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1.  Elements of the B Cell Signalosome Are Differentially Affected by Mercury Intoxication 
Autoimmune Diseases  2014;2014:239358.
It has been suggested that environmental exposures to mercury contribute to autoimmune disease. Disruption of BCR signaling is associated with failure of central tolerance and autoimmunity, and we have previously shown that low levels of Hg2+ interfere with BCR signaling. In this report we have employed multiparametric phosphoflow cytometry, as well as a novel generalization of the Overton algorithm from one- to two-dimensional unimodal distributions to simultaneously monitor the effect of low level Hg2+ intoxication on activation of ERK and several upstream elements of the BCR signaling pathway in WEHI-231 B cells. We have found that, after exposure to low levels of Hg2+, only about a third of the cells are sensitive to the metal. For those cells which are sensitive, we confirm our earlier work that activation of ERK is attenuated but now report that Hg2+ has little upstream effect on the Btk tyrosine kinase. On the other hand, we find that signaling upstream through the Syk tyrosine kinase is actually augmented, as is upstream activation of the B cell signalosome scaffolding protein BLNK.
doi:10.1155/2014/239358
PMCID: PMC4024408  PMID: 24876949
2.  HLA Immune Function Genes in Autism 
Autism Research and Treatment  2012;2012:959073.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes on chromosome 6 are instrumental in many innate and adaptive immune responses. The HLA genes/haplotypes can also be involved in immune dysfunction and autoimmune diseases. It is now becoming apparent that many of the non-antigen-presenting HLA genes make significant contributions to autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, it has been reported that autism subjects often have associations with HLA genes/haplotypes, suggesting an underlying dysregulation of the immune system mediated by HLA genes. Genetic studies have only succeeded in identifying autism-causing genes in a small number of subjects suggesting that the genome has not been adequately interrogated. Close examination of the HLA region in autism has been relatively ignored, largely due to extraordinary genetic complexity. It is our proposition that genetic polymorphisms in the HLA region, especially in the non-antigen-presenting regions, may be important in the etiology of autism in certain subjects.
doi:10.1155/2012/959073
PMCID: PMC3420779  PMID: 22928105
3.  Exposure to inorganic mercury in vivo attenuates extrinsic apoptotic signaling in Staphylococcal aureus enterotoxin B stimulated T-cells 
Toxicology and applied pharmacology  2007;225(3):238-250.
The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is known to have immunomodulatory properties affecting lymphocyte signal transduction, death receptor signaling and autoimmunity. In this study we tested the hypothesis that Hg exposure would attenuate T-cell activation and caspase 8 and 3 activity in response to antigenic stimuli. To test this hypothesis, BALB/cJ mice were exposed to 10 mg/L mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in their drinking water for two weeks followed injection with 20μg of the Staphylococcal aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) superantigen. Eighteen hours after SEB challenge, there was a statistically significant reduction in caspase 8 and caspase 3 enzyme activity in the SEB reactive Vβ8+ T-cells. The attenuated caspase activity in Hg exposed mice persisted for 48 hours after exposure. Moreover, activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3 was reduced by more than 60% in CD95 deficient MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice demonstrating caspase 8 and 3 activation in response to SEB is CD95 dependent. In addition to the effects of Hg on caspase activity, expression of the T-cell activation marker CD69 was also attenuated in SEB reactive Vβ8 T-cells in Hg-exposed mice. Moreover, CD69 expression in MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice was also reduced. Taken together the caspase and CD69 data support a role for CD95 in promoting a proapoptotic and activated state in SEB responsive T-lymphocytes and this state is attenuated by the autoimmune potentiating environmental agent mercury.
doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.06.002
PMCID: PMC2195550  PMID: 17950395
T-cells; Autoimmunity; Superantigens; Apoptosis

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