US hospitals. Patients admitted to medical ICUs with a raised mtDNA level (3,200 or more copies of a specific mitochondrial gene per microliter of plasma) had a 7- to 8-fold increased risk of dying within 28 days of admission compared to patients with mtDNA levels of less than 3,200 copies/µl plasma. There was no evidence of an association between raised mtDNA levels and death among patients admitted to non-medical ICUs. The addition of an elevated mtDNA level to a clinical model for risk prediction that included the APACHE II score and biomarkers that are already used to predict ICU outcomes improved the net reclassification index (an indicator of the improvement in risk prediction algorithms offered by new biomarkers) of 28-day mortality among medical ICU patients in both studies.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that raised mtDNA plasma levels are associated with death in medical ICUs and show that, among patients in medical ICUs, measurement of mtDNA plasma levels can improve the prediction of the risk of death from the APACHE II scoring system, even when commonly measured biomarkers are taken into account. These findings do not indicate whether circulating cell-free mtDNA increased because of the underlying severity of illness or whether mtDNA actively contributes to the disease process in medical ICU patients. Moreover, they do not provide any evidence that raised mtDNA levels are associated with an increased risk of death among non-medical (mainly surgical) ICU patients. These findings need to be confirmed in additional patients, but given the relative ease and rapidity of mtDNA measurement, the determination of circulating cell-free mtDNA levels could be a valuable addition to the assessment of patients admitted to medical ICUs.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001577.
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information about intensive care
The Society of Critical Care Medicine provides information for professionals, families, and patients about all aspects of intensive care
MedlinePlus provides links to other resources about intensive care (in English and Spanish)
The UK charity ICUsteps supports patients and their families through recovery from critical illness; its booklet Intensive Care: A Guide for Patients and Families is available in English and ten other languages; its website includes patient experiences and relative experiences of treatment in ICUs
Wikipedia has a page on ICU scoring systems (note that Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001577
PMCID: PMC3876981  PMID: 24391478
4.  Histone deacetylase 6–mediated selective autophagy regulates COPD-associated cilia dysfunction 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(12):5212-5230.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves aberrant airway inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke (CS) that are associated with epithelial cell dysfunction, cilia shortening, and mucociliary clearance disruption. Exposure to CS reduced cilia length and induced autophagy in vivo and in differentiated mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs). Autophagy-impaired (Becn1+/– or Map1lc3B–/–) mice and MTECs resisted CS-induced cilia shortening. Furthermore, CS increased the autophagic turnover of ciliary proteins, indicating that autophagy may regulate cilia homeostasis. We identified cytosolic deacetylase HDAC6 as a critical regulator of autophagy-mediated cilia shortening during CS exposure. Mice bearing an X chromosome deletion of Hdac6 (Hdac6–/Y) and MTECs from these mice had reduced autophagy and were protected from CS-induced cilia shortening. Autophagy-impaired Becn1–/–, Map1lc3B–/–, and Hdac6–/Y mice or mice injected with an HDAC6 inhibitor were protected from CS-induced mucociliary clearance (MCC) disruption. MCC was preserved in mice given the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid, but was disrupted in mice lacking the transcription factor NRF2, suggesting that oxidative stress and altered proteostasis contribute to the disruption of MCC. Analysis of human COPD specimens revealed epigenetic deregulation of HDAC6 by hypomethylation and increased protein expression in the airways. We conclude that an autophagy-dependent pathway regulates cilia length during CS exposure and has potential as a therapeutic target for COPD.
doi:10.1172/JCI69636
PMCID: PMC3859407  PMID: 24200693
5.  Inflammasome-regulated Cytokines Are Critical Mediators of Acute Lung Injury 
Rationale: Despite advances in clinical management, there are currently no reliable diagnostic and therapeutic targets for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The inflammasome/caspase-1 pathway regulates the maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-18). IL-18 is associated with injury in animal models of systemic inflammation.
Objectives: We sought to determine the contribution of the inflammasome pathway in experimental acute lung injury and human ARDS.
Methods: We performed comprehensive gene expression profiling on peripheral blood from patients with critical illness. Gene expression changes were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and IL-18 levels were measured in the plasma of the critically ill patients. Wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in IL-18 or caspase-1 were mechanically ventilated using moderate tidal volume (12 ml/kg). Lung injury parameters were assessed in lung tissue, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Measurements and Main Results: In mice, mechanical ventilation enhanced IL-18 levels in the lung, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. IL-18–neutralizing antibody treatment, or genetic deletion of IL-18 or caspase-1, reduced lung injury in response to mechanical ventilation. In human patients with ARDS, inflammasome-related mRNA transcripts (CASP1, IL1B, and IL18) were increased in peripheral blood. In samples from four clinical centers, IL-18 was elevated in the plasma of patients with ARDS (sepsis or trauma-induced ARDS) and served as a novel biomarker of intensive care unit morbidity and mortality.
Conclusions: The inflammasome pathway and its downstream cytokines play critical roles in ARDS development.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201201-0003OC
PMCID: PMC3373064  PMID: 22461369
acute respiratory distress syndrome; inflammasome; interleukin-18; mechanical ventilation
6.  Hyperoxia-Induced LC3B Interacts with the Fas Apoptotic Pathway in Epithelial Cell Death 
Epithelial cell death plays a critical role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. We investigated the involvement of the autophagic marker microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B) in epithelial cell apoptosis after hyperoxia. Prolonged hyperoxia (>95% O2), which causes characteristic lung injury in mice, activated morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy. Hyperoxia induced the time-dependent expression and conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II in mouse lung in vivo and in cultured epithelial cells (Beas-2B, human bronchial epithelial cells) in vitro. Hyperoxia increased autophagosome formation in Beas-2B cells, as evidenced by electron microscopy and increased GFP-LC3 puncta. The augmented LC3B level after hyperoxia was transcriptionally regulated and dependent in part on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. We hypothesized that LC3B plays a regulatory role in hyperoxia-induced epithelial apoptosis. LC3B siRNA promoted hyperoxia-induced cell death in epithelial cells, whereas overexpression of LC3B conferred cytoprotection after hyperoxia. The autophagic protein LC3B cross-regulated the Fas apoptotic pathway by physically interacting with the components of death-inducing signaling complex. This interaction was mediated by caveolin-1 tyrosine 14, which is a known target of phosphorylation induced by hyperoxia. Taken together, hyperoxia-induced LC3B activation regulates the Fas apoptotic pathway and thus confers cytoprotection in lung epithelial cells. The interaction of LC3B and Fas pathways requires cav-1.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0415OC
PMCID: PMC3359946  PMID: 22095627
apoptosis; autophagy; hyperoxia; lung injury; caveolin-1
7.  Autophagy 
Autophagy is a highly conserved homeostatic pathway by which cells transport damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes for degradation. Dysregulation of autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of clinically important disorders in a variety of organ systems but, until recently, little was known about its relationship to diseases of the lung. However, there is now growing evidence at the basic research level that autophagy is linked to the pathogenesis of important pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and tuberculosis. In this review, we provide an introduction to the field of autophagy research geared to clinical and research pulmonologists. We focus on the best-studied autophagic mechanism, macroautophagy, and summarize studies that link the regulation of this pathway to pulmonary disease. Last, we offer our perspective on how a better understanding of macroautophagy might be used for designing novel therapies for pulmonary disorders.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201106-0966CI
PMCID: PMC3262043  PMID: 21836133
autophagy; macroautophagy; lung; disease; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
8.  Carbon Monoxide Activates Autophagy via Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Formation 
Autophagy, an autodigestive process that degrades cellular organelles and protein, plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during environmental stress. Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas and candidate therapeutic molecule, confers cytoprotection in animal models of acute lung injury. The mechanisms underlying CO-dependent lung cell protection and the role of autophagy in this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CO exposure time-dependently increased the expression and activation of the autophagic protein, microtubule-associated protein–1 light chain-3B (LC3B) in mouse lung, and in cultured human alveolar (A549) or human bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, CO increased autophagosome formation in epithelial cells by electron microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 puncta assays. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the activation of autophagy. CO up-regulated mitochondria-dependent generation of ROS in epithelial cells, as assayed by MitoSOX fluorescence. Furthermore, CO-dependent induction of LC3B expression was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the mitochondria-targeting antioxidant, Mito-TEMPO. These data suggest that CO promotes the autophagic process through mitochondrial ROS generation. We investigated the relationships between autophagic proteins and CO-dependent cytoprotection using a model of hyperoxic stress. CO protected against hyperoxia-induced cell death, and inhibited hyperoxia-associated ROS production. The ability of CO to protect against hyperoxia-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation was compromised in epithelial cells infected with LC3B-small interfering (si)RNA, indicating a role for autophagic proteins. These studies uncover a new mechanism for the protective action of CO, in support of potential therapeutic application of this gas.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2010-0352OC
PMCID: PMC3208612  PMID: 21441382
apoptosis; autophagy; carbon monoxide; epithelial cells; hyperoxia
9.  Cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis in pulmonary hypertension 
Pulmonary Circulation  2012;2(4):407-414.
Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and apoptosis resistant proliferation have been proposed to play crucial roles in the development of featured plexiform lesions in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Subsequently, EC injury associated smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation facilitates vascular remodeling and eventually leads to narrowed vascular lumen, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, increased pulmonary arterial pressure, and right heart failure. The imbalance between cell death and proliferation occurs in every stage of pulmonary vascular remodeling and pathogenesis of PH, and involves every cell type in the vasculature including, but not limited to ECs, SMCs, and fibroblasts. Despite extensive studies, the detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the transition from initial apoptosis of ECs to apoptosis resistant proliferation on ECs and SMCs remains unclear. Recent knowledge on autophagy, a conservative and powerful regulatory machinery existing in almost all mammalian cells, has shed light on the complex and delicate control on cell fate in the development of vascular remodeling in PH. In this review, we will discuss the recent understandings on how the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy regulates cell death or proliferation in PH pathogenesis, particularly in pulmonary vascular remodeling involving ECs and SMCs.
doi:10.4103/2045-8932.105029
PMCID: PMC3555411  PMID: 23372925
apoptosis; autophagy; beclin-1; LC3; pulmonary hypertension
10.  Characterization of macroautophagic flux in vivo using a leupeptin-based assay 
Autophagy  2011;7(6):629-642.
Macroautophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process that is crucial for organ homeostasis in mammals. However, methods to directly measure macroautophagic activity (or flux) in vivo are limited. In this study we developed a quantitative macroautophagic flux assay based on measuring LC3b protein turnover in vivo after administering the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Using this assay we then characterized basal macroautophagic flux in different mouse organs. We found that the rate of LC3b accumulation after leupeptin treatment was greatest in the liver and lowest in spleen. Interestingly we found that LC3a, an ATG8/LC3b homologue and the LC3b-interacting protein p62 were degraded with similar kinetics to LC3b. However, the LC3b-related proteins GABARAP and GATE-16 were not rapidly turned over in mouse liver, implying that different LC3b homologues may contribute to macroautophagy via distinct mechanisms. Nutrient starvation augmented macroautophagic flux as measured by our assay, while refeeding the animals after a period of starvation significantly suppressed flux. We also confirmed that beclin 1 heterozygous mice had reduced basal macroautophagic flux compared to wild-type littermates. These results illustrate the usefulness of our leupeptin-based assay for studying the dynamics of macroautophagy in mice.
doi:10.4161/auto.7.6.15100
PMCID: PMC3127049  PMID: 21460622
macroautophagy; autophagy; flux; mice; in vivo; LC3; GABARAP; GATE-16; leupeptin; cycloheximide
11.  Autophagic Protein LC3B Confers Resistance against Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension 
Rationale: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease with unclear etiology. The significance of autophagy in PH remains unknown.
Objectives: To determine the mechanisms by which autophagic proteins regulate tissue responses during PH.
Methods: Lungs from patients with PH, lungs from mice exposed to chronic hypoxia, and human pulmonary vascular cells were examined for autophagy using electron microscopy and Western analysis. Mice deficient in microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B−/−), or early growth response-1 (Egr-1−/−), were evaluated for vascular morphology and hemodynamics.
Measurements and Main Results: Human PH lungs displayed elevated lipid-conjugated LC3B, and autophagosomes relative to normal lungs. These autophagic markers increased in hypoxic mice, and in human pulmonary vascular cells exposed to hypoxia. Egr-1, which regulates LC3B expression, was elevated in PH, and increased by hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. LC3B−/− or Egr-1−/−, but not Beclin 1+/−, mice displayed exaggerated PH during hypoxia. In vitro, LC3B knockdown increased reactive oxygen species production, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization, and hypoxic cell proliferation. LC3B and Egr-1 localized to caveolae, associated with caveolin-1, and trafficked to the cytosol during hypoxia.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate elevated LC3B in the lungs of humans with PH, and of mice with hypoxic PH. The increased susceptibility of LC3B−/− and Egr-1−/− mice to hypoxia-induced PH and increased hypoxic proliferation of LC3B knockdown cells suggest adaptive functions of these proteins during hypoxic vascular remodeling. The results suggest that autophagic protein LC3B exerts a protective function during the pathogenesis of PH, through the regulation of hypoxic cell proliferation.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201005-0746OC
PMCID: PMC3081281  PMID: 20889906
autophagy; hypoxia; hypertension, pulmonary
12.  Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells 
Genomics  2013;101(5):263-272.
Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2013.02.010
PMCID: PMC3659826  PMID: 23459001
Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP); Gene expression profiling; COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease); extracellular matrix (ECM); network modeling
13.  Carbon monoxide prevents ventilator induced lung injury via caveolin-1 
Critical care medicine  2009;37(5):1708-1715.
Objectives
Carbon monoxide (CO) can confer anti-inflammatory protection in rodent models of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Caveolin-1 exerts a critical role in cellular responses to mechanical stress, and has been shown to mediate cytoprotective effects of CO in vitro. We sought to determine the role of caveolin-1 in lung susceptibility to VILI in mice. Furthermore, we assessed the role of caveolin-1 in the tissue protective effects of CO in the VILI model.
Design
Prospective experimental study
Setting
University laboratory
Subjects
Wild type (wt) and caveolin-1 deficient (cav-−/−) mice
Interventions
Mice were subjected to tracheostomy and arterial cannulation. Wt and cav-1−/− mice were ventilated with a tidal volume of 12 ml/kg body weight and a frequency of 80/min for 5 min as control, or for 8h with air in the absence or presence of CO (250 parts per million). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histology were used to determine lung injury. Lung sections or homogenates were analyzed for caveolin-1 expression by immunohistochemical staining or Western Blotting, respectively.
Measurements and Main Results
Ventilation led to an increase in BAL protein concentration, cell count, neutrophil recruitment, and edema formation that was prevented in the presence of CO. While ventilation alone slightly induced caveolin-1 expression in epithelial cells, the application of CO during the ventilation significantly increased the expression of caveolin-1. In comparison to wt mice, mechanical ventilation of cav-1−/− mice led to a significantly higher degree of lung injury as compared to wt mice. In contrast to its effectiveness in wt mice, CO-administration failed to reduce lung injury markers in cav-1−/− mice.
Conclusions
Caveolin-1 null mice are more susceptible to VILI. Carbon monoxide executes lung protective effects during mechanical ventilation that are dependent in part, on caveolin-1 expression.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31819efa31
PMCID: PMC3086639  PMID: 19325477
ventilator induced lung injury; mechanical ventilation; carbon monoxide; caveolin-1; mechanotransduction; acute lung injury
14.  Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide 
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXα, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0170TR
PMCID: PMC2742746  PMID: 19617398
carbon monoxide; bilirubin; heme oxygenase-1; lung injury
15.  p62 Sequestosome 1/Light Chain 3b Complex Confers Cytoprotection on Lung Epithelial Cells after Hyperoxia 
Lung epithelial cell death is a prominent feature of hyperoxic lung injury, and has been considered a very important underlying mechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report on a novel mechanism involved in epithelial cytoprotection and homeostasis after oxidative stress. p62 (sequestosome 1; SQSTM1) is a ubiquitously expressed cellular protein. It interacts with ubiquitinated proteins and autophagic marker light chain 3b (LC3b), thus mediating the degradation of selective targets. In this study, we explored the role of p62 in mitochondria-mediated cell death after hyperoxia. Lung alveolar epithelial cells demonstrate abundant p62 expression, and p62 concentrations are up-regulated by oxidative stress at both the protein and mRNA levels. The p62/LC3b complex interacts with Fas and truncated BID (tBID) physically. These interactions abruptly diminish after hyperoxia. The deletion of p62 robustly increases tBID and cleaved caspase-3, implying an antiapoptotic effect. This antiapoptotic effect of p62 is further confirmed by measuring caspase activities, cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, and cell viability. The deletion of the p62 PBI domain or the ubiquitin-associated domain both lead to elevated tBID, cleaved caspase-3, and significantly more cell death after hyperoxia. Moreover, p62 traffics in an opposite direction with LC3b after hyperoxia, leading to the dissociation of the p62/Cav-1/LC3b/BID complex. Subsequently, the LC3b-mediated lysosomal degradation of tBID is eliminated. Taken together, our data suggest that the p62/LC3b complex regulates lung alveolar epithelial cell homeostasis and cytoprotection after hyperoxia.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0017OC
PMCID: PMC3653608  PMID: 23333919
p62/SQSTM1; hyperoxia; tBid; LC3b; apoptosis
16.  Deletion of Caveolin-1 Protects against Oxidative Lung Injury via Up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Hyperoxia causes lung injury in animals and humans, and is an established model of ALI. Caveolin-1, a major constituent of caveolae, regulates numerous biological processes, including cell death and proliferation. Here we demonstrate that caveolin-1–null mice (cav-1−/−) were resistant to hyperoxia-induced death and lung injury. Cav-1−/− mice sustained reduced lung injury after hyperoxia as determined by protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histologic analysis. Furthermore, cav-1−/− fibroblasts and endothelial cells and cav-1 knockdown epithelial cells resisted hyperoxia-induced cell death in vitro. Basal and inducible expression of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were markedly elevated in lung tissue or fibroblasts from cav-1−/− mice. Hyperoxia induced the physical interaction between cav-1 and HO-1 in fibroblasts assessed by co-immunoprecipitation studies, which resulted in attenuation of HO activity. Inhibition of HO activity with tin protoporphyrin-IX abolished the survival benefits of cav-1−/− cells and cav-1−/− mice exposed to hyperoxia. The cav-1−/− mice displayed elevated phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38β expression in lung tissue/cells under basal conditions and during hyperoxia. Treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, decreased hyperoxia-inducible HO-1 expression in wild-type and cav-1−/− fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrated that cav-1 deletion protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, involving in part the modulation of the HO-1–cav-1 interaction, and the enhanced induction of HO-1 through a p38 MAPK–mediated pathway. These studies identify caveolin-1 as a novel component involved in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2007-0323OC
PMCID: PMC2542454  PMID: 18323531
acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome; caveolin-1; heme oxygenase-1
17.  Carbon Monoxide Protects against Ventilator-induced Lung Injury via PPAR-γ and Inhibition of Egr-1 
Rationale: Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) leads to an unacceptably high mortality. In this regard, the antiinflammatory properties of inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) may provide a therapeutic option.
Objectives: This study explores the mechanisms of CO-dependent protection in a mouse model of VILI.
Methods: Mice were ventilated (12 ml/kg, 1–8 h) with air in the absence or presence of CO (250 ppm). Airway pressures, blood pressure, and blood gases were monitored. Lung tissue was analyzed for inflammation, injury, and gene expression. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for protein, cell and neutrophil counts, and cytokines.
Measurements and Main Results: Mechanical ventilation caused significant lung injury reflected by increases in protein concentration, total cell and neutrophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the induction of heme oxygenase-1 and heat shock protein-70 in lung tissue. In contrast, CO application prevented lung injury during ventilation, inhibited stress-gene up-regulation, and decreased lung neutrophil infiltration. These effects were preceded by the inhibition of ventilation-induced cytokine and chemokine production. Furthermore, CO prevented the early ventilation-dependent up-regulation of early growth response-1 (Egr-1). Egr-1–deficient mice did not sustain lung injury after ventilation, relative to wild-type mice, suggesting that Egr-1 acts as a key proinflammatory regulator in VILI. Moreover, inhibition of peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, an antiinflammatory nuclear regulator, by GW9662 abolished the protective effects of CO.
Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation causes profound lung injury and inflammatory responses. CO treatment conferred protection in this model dependent on PPAR-γ and inhibition of Egr-1.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200708-1265OC
PMCID: PMC2408440  PMID: 18356564
carbon monoxide; early growth response-1; inflammation; peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; ventilator-induced lung injury
18.  Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics 
Journal of breath research  2013;7(1):017111.
Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.
doi:10.1088/1752-7155/7/1/017111
PMCID: PMC3651886  PMID: 23446063
Carbon Monoxide; Exhaled Breath; Heme Oxygenase-1
19.  Mitochondrial Localization and Function of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Cigarette Smoke–Induced Cell Death 
Cigarette smoke–induced apoptosis and necrosis contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 provides cytoprotection against oxidative stress, and may protect in smoking-related disease. Since mitochondria regulate cellular death, we examined the functional expression and mitochondrial localization of heme oxygenase-1 in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and its role in modulating cell death. Heme oxygenase-1 expression increased dramatically in cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of human alveolar (A549), or bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2b) exposed to either hemin, lipopolysaccharide, or CSE. Mitochondrial localization of heme oxygenase-1 was also observed in a primary culture of human small airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, heme oxygenase activity increased dramatically in mitochondrial fractions, and in whole cell extracts of Beas-2b after exposure to hemin and CSE. The mitochondrial localization of heme oxygenase-1 in Beas-2b was confirmed using immunogold-electron microscopy and immunofluorescence labeling on confocal laser microscopy. CSE caused loss of cellular ATP and rapid depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Apoptosis occurred in Beas-2b at low concentrations of cigarette smoke extract, whereas necrosis occurred at high concentrations. Overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 inhibited CSE-induced Beas-2b cell death and preserved cellular ATP levels. Finally, heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression was elevated in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. We demonstrate the functional compartmentalization of heme oxygenase-1 in the mitochondria of lung epithelial cells, and its potential role in defense against mitochondria-mediated cell death during CSE exposure.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2006-0214OC
PMCID: PMC1899328  PMID: 17079780
cigarette smoke; COPD; heme oxygenase-1; mitochondria
20.  Cigarette Smoke Stimulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity via EGR-1 in Human Lung Fibroblasts 
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent reports of increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in lungs of patients with emphysema support the paradigm of proteinase/antiproteinase imbalance in the pathogenesis of COPD. We sought to define the signaling pathways activated by smoke and to identify molecules responsible for emphysema-associated MMP-2 expression. In this study, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced MMP-2 protein expression and increased MMP-2 gelatinase activity of normal lung fibroblasts. We previously identified a transcription factor, early growth response 1 (EGR-1), with robust expression in the lung tissues of patients with COPD compared with control smokers. Here, the treatment of fibroblasts with CSE resulted in marked induction of EGR-1 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner, accompanied by increased EGR-1 binding activity. CSE-induced MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression and activity were significantly inhibited using EGR-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or in Egr-1–null−/− mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, we observed induction of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which has an EGR-1–binding site on its promoter, in CSE-treated primary normal lung fibroblasts. The concomitant MT1-MMP expression and MMP-2 activation by CSE are inhibited by EGR-1 siRNA. Rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was observed in CSE-treated fibroblasts. Chemical inhibitors of ERK1/2 MAPK, but not of p38 and JNK, decreased CSE-induced EGR-1 protein expression and MMP-2 activity of fibroblasts. The identification that induction of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP by CSE from lung fibroblasts is EGR-1–dependent reveals a molecular mechanism for matrix remodeling in cigarette smoke–related emphysema.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2006-0106OC
PMCID: PMC1899323  PMID: 17099140
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EGR-1; cigarette smoke extract; MMP-2; MT1-MMP
21.  Caveolin-1: a critical regulator of lung fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 
The Journal of experimental medicine  2006;203(13):2895-2906.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by activation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). Caveolin-1 (cav-1), a principal component of caveolae, has been implicated in the regulation of numerous signaling pathways and biological processes. We observed marked reduction of cav-1 expression in lung tissues and in primary pulmonary fibroblasts from IPF patients compared with controls. We also demonstrated that cav-1 markedly ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by histological analysis, hydroxyproline content, and immunoblot analysis. Additionally, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), the well-known profibrotic cytokine, decreased cav-1 expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts. cav-1 was able to suppress TGF-β1–induced ECM production in cultured fibroblasts through the regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Interestingly, highly activated JNK was detected in IPF- and BLM-instilled lung tissue samples, which was dramatically suppressed by ad–cav-1 infection. Moreover, JNK1-null fibroblasts showed reduced smad signaling cascades, mimicking the effects of cav-1. This study indicates a pivotal role for cav-1 in ECM regulation and suggests a novel therapeutic target for patients with pulmonary fibrosis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20061536
PMCID: PMC1850940  PMID: 17178917
22.  CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein Mediates Carbon Monoxide–Induced Suppression of Cyclooxygenase-2 
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the inflammatory process that is rapidly induced in macrophages in response to LPS. Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme oxygnease-1, can suppress proinflammatory response in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation. This study was undertaken to examine whether CO can regulate (and if so, to delineate the mechanism by which CO regulates) LPS-induced COX-2 expression in macrophages. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were stimulated with LPS (0–10 ng/ml) with or without CO (500 ppm). Northern and Western blot analysis was done. Progstaglandin E2 and nitrite concentration was measured from cell culture supernatant. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed to assess nuclear factor binding. CO downregulated LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. CO also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 secretion (P < 0.05). CO also decreased LPS-induced CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β and δ protein expression in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Gel shift analysis revealed that CO treatment decreased LPS-induced activation of protein binding to C/EBP consensus oligonucleotides of murine cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. CO also decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase-2 protein expression and nitrite production, and decreased LPS-induced activation of protein binding to C/EBP consensus oligonucleotides of murine nitric oxide synthase-2 promoter. CO may act as an important regulator of inflammation by virtue of its ability to regulate C/EBPs.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0154OC
PMCID: PMC2643257  PMID: 16543610
heme oxygenase; lipopolysaccharides; nitric oxide synthase
23.  Caveolin-1: a critical regulator of lung fibrosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(13):2895-2906.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive chronic disorder characterized by activation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). Caveolin-1 (cav-1), a principal component of caveolae, has been implicated in the regulation of numerous signaling pathways and biological processes. We observed marked reduction of cav-1 expression in lung tissues and in primary pulmonary fibroblasts from IPF patients compared with controls. We also demonstrated that cav-1 markedly ameliorated bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as indicated by histological analysis, hydroxyproline content, and immunoblot analysis. Additionally, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), the well-known profibrotic cytokine, decreased cav-1 expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts. cav-1 was able to suppress TGF-β1–induced ECM production in cultured fibroblasts through the regulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Interestingly, highly activated JNK was detected in IPF- and BLM-instilled lung tissue samples, which was dramatically suppressed by ad–cav-1 infection. Moreover, JNK1-null fibroblasts showed reduced smad signaling cascades, mimicking the effects of cav-1. This study indicates a pivotal role for cav-1 in ECM regulation and suggests a novel therapeutic target for patients with pulmonary fibrosis.
doi:10.1084/jem.20061536
PMCID: PMC1850940  PMID: 17178917
24.  Carbon monoxide differentially inhibits TLR signaling pathways by regulating ROS-induced trafficking of TLRs to lipid rafts 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2006;203(10):2377-2389.
Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO), confers potent antiinflammatory effects. Here we demonstrate that CO derived from HO-1 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 5, and 9 signaling, but not TLR3-dependent signaling, in macrophages. Ligand-mediated receptor trafficking to lipid rafts represents an early event in signal initiation of immune cells. Trafficking of TLR4 to lipid rafts in response to LPS was reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent because it was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and in gp91phox-deficient macrophages. CO selectively inhibited ligand-induced recruitment of TLR4 to lipid rafts, which was also associated with the inhibition of ligand-induced ROS production in macrophages. TLR3 did not translocate to lipid rafts by polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). CO had no effect on poly(I:C)-induced ROS production and TLR3 signaling. The inhibitory effect of CO on TLR-induced cytokine production was abolished in gp91phox-deficient macrophages, also indicating a role for NADPH oxidase. CO attenuated LPS-induced NADPH oxidase activity in vitro, potentially by binding to gp91phox. Thus, CO negatively controlled TLR signaling pathways by inhibiting translocation of TLR to lipid rafts through suppression of NADPH oxidase–dependent ROS generation.
doi:10.1084/jem.20060845
PMCID: PMC2118097  PMID: 17000866
25.  Caveolin-1 Confers Antiinflammatory Effects in Murine Macrophages via the MKK3/p38 MAPK Pathway 
Caveolin-1 has been reported to regulate apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and endocytosis in macrophages. In the present study, we demonstrate that caveolin-1 can act as a potent immunomodulatory molecule. We first observed caveolin-1 expression in murine alveolar macrophages by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Loss-of-function experiments using small interfering RNA showed that downregulating caveolin-1 expression in murine alveolar and peritoneal macrophages increased LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 production but decreased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production. Gain-of-function experiments demonstrated that overexpression of caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells decreased LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and augmented IL-10 production. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was increased by overexpressing caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were inhibited. The antiinflammatory modulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1 was significantly abrogated by the administration of p38 inhibitor SB203580 in RAW264.7 cells. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from MKK3 null mice did not demonstrate any modulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1. LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1 determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay were significantly reduced by overexpressing caveolin-1 in RAW264.7 cells. The reductions were attenuated by the administration of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Taken together, our data suggest that caveolin-1 acts as a potent immunomodulatory effecter molecule in immune cells and that the regulation of LPS-induced cytokine production by caveolin-1 involves the MKK3/p38 MAPK pathway.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0376OC
PMCID: PMC2644205  PMID: 16357362
caveolin-1; cytokines; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide; macrophages

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