PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-13 (13)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Drug efficacy in treating stable angina pectoris: a protocol for network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials 
BMJ Open  2014;4(6):e005453.
Introduction
There were 11 pairwise meta-analysis on the efficacy of β-blockers (including atenolol, propranolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol and nadolol), calcium channel blockers (including amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, nifedipine and verapamil), and nitrates (including isosorbide dinitrate, isosorbide mononitrate and nitroglycerin) in treating stable angina pectoris. No network meta-analytic study has been published to evaluate the efficacies of these antianginal drugs. Current clinical guidelines (eg, National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline 126) are only based on the findings of limited clinical trials and pairwise meta-analysis. This study aims to fill this gap of research by conducting a Bayesian network meta-analysis to compare all these antianginal drugs.
Methods and analyses
Randomised controlled trials (RCT) on the drug therapy of stable angina pectoris with multiple outcome measures, selected from symptomatic relief, ECG tests, exercise tests, heart rates and blood pressures, etc, will be included. Overall effect sizes will be represented as mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrI) for continuous outcome data and as ORs with 95% CrI for dichotomous outcome data. Bayesian network meta-analysis by WinBUGS will be conducted to compare the efficacies of these drugs. Sensitivity analysis on the quality of RCTs and subgroup analysis on the category of included drugs will be performed.
Ethics and dissemination
Ethical approval is not required because this study includes no confidential personal data and interventions on the patients. Network meta-analysis is based on the RCT reports of eligible drugs in treating stable angina pectoris. The results of this study will be disseminated by an open access and peer-reviewed publication.
Trial registration number
PROSPERO CRD42014007113.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005453
PMCID: PMC4067836  PMID: 24948751
2.  The efficacy of dapagliflozin combined with hypoglycaemic drugs in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials 
BMJ Open  2014;4(4):e004619.
Objectives
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether dapagliflozin is synergistic with other antidiabetic drugs without body weight gain.
Setting
Randomised controlled trial (RCT) reports were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Google Scholar and Google. Eligible RCTs were selected according to the criteria (including types of participants, intervention, outcomes) and assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADEpro software for evidential quality. Meta-analysis on the eligible RCTs was performed with the random effects model. The RCTs of low-quality and interim stages were excluded for further sensitivity analysis. Meta-regression was conducted on the follow-up durations. Publication bias was evaluated with funnel plots and the Egger's regression test and adjusted using the trim-and-fill procedure. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 statistics.
Participants
Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Interventions
Dapagliflozin combined with conventional antidiabetic drugs.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Glycaemic level (measured by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)) and body weight.
Results
12 RCTs were eligible for quantitative synthesis and meta-analysis. The overall effect size of HbA1c calculated from mean difference was −0.52% (Z=−13.56, p<0.001) with 95% CI (−0.60 to −0.45). The effect size of FPG was −1.13 mmol/L (Z=−11.12, p<0.001) with 95% CI (−1.33 to −0.93). The effect size of body weight was −2.10 kg (Z=−18.77, p<0.001) with 95% CI (−2.32 to −1.88). Exclusions of low quality and interim RCTs changed the overall mean differences respectively to −0.56%, −1.11 mmol/L, 2.23 kg and −0.50%, −1.08 mmol/L, −2.08 kg. The sensitivity analysis indicated good robustness of the meta-analysis on HbA1c, FPG and body weight.
Conclusions
The meta-analysis showed that dapagliflozin as an add-on drug to conventional antidiabetic drugs improved the glycaemic control in T2DM participants without significant body weight gain.
Trial registration number
CRD42013005034.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004619
PMCID: PMC3987716  PMID: 24710132
Dapagliflozin; type 2 diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis
3.  Annual acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 
Chinese Medicine  2014;9:5.
Contributing reviewers
The editors of Chinese Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 8 (2013).
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-9-5
PMCID: PMC3922170  PMID: 24517471
4.  The Efficacy of Guanxinning Injection in Treating Angina Pectoris: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
Objective. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Guanxinning injection (GXN) in treating angina pectoris were published only in Chinese and have not been systematically reviewed. This study aims to provide a PRISMA-compliant and internationally accessible systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of GXN in treating angina pectoris. Methods. The RCTs were included according to prespecified eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the symptomatic (SYMPTOMS) and electrocardiographic (ECG) improvements after treatment. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to measure effect sizes. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. Results. Sixty-five RCTs published between 2002 and 2012 with 6064 participants were included. Overall ORs comparing GXN with other drugs were 3.32 (95% CI: [2.72, 4.04]) in SYMPTOMS and 2.59 (95% CI: [2.14, 3.15]) in ECG. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression found no statistically significant dependence of overall ORs upon specific study characteristics. Conclusion. This meta-analysis of eligible RCTs provides evidence that GXN is effective in treating angina pectoris. This evidence warrants further RCTs of higher quality, longer follow-up periods, larger sample sizes, and multicentres/multicountries for more extensive subgroup, sensitivity, and metaregression analyses.
doi:10.1155/2013/282707
PMCID: PMC3619549  PMID: 23634167
5.  Annual acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 
Chinese Medicine  2013;8:6.
Contributing reviewers
The editors of Chinese Medicine would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 7 (2012).
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-8-6
PMCID: PMC3605131  PMID: 23514545
6.  Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Efficacy of Di'ao Xinxuekang Capsule and Isosorbide Dinitrate in Treating Angina Pectoris 
Objective. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on di'ao xinxuekang capsule (XXK) in treating angina pectoris were published only in Chinese and have not been systematically reviewed particularly for comparing XXK with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). This study aims to provide a comprehensive PRISMA compliant and internationally accessible systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacies of XXK and ISDN in treating angina pectoris. Methods. The RCTs published between 1989 and 2011 on XXK and ISDN in treating angina pectoris were selected according to specific criteria. Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the symptomatic (SYMPTOMS) and electrocardiographic (ECG) improvements after treatment. Odds ratios (OR) were used to measure effect sizes. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. Results. Seven RCTs with 550 participants were eligible. Overall ORs for comparing XXK with ISDN were 4.11 (95% CI :  2.57, 6.55) in SYMPTOMS and 2.37 (95% CI : 1.46, 3.84) in ECG. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression found no significant dependence of overall ORs upon specific study characteristics. Conclusion. The meta-analysis of eligible but limited RCTs demonstrates that XXK seems to be more effective than ISDN in treating angina pectoris. Further RCTs of high quality are warranted to be conducted for update of the results of this meta-analysis.
doi:10.1155/2012/904147
PMCID: PMC3310218  PMID: 22474528
7.  Transcriptome Analysis in Venom Gland of the Predatory Giant Ant Dinoponera quadriceps: Insights into the Polypeptide Toxin Arsenal of Hymenopterans 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87556.
Background
Dinoponera quadriceps is a predatory giant ant that inhabits the Neotropical region and subdues its prey (insects) with stings that deliver a toxic cocktail of molecules. Human accidents occasionally occur and cause local pain and systemic symptoms. A comprehensive study of the D. quadriceps venom gland transcriptome is required to advance our knowledge about the toxin repertoire of the giant ant venom and to understand the physiopathological basis of Hymenoptera envenomation.
Results
We conducted a transcriptome analysis of a cDNA library from the D. quadriceps venom gland with Sanger sequencing in combination with whole-transcriptome shotgun deep sequencing. From the cDNA library, a total of 420 independent clones were analyzed. Although the proportion of dinoponeratoxin isoform precursors was high, the first giant ant venom inhibitor cysteine-knot (ICK) toxin was found. The deep next generation sequencing yielded a total of 2,514,767 raw reads that were assembled into 18,546 contigs. A BLAST search of the assembled contigs against non-redundant and Swiss-Prot databases showed that 6,463 contigs corresponded to BLASTx hits and indicated an interesting diversity of transcripts related to venom gene expression. The majority of these venom-related sequences code for a major polypeptide core, which comprises venom allergens, lethal-like proteins and esterases, and a minor peptide framework composed of inter-specific structurally conserved cysteine-rich toxins. Both the cDNA library and deep sequencing yielded large proportions of contigs that showed no similarities with known sequences.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, this is the first report of the venom gland transcriptome of the New World giant ant D. quadriceps. The glandular venom system was dissected, and the toxin arsenal was revealed; this process brought to light novel sequences that included an ICK-folded toxins, allergen proteins, esterases (phospholipases and carboxylesterases), and lethal-like toxins. These findings contribute to the understanding of the ecology, behavior and venomics of hymenopterans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087556
PMCID: PMC3909188  PMID: 24498135
8.  Comparative efficacy of glimepiride and metformin in monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Background
Metformin treatment has been the most recommended monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for decades but is challenged by new antidiabetic drugs. This study conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing the efficacy of metformin and glimepiride in monotherapy of T2DM.
Methods
A literature search for RCTs on glimepiride and metformin was conducted on the bibliographic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect, from their inceptions to 25 Mar 2013. All RCTs were selected according to pre-specified eligibility criteria. The quality of articles was assessed with the Cochrane’s risk of bias tool. Statistical meta-analysis evaluated the overall effects and biochemical indices of T2DM. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses evaluated the robustness and explained the heterogeneity of the results. Begg and Egger’s tests quantified possible publication biases. Results were represented as "standard mean difference or odds ratio [95% confidence internals] P value".
Results
Fifteen RCTs with 1681 adult T2DM patients were included for meta-analysis. Metformin was not better than glimepiride in overall efficacy in controlling the levels of HbA1c, postprandial blood sugar (PPBS), fasting plasma insulin (FINS), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Metformin was only more effective than glimepiride in controlling the levels of total cholesterol (TC, 0.33 [0.03, 0.63], P = 0.03), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 0.35 [0.16, 0.53], P = 0.0002) and triglycerides (TG, 0.26 [0.05, 0.46], P = 0.01). Odds ratios of adverse events showed that glimepiride was more likely to induce hypoglycemia episodes and metformin was with a higher risk of gastrointestinal upset.
Conclusion
Metformin was not significantly better than glimepiride in glycemic control of T2DM, suggesting that glimepiride would be a good choice second to metformin in the monotherapy of T2DM.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-70
PMCID: PMC3834882  PMID: 24228743
Glimepiride; Metformin; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Meta-analysis
9.  The efficacy of dapagliflozin combined with hypoglycemic drugs in treating type 2 diabetes: protocol for meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Systematic Reviews  2013;2:103.
Background
Dapagliflozin is a first-in-class oral sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. It is often used in combination with conventional anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin, glimepiride, and insulin in treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). It not only reduces glucose reabsorption in the kidney but also increases renal glucose excretion. Some studies found the actions of dapagliflozin independent of insulin and free from risk of weight gain. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether dapagliflozin is synergistic with other anti-diabetic drugs without risk of weight gain.
Methods/Design
This meta-analysis will include the randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of dapagliflozin as an add-on drug in treating T2D for >8 weeks with the outcome measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and body weight. Information of relevant RCTs will be retrieved from major databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar according to a pre-specified search strategy. Google and manual search will find other unpublished reports and supplementary data. Eligible RCTs will be selected according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and input into a pre-formatted spreadsheet. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess the quality of the eligible RCTs. Meta-analysis based on the random-effects model will be conducted to compare the changes of HbA1c (%), FPG (mmol/L), and body weight (kg) between dapagliflozin arm and placebo arm. Publication bias will be evaluated with a funnel plot and the Egger’s test. Heterogeneity will be assessed with the I2 statistics. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted on follow-up periods. The evidential quality of the findings will be assessed with the GRADE profiler.
Discussion
The findings of this meta-analysis will be important to clinicians, patients, and health policy-makers regarding the use of dapagliflozin in T2D treatment.
Study registration
PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005034
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-103
PMCID: PMC3833641  PMID: 24225054
Systematic review; Dapagliflozin; Type 2 diabetes; Meta-analysis
10.  Design preferences and cognitive styles: experimentation by automated website synthesis 
Background
This article aims to demonstrate computational synthesis of Web-based experiments in undertaking experimentation on relationships among the participants' design preference, rationale, and cognitive test performance. The exemplified experiments were computationally synthesised, including the websites as materials, experiment protocols as methods, and cognitive tests as protocol modules. This work also exemplifies the use of a website synthesiser as an essential instrument enabling the participants to explore different possible designs, which were generated on the fly, before selection of preferred designs.
Methods
The participants were given interactive tree and table generators so that they could explore some different ways of presenting causality information in tables and trees as the visualisation formats. The participants gave their preference ratings for the available designs, as well as their rationale (criteria) for their design decisions. The participants were also asked to take four cognitive tests, which focus on the aspects of visualisation and analogy-making. The relationships among preference ratings, rationale, and the results of cognitive tests were analysed by conservative non-parametric statistics including Wilcoxon test, Krustal-Wallis test, and Kendall correlation.
Results
In the test, 41 of the total 64 participants preferred graphical (tree-form) to tabular presentation. Despite the popular preference for graphical presentation, the given tabular presentation was generally rated to be easier than graphical presentation to interpret, especially by those who were scored lower in the visualization and analogy-making tests.
Conclusions
This piece of evidence helps generate a hypothesis that design preferences are related to specific cognitive abilities. Without the use of computational synthesis, the experiment setup and scientific results would be impractical to obtain.
doi:10.1186/1759-4499-4-2
PMCID: PMC3386886  PMID: 22748000
11.  OpenKnowledge for peer-to-peer experimentation in protein identification by MS/MS 
Background
Traditional scientific workflow platforms usually run individual experiments with little evaluation and analysis of performance as required by automated experimentation in which scientists are being allowed to access numerous applicable workflows rather than being committed to a single one. Experimental protocols and data under a peer-to-peer environment could potentially be shared freely without any single point of authority to dictate how experiments should be run. In such environment it is necessary to have mechanisms by which each individual scientist (peer) can assess, locally, how he or she wants to be involved with others in experiments. This study aims to implement and demonstrate simple peer ranking under the OpenKnowledge peer-to-peer infrastructure by both simulated and real-world bioinformatics experiments involving multi-agent interactions.
Methods
A simulated experiment environment with a peer ranking capability was specified by the Lightweight Coordination Calculus (LCC) and automatically executed under the OpenKnowledge infrastructure. The peers such as MS/MS protein identification services (including web-enabled and independent programs) were made accessible as OpenKnowledge Components (OKCs) for automated execution as peers in the experiments. The performance of the peers in these automated experiments was monitored and evaluated by simple peer ranking algorithms.
Results
Peer ranking experiments with simulated peers exhibited characteristic behaviours, e.g., power law effect (a few dominant peers dominate), similar to that observed in the traditional Web. Real-world experiments were run using an interaction model in LCC involving two different types of MS/MS protein identification peers, viz., peptide fragment fingerprinting (PFF) and de novo sequencing with another peer ranking algorithm simply based on counting the successful and failed runs. This study demonstrated a novel integration and useful evaluation of specific proteomic peers and found MASCOT to be a dominant peer as judged by peer ranking.
Conclusion
The simulated and real-world experiments in the present study demonstrated that the OpenKnowledge infrastructure with peer ranking capability can serve as an evaluative environment for automated experimentation.
doi:10.1186/1759-4499-3-3
PMCID: PMC3377912  PMID: 22192521
12.  Welcome to Automated Experimentation: a new open access journal 
Modern experimental science provides more opportunities for yet larger series of experiments. Demand for experimental results also has become more diverse, requiring results that have direct connections to systems outside the laboratory. With this has come an ability to automate many areas of experimental science, not only the experiments themselves but also the larger processes that contribute to experimentation and analysis more broadly. As automated experimentation becomes more widely used and understood, we launch this journal to provide a proper publication channel for this new breed of interdisciplinary research as well as a bridge to all significant groundwork research that would facilitate possible automated experimentation. With this in mind, we are interested in publishing all kinds of research into scientific experimentation, including research where the potential for automation is at proof or concept or early deployment stage.
doi:10.1186/1759-4499-1-1
PMCID: PMC2809325  PMID: 20098588
13.  CHINESE MEDICINE (CM) matters 
Chinese Medicine  2008;3:16.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-3-16
PMCID: PMC2607278  PMID: 19040725

Results 1-13 (13)