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1.  The association of body mass index with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a case–control study nested in an electronic health records system in the United States 
Objectives
Obesity is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a case–control study to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of being diagnosed with T2D in the United States.
Methods
We selected adults (≥ 18 years old) who were diagnosed with T2D (defined by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes or use of anti-diabetic medications) between January 2004 and October 2011 (“cases”) from an electronic health records database provided by an integrated health system in the Middle Atlantic region. Twice as many individuals enrolled in the health system without a T2D diagnosis during the study period (“controls”) were selected based on age, sex, history of cardiac comorbidities or hyperinflammatory state (defined by C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate), and use of psychiatric or beta blocker medications. BMI was measured during one year prior to the first observed T2D diagnosis (for cases) or a randomly assigned date (for controls); individuals with no BMI measure or BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 were excluded. We assessed the impact of increased BMI (overweight: 25–29.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class I: 30–34.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class II: 35–39.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class III: ≥40 kg/m2), relative to normal BMI (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), on a T2D diagnosis using odds ratios (OR) and relative risks (RR) estimated from multiple logistic regression results.
Results
We included 12,179 cases (mean age: 55, 43% male) and 25,177 controls (mean age: 56, 45% male). We found a positive association between BMI and the risk of a T2D diagnosis. The strength of this association increased with BMI category (RR [95% confidence interval]: overweight, 1.5 [1.4–1.6]; Obesity Class I, 2.5 [2.3–2.6]; Obesity Class II, 3.6 [3.4–3.8]; Obesity Class III, 5.1 [4.7–5.5]).
Conclusions
BMI is strongly and independently associated with the risk of being diagnosed with T2D. The incremental association of BMI category on the risk of T2D is stronger for people with a higher BMI relative to people with a lower BMI.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-50
PMCID: PMC3976458  PMID: 24694251
Obesity; Risk of type 2 diabetes; Electronic health records
2.  Prevalence and trends in the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in the U.S., 2001–2007: A population-based study of 585,615 deliveries 
Archives of women's mental health  2013;16(2):149-157.
Purpose
To estimate the prevalence of and temporal trends in prenatal antipsychotic medication use within a cohort of pregnant women in the U.S.
Methods
We identified live born deliveries to women aged 15–45 years in 2001–2007 from 11 U.S. health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP). We ascertained prenatal exposure to antipsychotics from health plan pharmacy dispensing files, gestational age from linked infant birth certificate files, and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes from health plan claims files. We calculated the prevalence of prenatal use of atypical and typical antipsychotics according to year of delivery, trimester of pregnancy, and mental health diagnosis.
Results
Among 585,615 qualifying deliveries, 4,223 (0.72%) were to women who received an atypical antipsychotic and 548 (0.09%) were to women receiving a typical antipsychotic any time from 60 days before pregnancy through delivery. There was a 2.5-fold increase in atypical antipsychotic use during the study period, from 0.33% (95% confidence interval: 0.29%, 0.37%) in 2001 to 0.82% (0.76%, 0.88%) in 2007, while the use of typical antipsychotics remained stable. Depression was the most common mental health diagnosis among deliveries to women with atypical antipsychotic use (63%), followed by bipolar disorder (43%) and schizophrenia (13%).
Conclusions
The number and proportion of pregnancies exposed to atypical antipsychotics has increased dramatically in recent years. Studies are needed to examine the comparative safety and effectiveness of these medications relative to other therapeutic options in pregnancy.
doi:10.1007/s00737-013-0330-6
PMCID: PMC3715880  PMID: 23389622
Antipsychotics; database; pregnancy; prevalence
3.  Catalase (KatA) Plays a Role in Protection against Anaerobic Nitric Oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91813.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator) in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC), indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM). Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic concentrations of NO are approached.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091813
PMCID: PMC3963858  PMID: 24663218
4.  Curcumin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity-Regulated Expression of BDNF and Cox-2 in a Rat Model 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91303.
The management of neuropathic pain is still a major challenge because of its unresponsiveness to most common treatments. Curcumin has been reported to play an active role in the treatment of various neurological disorders, such as neuropathic pain. Curcumin has long been recognized as a p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP) inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. However, this mechanism has never been investigated for the treatment of neuropathic pain with curcumin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive role of curcumin in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, with this model we investigated the effect of curcumin on P300/CBP HAT activity-regulated release of the pro-nociceptive molecules, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). Treatment with 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight curcumin for 7 consecutive days significantly attenuated CCI-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, whereas 20 mg/kg curcumin showed no significant analgesic effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that curcumin dose-dependently reduced the recruitment of p300/CBP and acetyl-Histone H3/acetyl-Histone H4 to the promoter of BDNF and Cox-2 genes. A similar dose-dependent decrease of BDNF and Cox-2 in the spinal cord was also observed after curcumin treatment. These results indicated that curcumin exerted a therapeutic role in neuropathic pain by down-regulating p300/CBP HAT activity-mediated gene expression of BDNF and Cox-2.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091303
PMCID: PMC3946321  PMID: 24603592
5.  A Functional Ser326Cys Polymorphism in hOGG1 Is Associated with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in a Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e89662.
DNA damage to cochlear hair cells caused by 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is essential for the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Human 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase1 (hOGG1) is a key enzyme in the base excision repair (BER) pathway that eliminates 8-oxoG. Many epidemiological and functional studies have suggested that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism (rs1052133) is associated with many diseases. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate whether the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the human BER pathway is associated with genetic susceptibility to NIHL in a Chinese population. This polymorphism was genotyped among 612 workers with NIHL and 615 workers with normal hearing. We found that individuals with the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype had a statistically significantly increased risk of NIHL compared with those who carried the hOGG1 Ser/Ser genotype (adjusted OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.13–2.25) and this increased risk was more pronounced among the workers in the 15- to 25- and >25-year noise exposure time, 85–92 dB(A) noise exposure level, ever smoking, and ever drinking groups, similar effects were also observed in a recessive model. In summary, our data suggested that the hOGG1 Cys/Cys genotype may be a genetic susceptibility marker for NIHL in the Chinese Han population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089662
PMCID: PMC3943766  PMID: 24599382
6.  Application of the back-error propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) on genetic variants in the PPAR-γ and RXR-α gene and risk of metabolic syndrome in a Chinese Han population 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2013;28(2):114-122.
This study was aimed to explore the associations between the combined effects of several polymorphisms in the PPAR-γ and RXR-α gene and environmental factors with the risk of metabolic syndrome by back-error propagation artificial neural network (BPANN). We established the model based on data gathered from metabolic syndrome patients (n = 1012) and normal controls (n = 1069) by BPANN. Mean impact value (MIV) for each input variable was calculated and the sequence of factors was sorted according to their absolute MIVs. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) confirmed a joint effect of PPAR-γ and RXR-α based on the results from BPANN. By BPANN analysis, the sequences according to the importance of metabolic syndrome risk factors were in the order of body mass index (BMI), serum adiponectin, rs4240711, gender, rs4842194, family history of type 2 diabetes, rs2920502, physical activity, alcohol drinking, rs3856806, family history of hypertension, rs1045570, rs6537944, age, rs17817276, family history of hyperlipidemia, smoking, rs1801282 and rs3132291. However, no polymorphism was statistically significant in multiple logistic regression analysis. After controlling for environmental factors, A1, A2, B1 and B2 (rs4240711, rs4842194, rs2920502 and rs3856806) models were the best models (cross-validation consistency 10/10, P = 0.0107) with the GMDR method. In conclusion, the interaction of the PPAR-γ and RXR-α gene could play a role in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A more realistic model is obtained by using BPANN to screen out determinants of diseases of multiple etiologies like metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.7555/JBR.27.20120061
PMCID: PMC3968282
back-error propagation artificial neural network (BPANN); metabolic syndrome; peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ (PPAR) gene; retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) gene; adiponectin
7.  Effect of acupuncture on Deqi traits and pain intensity in primary dysmenorrhea: analysis of data from a larger randomized controlled trial 
Background
Deqi is a central concept in traditional Chinese acupuncture. We performed a secondary analysis on data from a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) in order to assess the effect of acupuncture on deqi traits and pain intensity in primary dysmenorrhea.
Methods
A total of 60 primary dysmenorrhea patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Acupuncture was given at SP6, GB39 or nonacupoint. Subjective pain was measured by a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital acupuncture sensation scales (MASS) with minor modification was used to rate deqi sensations during acupuncture.
Results
The results showed that VAS scores of pain after acupuncture were significantly decreased comparing to before acupuncture treatment in all three groups (P = 0.000). However, no significant differences were found among three groups at the beginning or end of acupuncture treatment (P = 0.928, P = 0.419).
Conclusions
There was no statistical difference among three groups in terms of intensity of deqi feeling. The types of sensation were similar across the groups with only minor differences among them.
Trial registration
Trial registration number: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN24863192.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-69
PMCID: PMC3933504  PMID: 24555788
Acupuncture; Deqi traits; Pain intensity; Primary dysmenorrhea
8.  Difficulties in Eliminating Measles and Controlling Rubella and Mumps: A Cross-Sectional Study of a First Measles and Rubella Vaccination and a Second Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89361.
Background
The reported coverage of the measles–rubella (MR) or measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18–24 months.
Methods
Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test.
Results
Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5–9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9) patients were aged 20–29 years while 33.33% (3/9) were infants aged 8–12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122) patients with mumps were children aged 5–9 years, and 50.54% (94/186) rubella cases were aged 15–39 years.
Conclusions
A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18–24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly young females.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089361
PMCID: PMC3930734  PMID: 24586717
9.  eNOS phosphorylation on serine 1176 affects insulin sensitivity and adiposity 
Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of its enzymatic activity. We generated knockin mice expressing phosphomimetic (SD) and unphosphorylatable (SA) eNOS mutations at S1176 to study the role of eNOS phosphorylation. The single amino acid SA mutation is associated with hypertension and decreased vascular reactivity, while the SD mutation results in increased basal and stimulated endothelial NO production. In addition to these vascular effects, modulation of the S1176 phosphorylation site resulted in unanticipated effects on metabolism. The eNOS SA mutation results in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, adiposity, and increased weight gain on high fat. In contrast, the eNOS SD mutation is associated with decreased insulin levels and resistance to high fat-induced weight gain. These results demonstrate the importance of eNOS in regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and bodyweight regulation, and suggest eNOS phosphorylation as a novel target for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.12.110
PMCID: PMC3576142  PMID: 23291238
nitric oxide; endothelium; insulin resistance; diabetes; metabolism; obesity
10.  Significant Improvement of Thermal Stability for CeZrPrNd Oxides Simply by Supercritical CO2 Drying 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88236.
Pr and Nd co-doped Ce-Zr oxide solid solutions (CZPN) were prepared using co-precipitation and microemulsion methods. It is found that only using supercritical CO2 drying can result in a significant improvement of specific surface area and oxygen storage capacity at lower temperatures for CZPN after aging at 1000°C for 12 h in comparison with those using conventional air drying and even supercritical ethanol drying. Furthermore, the cubic structure was obtained in spite of the fact that the atomic ratio of Ce/(Ce+Zr+Pr+Nd) is as low as 29%. The high thermal stability can be attributed to the loosely aggregated morphology and the resultant Ce enrichment on the nanoparticle surface, which are caused by supercritical CO2 drying due to the elimination of surface tension effects on the gas-liquid interface.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088236
PMCID: PMC3917872  PMID: 24516618
11.  Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87753.
An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087753
PMCID: PMC3914863  PMID: 24505309
12.  Body Size and Risk of Hodgkin Lymphoma by Age and Gender: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Connecticut and Massachusetts 
Cancer causes & control : CCC  2012;24(2):287-295.
Purpose
Descriptive studies have indicated a rising trend in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence in young adults, especially females. Increasing evidence has suggested that some risk factors associated with HL may vary by age or gender. Recent studies have reported an increased risk of HL associated with increasing body mass index (BMI), but the results have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine whether the associations between measures of body size (height, weight, and BMI) and HL risk vary by age and/or gender.
Methods
A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut and Massachusetts. A total of 567 HL cases and 679 controls were recruited in 1997–2000. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
Among younger women < 35 years old, being overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) vs. normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2) was significantly associated with an increased risk of HL (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1–4.0). The risk increased with increasing weight and BMI (P trends < 0.01). Among women ≥ 35 years old, by contrast, higher weight and BMI were associated with a reduced risk of HL (P trends < 0.01). Conversely, there was no significant association between BMI and risk of HL in younger or older males.
Conclusions
These findings show that the associations between body size and risk of HL vary by gender and age, and require confirmation in other populations.
doi:10.1007/s10552-012-0100-1
PMCID: PMC3557669  PMID: 23208661
Hodgkin lymphoma; body size; body mass index; height; weight
13.  Serine Phosphorylation Sites on IRS2 Activated by Angiotensin II and Protein Kinase C To Induce Selective Insulin Resistance in Endothelial Cells 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2013;33(16):3227-3241.
Protein kinase C (PKC) activation, induced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin II (AngII), inhibited insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt/endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) by decreasing tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2 (p-Tyr-IRS2) in endothelial cells. PKC activation by phorbol ester (phorbol myristate acetate [PMA]) reduced insulin-induced p-Tyr-IRS2 by 46% ± 13% and, similarly, phosphorylation of Akt/eNOS. Site-specific mutational analysis showed that PMA increased serine phosphorylation at three sites on IRS2 (positions 303, 343, and 675), which affected insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS2 at positions 653, 671, and 911 (p-Tyr-IRS2) and p-Akt/eNOS. Specific PKCβ2 activation decreased p-Tyr-IRS2 and increased the phosphorylation of two serines (Ser303 and Ser675) on IRS2 that were confirmed in cells overexpressing single point mutants of IRS2 (S303A or S675A) containing a PKCβ2-dominant negative or selective PKCβ inhibitor. AngII induced phosphorylation only on Ser303 of IRS2 and inhibited insulin-induced p-Tyr911 of IRS2 and p-Akt/eNOS, which were blocked by an antagonist of AngII receptor I, losartan, or overexpression of single mutant S303A of IRS2. Increases in p-Ser303 and p-Ser675 and decreases in p-Tyr911 of IRS2 were observed in vessels of insulin-resistant Zucker fatty rats versus lean rats. Thus, AngII or PKCβ activation can phosphorylate Ser303 and Ser675 in IRS2 to inhibit insulin-induced p-Tyr911 and its anti-atherogenic actions (p-Akt/eNOS) in endothelial cells.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00506-13
PMCID: PMC3753901  PMID: 23775122
14.  Increased serum CXCL16 is highly correlated with blood lipids, urine protein and immune reaction in children with active nephrotic syndrome 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:23.
Background
Primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common disease in children. Lipid nephrotoxicity and cellular immune dysfunction are known features of this disease. Recently, CXCL16 was found to participate in inflammation and mediate cellular uptake of lipids. Here, we investigated the involvement of CXCL16 in the occurrence and development of primary NS.
Methods
Serum CXCL16, blood lipids and albumin, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and immune cells were detected in 25 children with steroid sensitive NS during their active nephrotic and remissive stages. Twenty healthy children served as the control group.
Results
Levels of serum CXCL16, blood lipids, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells were significantly increased and albumin and NK cell number were significantly decreased in the active status group compared with remissive status and control groups. Correlation analysis showed that serum CXCL16 was positively correlated with blood lipids, 24-hour urine protein, interferon-γ and CXCR6+ T cells but negatively correlated with albumin in patients with active NS.
Conclusion
Serum CXCL16 was increased in patients with active NS and correlated with blood lipids, urine protein and immune and inflammation responses, suggesting that CXCL16 may serve as a useful index or biomarker for disease activity in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1120468411154766.
doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-23
PMCID: PMC3915750  PMID: 24460887
Nephrotic syndrome; CXCL16; Proteinuria; Cellular immunity
15.  The Holistic Effects of Acupuncture Treatment 
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), as a complex medical science which reflects philosophical principles and embodies large dialectical thought, is used to place the human body into a large system for observation. Acupuncture as a vital part of TCM, has been practiced to treat various diseases and symptoms. However, acupuncture is also facing severe challenges resulted from insufficient modern scientific research. Nowadays, the holistic effects of acupuncture can be researched by some modern approaches, such as the systems biology and fMRI technique. It is believed that having a better understand will greatly promote acupuncture research and be beneficial to scientization and modernization of acupuncture.
doi:10.1155/2014/739708
PMCID: PMC3913204  PMID: 24527051
16.  Synchronous evolution of an odor biosynthesis pathway and behavioral response 
Current biology : CB  2012;23(1):11-20.
SUMMARY
Background
Rodents use olfactory cues for species-specific behaviors. For example, mice emit odors to attract mates of the same species but not competitors of closely related species. This implies rapid evolution of olfactory signaling, although odors and chemosensory receptors involved are unknown.
Results
Here, we identify a mouse chemosignal, trimethylamine, and its olfactory receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5), to be involved in species-specific social communication. Abundant (>1,000-fold increased) and sex-dependent trimethylamine production arose de novo along the Mus lineage after divergence from Mus caroli. The two-step trimethylamine biosynthesis pathway involves synergy between commensal microflora and a sex-dependent liver enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), which oxidizes trimethylamine. One key evolutionary alteration in this pathway is the recent acquisition in Mus of male-specific Fmo3 gene repression. Coincident with its evolving biosynthesis, trimethylamine evokes species-specific behaviors, attracting mice but repelling rats. Attraction to trimethylamine is abolished in TAAR5 knockout mice, and furthermore, attraction to mouse scent is impaired by enzymatic depletion of trimethylamine or TAAR5 knockout.
Conclusions
TAAR5 is an evolutionarily conserved olfactory receptor required for a species-specific behavior. Synchronized changes in odor biosynthesis pathways and odor-evoked behaviors could ensure species-appropriate social interactions.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.047
PMCID: PMC3543494  PMID: 23177478
17.  A Convenient Synthesis of γ–Amino-Ynamides via Additions of Lithiated Ynamides to Aryl Imines. Observation of an Aza-Meyer-Schuster Rearrangement.† 
Synthesis  2013;45(13):1749-1758.
Efforts in developing an expeditious and convenient method for synthesizing γ–amino-ynamides via nucleophilic addition of lithiated ynamides to aryl imines are described. This work also features an aza-variant of a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement of γ–amino-ynamides and the synthetic utility of γ–amino-ynamides in an intramolecular ketenimine-[2 + 2] cycloaddition.
doi:10.1055/s-0033-1338476
PMCID: PMC3748967  PMID: 23976795
Lithiated ynamides; γ–amino-ynamides; aryl imine addition; azetene; aza-Meyer-Schuster rearrangement
19.  Role of PDGFs/PDGFRs signaling pathway in myocardial fibrosis of DOCA/salt hypertensive rats 
This study aimed to investigate the role of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway in myocardial fibrosis of desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats and explore the influence of PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway on fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the heart. 60 male SD rats underwent right nephrectomy and bred with 1% sodium chloride and 0.1% potassium chloride for 4 weeks, and then randomly divided into 3 groups (CON group, DOCA group and DOCA+IMA group). Results showed that: 1) 14 and 28 days after intervention, the SBP in DOCA and DOCA+IMA group was significantly higher than that in CON group. At days 28, the severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The severity of myocardial fibrosis and PVCA/VA ratio in DOCA+IMA group were markedly lower than those in DOCA group although they were higher than those in CON group. 2) At days 14, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than CON and DOCA+IMA group. At days 28, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. In addition, in a specific group, the PDGFRβ mRNA expression was higher than the PDGFRα mRNA expression. In DOCA+IMA group, the mRNA expressions of PDGFRβ, FSP-1, α-SMA, procollagen I and procollagen III were markedly reduced when compared with DOCA group. 3) At 14 days, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly higher than those in CON group. The PDGFRα protein expression in DOCA+IMA group was markedly lower than that in DOCA group. At days 28, the protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA group were significantly increased when compared with CON group. The protein expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in DOCA+IMA group were significantly lower than those in DOCA group. At day 28, the cardiac interstitium mainly contained vimentin positive fibroblasts, and α-SMA positive cells were less identified in CON group. In DOCA group, α-SMA positive fibroblasts (spindle-shaped) increased significantly, but the myofibroblasts reduced significantly in DOCA+IMA group when compared with DOCA group. 4) PDGFRα protein expression was observed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, but not in VSMCs. PDGFRβ protein expression was noted in not only fibroblasts and myofibroblasts but also VSMCs. Thus, During myocardial fibrosis of DOCA induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, PDGFRα acts at early stage, but PDGFRβ functions in the whole process. PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expressions increase in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, suggesting that PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway is involved in the myocardial fibrosis via stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate and transform into myofibroblasts.
PMCID: PMC3885456  PMID: 24427322
Platelet-derived growth factor; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; fibroblasts; myofibroblasts; desoxycorticosterone; imatinib; myocardial fibrosis
20.  Mutation Inactivation of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Gene (NBS1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e82426.
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) with NBS1 germ-line mutation is a human autosomal recessive disease characterized by genomic instability and enhanced cancer predisposition. The NBS1 gene codes for a protein, Nbs1(p95/Nibrin), involved in the processing/repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous tumor with several genomic alterations. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous NBS1 mice exhibited a higher incidence of HCC than did wild-type mice. The objective of the present study is to assess whether NBS1 mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of human primary liver cancer, including HBV-associated HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Eight missense NBS1 mutations were identified in six of 64 (9.4%) HCCs and two of 18 (11.1%) ICCs, whereas only one synonymous mutation was found in 89 control cases of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B. Analysis of the functional consequences of the identified NBS1 mutations in Mre11-binding domain showed loss of nuclear localization of Nbs1 partner Mre11, one of the hallmarks for Nbs1 deficiency, in one HCC and two ICCs with NBS1 mutations. Moreover, seven of the eight tumors with NBS1 mutations had at least one genetic alteration in the TP53 pathway, including TP53 mutation, MDM2 amplification, p14ARF homozygous deletion and promoter methylation, implying a synergistic effect of Nbs1 disruption and p53 inactivation. Our findings provide novel insight on the molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer characterized by mutation inactivation of NBS1, a DNA repair associated gene.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0082426
PMCID: PMC3862623  PMID: 24349281
21.  TIGAR Is Correlated with Maximal Standardized Uptake Value on FDG-PET and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e80576.
Objective
Evaluation of 18F-FDG uptake value via PET is central to current methods of diagnosis and staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its ability to evaluate expression levels of key regulators associated with glucose metabolism in tumor cells. Tp53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is an important P53-induced protein that can inhibit glycolysis; however, there have been few clinical studies on its mechanism. Here we have investigated the relationship between TIGAR expression and 18F-FDG PET in tumors, along with its relationship with the clinical characteristics of NSCLC.
Methods
We analyzed SUVmax in 79 patients with NSCLC through immunohistochemical staining of TIGAR and five other biological markers associated with tumor cell glycolysis, in order to evaluate the correlation between their expression and SUVmax. We also plotted Kaplan-Meier survival curves to assess TIGAR expression with the prognosis and survival of patients with NSCLC.
Results
The key findings were as follows: SUVmax was negatively correlated with the expression of TIGAR (r = −0.31, p<0.01); TIGAR expression was correlated with tumor size (p = 0.01), histological type (p<0.01), differentiation degree (p<0.01) and lymph node metastasis(p<0.01) in patients with NSCLC; and the survival time of patients whose TIGAR was negatively expressed was significantly shorter than for those whose TIGAR was positively expressed (P = 0.023).
Conclusions
The expression of TIGAR in primary tumors is significantly correlated with SUVmax, and low expression of TIGAR may predict a worse clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080576
PMCID: PMC3868468  PMID: 24363807
22.  Rare myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia with adrenal mass after allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation 
Cancer Biology & Medicine  2013;10(4):232-235.
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare hematological neoplasm that develops either de novo or concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This neoplasm can also be an initial manifestation of relapse in a previously treated AML that is in remission. A 44-year-old male patient was diagnosed with testis MS in a local hospital in August 2010. After one month, bone marrow biopsy and aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Allogeneic mobilization peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed, with the sister of the patient as donor, after complete remission (CR) was achieved by chemotherapy. Five months after treatment, an adrenal mass was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Radiotherapy was performed for the localized mass after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion. The patient is still alive as of May 2013, with no evidence of recurrent MS or leukemia.
doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2013.04.008
PMCID: PMC3860347  PMID: 24349834
Myeloid sarcoma (MS); acute myeloid leukemia (AML); allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; multidisciplinary team (MDT)
23.  Induction of apoptosis by directing oncogenic Bcr-Abl into the nucleus 
Oncotarget  2013;4(12):2249-2260.
The chimeric Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, which causes chronic myeloid leukemia, mainly localizes in the cytoplasm, and loses its ability to transform cells after moving into the nucleus. Here we report a new strategy to convert Bcr-Abl to be an apoptotic inducer by altering its subcellular localization. We show that a rapalog nuclear transport system (RNTS) containing six nuclear localization signals directs Bcr-Abl into the nucleus and that nuclear entrapped Bcr-Abl induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of CML cells by activating p73 and shutting down cytoplasmic oncogenic signals mediated by Bcr-Abl. Coupling cytoplasmic depletion with nuclear entrapment of Bcr-Abl synergistically enhances the inhibitory effect of nuclear Bcr-Abl on its oncogenicity in mice. These results provide evidence that direction of cytoplasmic Bcr-Abl to the nucleus offers an alternative CML therapy.
PMCID: PMC3926824  PMID: 24158537
chronic myeloid leukemia; Bcr-Abl; nuclear localization; rapalog; apoptosis
24.  Evidence for the aetiology of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis 
BMJ Open  2013;3(11):e003604.
Objectives
We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in China, using all eligible studies published in the English and Chinese language literature.
Design
The random effect model was used to analyse the pooled OR. The I2 and Q tests were included in the subgroup analyses.
Setting
Literature searches of databases including MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and other available resources were performed to retrieve studies investigating OSCC tissue from Chinese participants for the presence of HPV DNA.
Primary outcome measure
A collective analysis of OSCC cases and control specimens was carried out from 15 case–control studies (6 in the English language and 9 in the Chinese language) for HPV prevalence.
Results
Of a total of 1177 OSCC and 1648 oesophageal control samples, 55% (642/1177) of cancer specimens and 27% (445/1648) of control samples were positive for HPV DNA. A positive strong association between HPV DNA and OSCC was observed among the included studies, with a pooled OR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.74 to 4.96). Heterogeneity and publication bias were not observed in the analysis. Subgroup analyses of the included studies also supported the measure of association of causal links between HPV and OSCC.
Conclusions
This meta-analysis provides the strongest evidence until now of an association between HPV and OSCC in the Chinese population. China has a high burden of OSCC, making this an important research finding. A strength and new contribution of this study is combining data from the English and Chinese language literature to analyse all studies conducted in China. These findings may inform the population level use of prophylactic HPV vaccination to reduce the burden of OSCC in China.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003604
PMCID: PMC3831092  PMID: 24240141
25.  Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage: A case report 
The present study reports the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with Terson syndrome with no cerebral hemorrhage secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). A computed tomography scan of the patient, who had sustained an impact injury to the right occipital region, showed no cerebral lesion. Ophthalmoscopy clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in both eye globes. Vitreous hemorrhage, which results from an abrupt increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), is associated with TBI. In this case, the visual disturbance was attributed to Terson syndrome secondary to TBI. Therefore, close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is required in patients with TBI, in order to enable the diagnosis of Terson syndrome and an early vitrectomy.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1400
PMCID: PMC3861496  PMID: 24348800
cerebral hemorrhage; intracranial pressure; traumatic brain injury; Terson syndrome; vitreous hemorrhage

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