Efferocytosis, the process by which dying/dead cells are removed by phagocytosis, plays an important role in development, tissue homeostasis and innate immunity1. Efferocytosis is mediated, in part, by receptors that bind to exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) on cells or cellular debris after loss of plasma membrane asymmetry. Here we show that a bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), can exploit efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection. These bacteria can escape the phagosome in host cells using the pore-forming toxin Listeriolysin O (LLO) and two phospholipases C2. Expression of the cell surface protein ActA allows Lm to activate host actin regulatory factors and undergo actin-based motility in the cytosol, eventually leading to formation of actin-rich protrusions at the cell surface. We show that protrusion formation is associated with plasma membrane damage due to LLO’s pore-forming activity. LLO also promotes the release of bacteria-containing protrusions from the host cell, generating membrane-derived vesicles with exofacial PS. The PS-binding receptor TIM-4 contributes to efficient cell-to-cell spread by Lm in macrophages in vitro and growth of these bacteria is impaired in TIM-4−/− mice. Thus, Lm promotes its dissemination in a host by exploiting efferocytosis. Our study suggests that PS-targeted therapeutics may be useful in the fight against infections by Lm and other bacteria that utilize similar strategies of cell-to-cell spread during infection.
Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic contents in the lysosome and plays a significant role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Lipid second messengers are implicated in the regulation of autophagy but the nature of the lipids involved and their mechanisms of action have yet to be characterized. Here we demonstrate a novel signaling role for diacylglycerol (DAG) in antibacterial autophagy. DAG production was necessary for efficient autophagy of Salmonella and its localization to bacteria-containing phagosomes preceded autophagy. Previous studies have revealed a role for the ubiquitin binding adaptor molecules p62 and NDP52 in autophagy of S. Typhimurium. We observed bacteria-containing autophagosomes colocalizing individually with either DAG or ubiquitinated proteins, indicating that both signals can act independently to promote anti-bacterial autophagy. We determined that the actions of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) were required for DAG generation and autophagy. The DAG-responsive δ isoform of protein kinase C was required for anti-bacterial autophagy, as were its downstream targets JNK and NADPH oxidase. Pkc1, the single PKC isoform in yeast, was essential for starvation-induced autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These findings reveal an important role for DAG-mediated PKC function in mammalian anti-bacterial autophagy, and suggest a conserved role for PKC in autophagy regulation in eukaryotes.
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that can escape the phagosome and replicate in the cytosol of host cells during infection. We previously observed that a population (up to 35%) of L. monocytogenes strain 10403S colocalize with the macroautophagy marker LC3 at 1 h postinfection. This is thought to give rise to spacious Listeria-containing phagosomes (SLAPs), a membrane-bound compartment harboring slow-growing bacteria that is associated with persistent infection. Here, we examined the host and bacterial factors that mediate LC3 recruitment to bacteria at 1 h postinfection. At this early time point, LC3+ bacteria were present within single-membrane phagosomes that are LAMP1+. Protein ubiquitination is known to play a role in targeting cytosolic L. monocytogenes to macroautophagy. However, we found that neither protein ubiquitination nor the ubiquitin-binding adaptor SQSTM1/p62 are associated with LC3+ bacteria at 1 h postinfection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the CYBB/NOX2 NADPH oxidase was also required for LC3 recruitment to bacteria at 1 h postinfection and for subsequent SLAP formation. Diacylglycerol is an upstream activator of the CYBB/NOX2 NADPH oxidase, and its production by both bacterial and host phospholipases was required for LC3 recruitment to bacteria. Our data suggest that the LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) pathway, which is distinct from macroautophagy, targets L. monocytogenes during the early stage of infection within host macrophages and allows establishment of an intracellular niche (SLAPs) associated with persistent infection.
autophagy; diacylglycerol; innate immunity; LC3; LC3-associated phagocytosis; Listeria monocytogenes; reactive oxygen species; ubiquitin
The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes produces phospholipases C (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) and the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) to escape the phagosome and replicate within the host cytosol. We found that PLCs can also activate the phagocyte NADPH oxidase during L. monocytogenes infection, a response that would adversely affect pathogen survival. However, secretion of LLO inhibits the NADPH oxidase by preventing its localization to phagosomes. LLO-deficient bacteria can be complemented by perfringolysin O, a related cytolysin, suggesting that other pathogens may also use pore-forming cytolysins to inhibit the NADPH oxidase. Our studies demonstrate that while the PLCs induce antimicrobial NADPH oxidase activity, this effect is alleviated by the pore-forming activity of LLO. Therefore, the combined activities of PLCs and LLO on membrane lysis and the inhibitory effects of LLO on NADPH oxidase activity allows L. monocytogenes to efficiently escape the phagosome while avoiding the microbicidal respiratory burst.
The NOS2 gene encodes for the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), responsible for nitric oxide (NO) production, which contributes to antimicrobial and antipathogenic activities. Higher levels of both iNOS and NO-induced damage have been observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. NOS2 may have a role in a specific subset of IBD patients with severe and/or extensive colitis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the role of NOS2 in such a subset, very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD).
Seventeen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS2 gene were successfully genotyped in VEO-IBD patients. Genetic associations were replicated in an independent VEO-IBD cohort. Functional analysis for iNOS activity was performed on the most significantly associated functional variant.
The NOS2 rs2297518 SNP was found to be associated in VEO-IBD in two independent cohorts. Upon combined analysis, a coding variant (S608L) showed the strongest association with VEO-IBD (Pcombined=1.13 × 10−6, OR (odds ratio)=3.398 (95% CI (confidence interval) 2.02–5.717)) as well as associations with VEO-Crohn's disease and VEO-ulcerative colitis (UC). This variant also showed an association with UC diagnosed between 11 and 17 years of age but not with adult-onset IBD (>17 years). B-cell lymphoblastoid cell lines genotyped for the risk variant as well as Henle-407 cells transfected with a plasmid construct with the risk variant showed higher NO production. Colonic biopsies of VEO-IBD patients showed higher immunohistochemical staining of nitrotyrosine, indicating more nitrosative stress and tissue damage.
These studies suggest the importance of iNOS in genetic susceptibility to younger IBD presentation due to higher NO production.
Antibacterial autophagy is understood to be a key cellular immune response to invading microbes. However, the mechanism(s) by which bacteria are selected as targets of autophagy remain unclear. We recently identified diacylglycerol as a novel signaling molecule that targets bacteria to the autophagy pathway, and show that it acts via protein kinase C activation. We also found that Pkc1 is required for autophagy in yeast, indicating that this kinase plays a conserved role in autophagy regulation.
bacteria; Salmonella; innate immunity; adaptor; lipid second messenger; diacylglycerol; ubiquitin; NDP52; p62; SQSTM1
In autophagic processes a variety of cargos is delivered to the degradative compartment of cells. Recent progress in autophagy research has provided support for the notion that when autophagic processes are operating in selective mode, a receptor protein complex will process the cargo. Here we present a concept of receptor protein complexes as comprising a functional tetrad of components: a ligand, a receptor, a scaffold and an Atg8 family protein. Our current understanding of each of the four components and their interaction in the context of cargo selection are considered in turn.
autophagic cargo; ligand; receptor; scaffold protein; Atg8 family protein; phagophore
The NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex produces reactive oxygen species and plays a critical role in the killing of microbes by phagocytes. Genetic mutations in genes encoding components of the complex result in both X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Patients with CGD often develop intestinal inflammation that is histologically similar to Crohn's colitis, suggesting a common aetiology for both diseases. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex genes that do not cause CGD are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Direct sequencing and candidate gene approaches were used to identify susceptibility loci in NADPH oxidase complex genes. Functional studies were carried out on identified variants. Novel findings were replicated in independent cohorts.
Sequence analysis identified a novel missense variant in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene that is associated with very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) and subsequently found in 4% of patients with VEO-IBD compared with 0.2% of controls (p=1.3×10−5, OR 23.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 142.5); Fisher exact test). This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67phox to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD.
These studies suggest that the rare novel p67phox variant results in partial inhibition of oxidase function and are associated with CD in a subgroup of patients with VEO-IBD; and suggest that components of the NADPH oxidase complex are associated with CD.
SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3–5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3–5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.
Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells and plays a key role in immunity. The mechanism of autophagosome formation is not clear. Here we examined two potential membrane sources for antibacterial autophagy: the ER and mitochondria. DFCP1, a marker of specialized ER domains known as ‘omegasomes,’ associated with Salmonella-containing autophagosomes via its PtdIns(3)P and ER-binding domains, while a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b5-GFP) did not. Rab1 also localized to autophagosomes, and its activity was required for autophagosome formation, clearance of protein aggregates and peroxisomes, and autophagy of Salmonella. Overexpression of Rab1 enhanced antibacterial autophagy. The role of Rab1 in antibacterial autophagy was independent of its role in ER-to-Golgi transport. Our data suggest that antibacterial autophagy occurs at omegasomes and reveal that the Rab1 GTPase plays a crucial role in mammalian autophagy.
autophagy; DFCP1; Rab1; Salmonella; ER-to-golgi trafficking
To date, the utility of single genetic markers to improve disease risk assessment still explains only a small proportion of genetic variance for many complex diseases. This missing heritability may be explained by additional variants with weak effects. To discover and incorporate these additional genetic factors, statistical and computational methods must be evaluated and developed. We develop a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS) based approach to analyze genes in NADPH oxidase complex which may result in susceptibility to development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We find the complex is highly associated with IBD (P = 7.86 × 10−14) using the GRS-based association method. Similar results are also shown in permutation analysis (P = 6.65 × 10−11). Likelihood ratio test shows that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the complex without nominal signals have significant contribution to the overall genetic effect within the complex (P = 0.015). Our results show that the multi-locus GRS association model can improve the genetic risk assessment on IBD by taking into account both confirmed and as yet unconfirmed disease susceptibility variants.
genetic risk score; inflammatory bowel disease; permutation analysis; association analysis
Recent genetic-based studies have implicated a number of immune-related genes in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our recent genetic studies showed that RAC2 is associated with human IBD; however, its role in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Given Rac2’s importance in various fundamental immune cell processes, we investigated whether a defect in Rac2 may impair host immune responses in the intestine and promote disease in the context of an infection-based (Citrobacter rodentium) model of colitis. In response to infection, Rac2−/− mice showed i) worsened clinical symptoms (days 13–18), ii) increased crypt hyperplasia at days 11 and 22 (a time when crypt hyperplasia was largely resolved in wild-type mice; WT), and iii) marked mononuclear cell infiltration characterized by higher numbers of T (CD3+) cells (day 22), compared to WT-infected mice. Moreover, splenocytes harvested from infected Rac2−/− mice and stimulated in vitro with C. rodentium lysate produced considerably higher levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A. The augmented responses observed in Rac2−/− mice did not appear to stem from Rac2’s role in NADPH oxidase-driven reactive oxygen species production as no differences in crypt hyperplasia, nor inflammation, were observed in infected NOX2−/− mice compared to WT. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Rac2−/− mice develop more severe disease when subjected to a C. rodentium-induced model of infectious colitis, and suggest that impaired Rac2 function may promote the development of IBD in humans.
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
LC3; autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
Salmonella colonizes a vacuolar niche in host cells during infection. Maturation of the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) involves the formation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) on its outer leaflet. SopB, a bacterial virulence factor with phosphoinositide phosphatase activity, was proposed to generate PI(3)P by dephosphorylating PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. Here, we examine the mechanism of PI(3)P formation during Salmonella infection. SopB is required to form PI(3,4)P2/PI(3,4,5)P3 at invasion ruffles and PI(3)P on nascent SCVs. However, we uncouple these events experimentally and reveal that SopB does not dephosphorylate PI(3,4)P2/PI(3,4,5)P3 to produce PI(3)P. Instead, the phosphatase activity of SopB is required for Rab5 recruitment to the SCV. Vps34, a PI3-kinase that associates with active Rab5, is responsible for PI(3)P formation on SCVs. Therefore, SopB mediates PI(3)P production on the SCV indirectly through recruitment of Rab5 and its effector Vps34. These findings reveal a link between phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and the recruitment of Rab5 to phagosomes.
The study of autophagy is rapidly expanding, and our knowledge of the molecular mechanism and its connections to a wide range of physiological processes has increased substantially in the past decade. The vocabulary associated with autophagy has grown concomitantly. In fact, it is difficult for readers—even those who work in the field—to keep up with the ever-expanding terminology associated with the various autophagy-related processes. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related terms that is meant to provide a quick reference for researchers who need a brief reminder of the regulatory effects of transcription factors and chemical agents that induce or inhibit autophagy, the function of the autophagy-related proteins, and the roles of accessory components and structures that are associated with autophagy.
autophagy; lysosome; mitophagy; pexophagy; stress; vacuole
Background & Aims
RAC1 is a GTPase that has an evolutionarily conserved role in coordinating immune defenses, from plants to mammals. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with dysregulation of immune defenses. We studied the role of RAC1 in IBD using human genetic and functional studies and animal models of colitis.
We used a candidate gene approach to HapMap-Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a discovery cohort; findings were confirmed in 2 additional cohorts. RAC1 mRNA expression was examined from peripheral blood cells of patients. Colitis was induced in mice with conditional disruption of Rac1 in phagocytes by administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS).
We observed a genetic association between RAC1 with ulcerative colitis (UC) in a discovery cohort, 2 independent replication cohorts, and in combined analysis for the SNPs rs10951982 (Pcombined UC = 3.3 × 10–8, odds ratio [OR]=1.43 [1.26–1.63]) and rs4720672 (Pcombined UC=4.7 × 10–6, OR=1.36 [1.19–1.58]). Patients with IBD who had the rs10951982 risk allele had increased expression of RAC1, compared to those without this allele. Conditional disruption of Rac1 in macrophage and neutrophils of mice protected them against DSS-induced colitis.
Studies of human tissue samples and knockout mice demonstrated a role for the GTPase RAC1 in the development of UC; increased expression of RAC1 was associated with susceptibility to colitis.
innate immunity; Crohn's disease; CD; Rac-1 knockout
Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2) is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 Å revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2) and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.
Systemic typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi leads to high mortality in the developing world and can be linked with chronic, persistent infections in survivors. To cause disease, Salmonella uses a specialized secretion device called a type III secretion system to disarm cells of the immune system and replicate within them. The assembly and function of this secretion system requires a set of chaperone proteins to direct the process, but the chaperone proteins themselves have remained elusive. Here, we found a new chaperone protein, called SrcA, which is required for proper function of the type III secretion system. Using a bacterial mutant lacking the srcA gene, we found that this chaperone was needed for Salmonella to compete against wild type cells during systemic disease because it controls secretion of at least 2 key proteins involved in immune escape and cell-to-cell transmission. This chaperone is present in all types of virulent Salmonella, but not in Salmonella that don't cause human infections, providing new insights into the pathogenic nature of this organism.
Intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium) occupies a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) where bacterial effector proteins are secreted into the host cell using type III secretion systems (T3SS). Cytoskeletal motor proteins and T3SS-delivered effector proteins facilitate SCV positioning to juxtanuclear positions where bacterial replication occurs. Here, we show that this characteristic SCV positioning is not maintained by all SCVs during infection of HeLa cells. Notably, juxtanuclear SCV localization that occurs by 8 to 14 h postinfection is followed by significant centrifugal displacement of a subset of SCVs toward the host cell periphery by 24 h postinfection. This novel phenotype requires bacterial protein synthesis, a functional Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2)-encoded T3SS, intact microtubules, and kinesin-1 motor protein. Bacteria lacking PipB2, a kinesin-recruiting T3SS effector, did not exhibit centrifugal displacement and remained at juxtanuclear positions throughout 24 h of infection. While levels of the SPI-2 effectors PipB2 and SifA increased during 24 h postinfection, a corresponding decrease in levels of the SPI-1 T3SS effectors SipA and SopB, both known to mediate juxtanuclear SCV positioning, was observed. A fluorescence-based assay indicated that wild-type serovar Typhimurium transferred from infected to uninfected epithelial cells while strains deficient in SPI-2 T3SS secretion or PipB2 did not. Our results reveal a novel SCV phenotype implicated in the cell-to-cell spread of serovar Typhimurium during infection.
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
Summary: Intracellular bacterial pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to enter and survive within their eukaryotic hosts. In order to do this, bacterial pathogens need to avoid host cell degradation and obtain nutrients and biosynthetic precursors, as well as evade detection by the host immune system. To create an intracellular niche that is favorable for replication, some intracellular pathogens inhibit the maturation of the phagosome or exit the endocytic pathway by modifying the identity of their phagosome through the exploitation of host cell trafficking pathways. In eukaryotic cells, organelle identity is determined, in part, by the composition of active Rab GTPases on the membranes of each organelle. This review describes our current understanding of how selected bacterial pathogens regulate host trafficking pathways by the selective inclusion or retention of Rab GTPases on membranes of the vacuoles that they occupy in host cells during infection.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium grows within host cells in a permissive compartment termed the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). These bacteria use two distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver virulence proteins (effectors) into cells. Effectors secreted by the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-encoded T3SS mediate invasion and early SCV maturation steps, while those secreted by the SPI-2 T3SS affect the SCV at later stages postinfection. Some SPI-2 effectors modulate microtubule motor activity on the SCV. Here, we show that the actin-based motor myosin II also affects SCV dynamics during infection. Following invasion, myosin II is required for SCV positioning near the nucleus of host cells. Later, myosin II counteracts the activities of the SPI-2 effectors PipB2 and SseJ to maintain SCV positioning and stability, respectively. Myosin II activity was required for maximal bacterial growth in macrophages. Rho kinase activity was required for SCV positioning. The effector SopB, a known activator of Rho GTPases, was found to be required for SCV positioning, and transfection of cells with SopB was sufficient to induce myosin II phosphorylation. These studies reveal a novel role for myosin II in controlling SCV dynamics during infection and suggest that SopB activates myosin II.
Elucidation of the role of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in epithelial function has been hampered by the inability to selectively manipulate the cellular content of this phosphoinositide. Here we report that SigD, a phosphatase derived from Salmonella, can effectively hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P2, generating PtdIns(5)P. When expressed by microinjecting cDNA into epithelial cells forming confluent monolayers, wild-type SigD induced striking morphological and functional changes that were not mimicked by a phosphatase-deficient SigD mutant (C462S). Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in intact SigD-injected cells was verified by detachment from the membrane of the pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase Cδ, used as a probe for the phosphoinositide by conjugation to green fluorescent protein. Single-cell measurements of cytosolic pH indicated that the Na+/H+ exchange activity of epithelia was markedly inhibited by depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2. Similarly, anion permeability, measured using two different halide-sensitive probes, was depressed in cells expressing SigD. Depletion of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was associated with marked alterations in the actin cytoskeleton and its association with the plasma membrane. The junctional complexes surrounding the injected cells gradually opened and the PtdIns(4,5)P2-depleted cells eventually detached from the monolayer, which underwent rapid restitution. Similar observations were made in intestinal and renal epithelial cultures. In addition to its effects on phosphoinositides, SigD has been shown to convert inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP5) into inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate (IP4), and the latter has been postulated to mediate the diarrhea caused by Salmonella. However, the effects of SigD on epithelial cells were not mimicked by microinjection of IP4. In contrast, the cytoskeletal and ion transport effects were replicated by hydrolyzing PtdIns(4,5)P2 with a membrane-targeted 5-phosphatase or by occluding the inositide using high-avidity tandem PH domain constructs. We therefore suggest that opening of the tight junctions and inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange caused by PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis combine to account, at least in part, for the fluid loss observed during Salmonella-induced diarrhea.
Members of the Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) family are key regulators of membrane traffic. Here we examined the association of 48 Rabs with model phagosomes containing a non-invasive mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This mutant traffics to lysosomes and allowed us to determine which Rabs localize to a maturing phagosome. In total, 18 Rabs associated with maturing phagosomes, each with its own kinetics of association. Dominant-negative mutants of Rab23 and 35 inhibited phagosome–lysosome fusion. A large number of Rab GTPases localized to wild-type Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs), which do not fuse with lysosomes. However, some Rabs (8B, 13, 23, 32, and 35) were excluded from wild-type SCVs whereas others (5A, 5B, 5C, 7A, 11A, and 11B) were enriched on this compartment. Our studies demonstrate that a complex network of Rab GTPases controls endocytic progression to lysosomes and that this is modulated by S. Typhimurium to allow its intracellular growth.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium utilizes a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI2) to promote intracellular replication during infection, but little is known about the molecular function of SPI2-translocated effectors and how they contribute to this process. SseJ is a SPI2 TTSS effector protein that is homologous to enzymes called glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferases and, following translocation, localizes to the Salmonella-containing vacuole and Salmonella-induced filaments. Full virulence requires SseJ, as sseJ null mutants exhibit decreased replication in cultured cells and host tissues. This work demonstrates that SseJ is an enzyme with deacylase activity in vitro and identifies three active-site residues. Catalytic SseJ mutants display wild-type translocation and subcellular localization but fail to complement the virulence defect of an sseJ null mutant. In contrast to the wild type, SseJ catalytic mutants fail to down regulate Salmonella-induced filament formation and fail to restore the sifA null mutant phenotype of loss of phagosomal membrane to sifA sseJ null double mutants, suggesting that wild-type SseJ modifies the vacuolar membrane. This is the first demonstration of an enzymatic activity for a SPI2 effector protein and provides support for the hypothesis that the deacylation of lipids on the Salmonella-containing vacuole membrane is important to bacterial pathogenesis.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has the fascinating ability to form tubular structures known as Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) in host cells. Here, we show that the prevalence of the Sif phenotype in HeLa cells is affected by host cell density, growth, and the multiplicity of infection. Sif formation was observed in cells that displayed rapid intracellular bacterial replication and was found to be dynamic, being maximal 8 to 10 h postinfection and declining thereafter. The virulence factors SpvB and SseJ were found to negatively modulate Sif formation. Our findings demonstrate the complex and dynamic nature of the Sif phenotype.